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					    kimmel center presents                                                                                                                                 n ot e s o n t h e p ro g ram
                                                                                        Eugène Ysaÿe                                            tion again features majestic material in dotted
             V erizon H all                                                             (b. Liège, 1858; d. Brussels, 1931)                     rhythms. The Sonata concludes with some
             W ednesday , M arcH 4                                                      Sonatas for Solo Violin                                 spectacular acrobatics. No wonder this Sonata
                                                                                        Rève d’enfant, Op. 14                                   became the obligatory piece for the violin
             8 pM                                                                                                                               competition established in Ysaÿe’s honor by
                                                                                        Belgian virtuoso Eugène Ysaÿe is often cred-            Queen Elisabeth of Belgium
                                                                                        ited with launching the entire era of modern
             M aster M usicians , r ecital s eries                                      violin playing. Known for his sweeping,                    Sonata No. 6 in E major unfolds in a single
                                                                                        convincing phrasing, elastic rubato, expressive         extended movement, full of virtuosic display
             Hilary Hahn, violin                                                        slides, and unusual bow grip, Ysaÿe steadily
                                                                                        rose to international prominence. The “young-
                                                                                                                                                intended for violinist Manuel Quiroga. Having
                                                                                                                                                studied at both the Madrid and Paris conser-
             Valentina Lisita, piano                                                    er generation” of violin virtuosos—Kreisler,            vatories, Quiroga made numerous concert
                                                                                        Elman, Flesch, Thibaud, Enescu, Milstein—all            tours throughout Europe, the United States,
                                                                                        looked up to Ysaÿe, agreeing that he was “the           and South America, during which Ysaÿe
             Ysaÿe                                                                      master of us all.”                                      presented him on his Brussels concert series.
             Sonata for solo violin in E Minor, Op. 27, No. 4                                                                                   Ysaÿe was one of many composers who dedi-
               Allemanda: Lento maestoso
               Sarabande: Quasi lento                                                      In 1924, after trembling hands had already           cated works to Quiroga; though he never per-
               Finale: Presto ma non troppo                                             curtailed his own playing, Ysaÿe heard a per-           formed the Sixth Sonata in public, it remains a
                                                                                        formance of one of Bach’s solo sonatas played           testament to his abilities.
             Ives                                                                       by Joseph Szigeti, which inspired him to com-
             Sonata for violin and piano, No. 4, “Children’s Day at the Camp Meeting”   pose his own set of six unaccompanied violin               The Sonata’s acrobatic introduction is full of
                Allegro                                                                 sonatas. He dedicated each to a different rising        expectant rising figures. The first and third of
                Largo                                                                   young violin virtuoso: No. 1 to Joseph Szigeti,         the piece’s three main sections traverse a num-
                Allegro                                                                 No. 2 to Jacques Thibaud, No. 3 to George               ber of moods and myriad double and triple
             Brahms (arr. Joseph Joachim)                                               Enescu, No. 4 to Fritz Kreisler, No. 5 to Mathieu       stops, bookending a no less dazzling middle
             Hungarian Dances                                                           Crickboom, and No. 6 to Manuel Quiroga.                 section that pays homage to Quiroga’s Spanish
               No. 10 in E major: Presto                                                                                                        heritage by suggesting a sultry habanera.
               No. 11 in D minor: Poco andante                                             Sonata No. 4 in E minor takes the Baroque
               No. 12 in D minor: Presto                                                suite or partita as its point of departure, with           Ysaÿe composed Rêve d’enfant (Child’s
               No. 19 in A minor: Allegretto                                            an Allemanda and a Sarabande for its first              dream) in 1894 on the occasion of the birth
               No. 5 in G minor: Allegro                                                two movements but closing off with a Finale             of the fourth of his five children, Antoine, to
               No. 20 in A minor: Poco allegretto                                       instead of adding more of the typical dance             whom he dedicated this lovely flowing lullaby.
               No. 21 in E minor: Vivace
                                                                                        movements. In its suite characteristics and             A soothing accompaniment figure underlies
             Ives                                                                       also in the configuration of its implied and            a touching violin melody that rises sweetly
             Sonata for violin and piano, No. 2                                         real polyphony, this Sonata perhaps comes               into the stratosphere before coming back “to
                Autumn                                                                  closest of the six to a Bach sound, though              earth.” Ysaÿe’s own interpretation, replete with
                In the Barn                                                             the style proclaims Ysaÿe’s more modern                 expressive slides and rubato, can be heard on a
                The Revival                                                             language. The Baroque orientation also pays             recording he made in 1915.
                                                                                        homage to the piece’s dedicatee Kreisler, who
             —Intermission—                                                             was known for “resurrecting” Baroque works              Charles Ives
             Ysaÿe                                                                      on his recitals. At the time Ysaÿe wrote his            (b. Danbury, Connecticut, 1874; d. New York,
             Sonata for solo violin in E Major, Op. 27, No. 6                           Sonatas, Kreisler had not yet confessed to be-          1954)
               Allegro giusto non troppo vivo                                           ing the actual author of his “Baroquish” pieces.        Violin Sonatas

             Ysaÿe                                                                         The Allemanda begins with an improvi-                In the four Violin Sonatas, as in much of his
             Rêve d’enfant, Op. 14                                                      satory-sounding introduction that ushers in             music, Ives drew on scraps of hymns, popular
                                                                                        the chordal main theme with its stately dotted          songs, band tunes, patriotic songs, and ballads
             Ives                                                                       rhythms. A plaintive section whose polyphony            of 19th-century America, familiar from grow-
             Sonata for violin and piano, No. 1                                         is only implied brings a return to the main             ing up in Connecticut. These he combined
                Andante—Allegro
                Largo cantabile                                                         theme’s regal outlook. Another tranquil sec-            with his own original blend of traditional and
                Allegro                                                                 tion, this time in two-part counterpoint, leads         nontraditional harmonies, “wrong-note” dis-
                                                                                        to the final return of the main theme.                  sonances, clusters, and very free counterpoint.
             Bartók (arr. Zoltan Székely)                                                                                                       The sonatas are groupings of many individual
             Romanian Folk Dances, BB 68                                                   The Sarabande also consists of a number of           violin and piano movements that Ives worked
               Joc cu bâtă: Allegro moderato [Dance with sticks]                        sections, the first in three voices all played pizzi-   on from about 1906 to 1919. Definite similari-
               Brâul: Allegro [Sash dance]                                              cato, followed by a bowed section, again in three       ties exist among the Violin Sonatas. All are
               Pe loc: Andante [In one spot, or stamping dance]                         voices, in which chromatic lines play an impor-         conceived in a three-movement form and all
               Buciumeana: Moderato [Horn dance]
               Poargă românească: Allegro [Romanian polka]                              tant role. In the concluding section the melody         end with a large-scale coda based on a hymn
               Mărunţel: L’istesso tempo [Quick dance]                                  emerges from a texture of fast string crossings.        tune, played by the violin in altered form.

                                     Series Sponsor: Penn Medicine                        The energetic Finale begins and ends with               Ives assembled the material of the Fourth
                                                                                        whirlwind perpetual motion. The middle sec-             Sonata between 1911 and 1915, and had it
2
n ot e s on th e prog r am                                                                                                                                              n ot e s o n t h e p ro g ram
 privately lithographed in its original four-             Though Ives left no comments about his          tunes, such as “Shining Shore” in the first        page. He was all bothered with the rhythms
 movement form. The work was republished in            Second Sonata, he gave descriptive titles to       movement and “Watchman” in the third.              and the notes, and got mad. He said ‘This
 1942, revised, and without the fourth move-           the three movements: Autumn, In the Barn,                                                             cannot be played.’ . . . He couldn’t get it even
 ment, which he frugally commandeered for              and The Revival. He composed the first move-          Other remarkable features of the First          after I’d played it over for him several times.”
 the finale of his Second Sonata. The Fourth           ment c. 1908–13 as the finale for what is com-     Sonata are its types of cumulative settings—       This, after Ives had experienced a number of
 Sonata, Ives said, was “an attempt to write a         monly called the “Pre-First” Violin Sonata.        unusual even for Ives—in both first and third      similar reactions to his music, prompted him
 sonata which Moss White, then about 12 years          Based on the tune “Autumn,” which appears          movements. The composer bases his first            to wonder, “Are my ears on wrong?” Though
 old, could play. The first movement kept to           in the violin in the final section, the move-      movement primarily on the hymn “Shin-              the Violin Sonatas still contain challenges,
 this idea fairly well, but the second got away        ment was revised and made part of the Second       ing Shore,” which has a contrasting middle         they have long been recognized by performers
 from it, and the third got in between. Moss           Sonata around 1914, and revised again when         section. He not only lets its main theme           and listeners alike as among the most original
 White couldn’t play the last two and neither          he overhauled the whole piece c. 1920–21. The      accumulate through the movement, but               and important pieces of violin music by an
 could his teacher.” The 1942 publication pro-         Adagio maestoso introduces motives that Ives       similarly treats a countermelody made from         American composer.
 vided Ives’s vivid commentary, worth quoting          elaborates and combines until he presents the      the hymn’s contrasting second part. Further,
 extensively here for the flavor they impart:          final accumulated setting of the hymn toward       he begins with an introduction that returns at     Johannes Brahms
                                                       the conclusion. Ives frequently employed such      the end, encapsulating the cumulative setting.     (b. Hamburg, 1833; d. Vienna, 1897)
   This sonata . . . called “Children’s Day at the     “cumulative” forms, an apt term coined by          The third movement is even more ingenious          Hungarian Dances
   Camp Meeting” . . . is shorter than the other       Ives scholar Peter Burkholder. Though Ives         by starting to treat fragments from the tune       arr. Joseph Joachim
   violin sonatas, and a few of its parts and sug-     interpolates faster paced sections, the main       “Work Song,” interrupting this “development”
   gested themes were used in organ and other          character of the movement is stately and slow.     by beginning a different cumulative setting as     Brahms’s love of Hungarian/Gypsy folk music
   earlier pieces. The subject matter is a kind of                                                        a middle section (on the tune “Watchman”),         stems from 1849, when as a 16-year-old he
   reflection, remembrance, expression, etc., of          Ives’s “Pre-First” Sonata also provided         and then resuming the initial setting and tak-     met the fiery 20-year-old Hungarian violinist
   the children’s services at the outdoor summer       material—a deleted scherzo (c. 1908)—for the       ing it to its full-blown conclusion—thus creat-    Eduard Reményi. The two played together fre-
   camp meetings held around Danbury and in            second movement, In the Barn. He had com-          ing a unique three-part form.                      quently and in 1853 made a tour of North Ger-
   many of the farm towns in Connecticut, in the       posed his own fiddle tune, throwing in bits of                                                        man towns, always playing the same concert,
   [18]70s, 80s, and 90s. . . .                        the dance tunes “Sailor’s Hornpipe,” “Money           The intervening slow movement, again in-        which closed with a group of dazzling Gypsy
                                                       Musk,” and “The White Cockade.” When he            debted to the “Pre-First” Sonata, freely varies    pieces. They soon parted company, but Remé-
   The first movement . . . was suggested by an        later reworked this material he added passages     “The Old Oaken Bucket” in its outer sections       nyi had left Brahms with two lasting contribu-
   actual happening at one of these services. The      from his Ragtime Dances and bits of the “Pre-      and bits of the Civil War tune “Tramp, Tramp,      tions: exposure to a wealth of Hungarian music
   children, especially the boys, liked to get up      First” Sonata’s first movement. After a few        Tramp” in its livelier middle section. The loud    and an introduction to Reményi’s fellow Hun-
   and join in the marching kind of hymns. And         introductory bars, Ives’s own fiddle tune enters   violin passage at the end previews the main        garian, violinist Joseph Joachim, who became
   as these meetings were “outdoor,” the “march”       in the violin “in a fast and rather even qua-      theme of the third movement.                       Brahms’s lifelong friend and advisor on violin
   sometimes became a real one. One day Lowell         drille time.” A marked contrast arrives when                                                          matters. Though Reményi and Brahms never
   Mason’s “Work for the Night Is Coming” got          the violin shifts from rapid motion to long          Ives jotted down the following colorful          met again, their spheres collided some 15 years
   the boys going and keeping on between ser-          notes and octave double stops in a passage         description of the First Sonata on his score:      later when Reményi accused him of plagiarism
   vices. . . . In this movement . . . the postlude    based on “The Battle Cry of Freedom.” Taken                                                           in connection with the Hungarian Dances.
   organ practice [Ives was an accomplished            together, this brilliant collage gives a wonder-     This sonata is in part a general impression,
   organist]. . . and the boys’ fast march got to      ful impression of a boisterous barn dance.           a kind of reflection and remembrance of the         Brahms seems to have written Hungarian
   going together, even joining in each others’                                                             peoples’ outdoor gatherings in which men         Dances on and off from the 1850s on. His
   sounds, and the loudest singers and also those         The weight of the Sonata lies in the last         got up and said what they thought, regardless    interest in Hungarian music was further deep-
   with the best voices, as is often the case, would   movement, The Revival, which begins soul-            of the consequences—of holiday celebra-          ened by his concert tours in Hungary, dating
   sing most of the wrongs notes. . . .                fully with the muted violin in low register. The     tions and camp meetings in the [18]80s and       from 1867. That year he offered six Hungarian
                                                       structure might be described as a complex            90s—suggesting some of the songs, tunes, and     Dances to a Budapest publisher, who lost out
   The second movement is quieter and more             variation form in which Ives varies the hymn         hymns, together with some of the sounds of       on a fortune by turning them down. Then in
   serious except when Deacon Stonemason               tune “Nettleton” in small segments with a va-        nature joining in from the mountains in some     1869 Brahms’s first set of ten as piano duets
   Bell and Farmer John would get up and get           riety of violin and piano textures. Assembled        of the old Connecticut farm towns.               was published by Simrock, whereupon a storm
   the boys excited. But most of the movement          c.1915–17 from material rejected from the                                                             of international proportions broke over who
   moves around a rather quiet but old favorite        Fourth Sonata, The Revival, in contrast with         The first movement may, in a way, suggest        had really composed these tunes. Brahms had
   hymn of the children [“Jesus Loves Me”],            Ives’s other cumulative settings, does not use a     something that nature and human nature           explicitly stated to Simrock that these were ar-
   while mostly in the accompaniment is heard          basic countermelody, concentrating instead on        would sing out to each other—sometimes. The      rangements, refusing to allow an opus number
   something trying to reflect the outdoor             the elements of the theme itself.                    second movement, a mood when “The Old            for this reason. “I offer them as genuine Gypsy
   sounds of nature on those summer days—the                                                                Oaken Bucket” and “Tramp, Tramp, Tramp,          children which I did not beget, but merely
   west wind in the pines and oaks, the running           The First Sonata, which Ives assembled            the Boys are Marching” would come over the       brought up with bread and milk.”
   brook. . . . But as usual even in the quiet ser-    around 1914 or 1917 using some materials             hills, trying to relive the sadness of the old
   vices, some of the deacon-enthusiasts would         from as early as 1906, shows an intriguing           Civil War Days. And the third movement, the         In 1880, at Simrock’s urging, Brahms com-
   get up and sing, roar, pray, and shout. . . .       unification by key scheme and motives. Ives          hymns and the actions at the farmers’ camp       posed another 11 Hungarian Dances, again
                                                       previews the key of the next movement’s              meeting inciting them to “work for the night     piano duets. In subsequent years arrange-
   The third movement is more in the nature of         opening motive in both the first and second          is coming.”                                      ments appeared for almost every conceivable
   the first. As the boys get marching again some      movements, and he emphasizes two main keys                                                            instrumental combination. There is a bit of
   of the old men would join in and march as           across movements. Further, he brings back             In 1914 Ives invited accomplished German        irony in the fact that Joachim, not Reményi,
   fast (sometimes) as the boys and sing what          the first movement’s opening at the end of the     violinist Franz Milke to try out his First and     came out with violin and piano arrangements
   they felt, regardless—and—thanks to Robert          third movement, and he plays on the melodic        Second Violin Sonatas, and, as the composer        of the 21 Hungarian Dances.
   Lowry—“Gather at the River.”                        similarities between some of his borrowed          reported, “He didn’t even get through the first
a bout t h e a rtists
    Brahms claimed authorship of three, nos.          a way that the folk idiom becomes an integral
 11, 14, and 16; all the others in both sets were     part of the composer’s style. Though Bartók
 derived from popular Gypsy melodies, which           worked in all three methods, the Romanian
 Brahms took down by ear. A study 100 years           Folk Dances fall into his first category—he
 after his birth showed that Brahms, unaware,         used Romanian fiddle tunes from the Transyl-
 had actually been inspired in most cases by          vanian districts, adding only accompaniment,
 music of popular Hungarian composers from            in which he occasionally allowed himself
 the 1840s and 1860s. Sources aside, the Hun-         greater harmonic freedom than in his earlier
 garian Dances all bear Brahms’s stamp and are        folk-song settings. He composed these pieces
 responsible for making his name a household          in 1915 for piano, transcribing them for small
 word. They also made him possibly the first          orchestra in 1917.
 composer to make a fortune from published
 music; Simrock also made a fortune out of the           Of his various pieces based on Romanian
 Hungarian Dances in various guises.                  folk song, the Romanian Folk Dances have
                                                      been performed most frequently, not only
      The rollicking Hungarian Dance No. 10           in Bartók’s versions but in many other tran-
 takes off at a breakneck speed, punctuated           scriptions, among them Zoltán Székely’s very
 occasionally by an octave leap that only spurs       popular version for violin and piano. Székely’s
 more action. Contrasting episodes provide brief      arrangement contains six pieces like the piano
 characteristic mood changes. No. 11 consists         original; for the small orchestra version Bartók
 of a measured dance that slips easily between        split the final Mărunţel into two dances.
 minor and major. In its center section we get a
 taste of the exotic mournful kind of melody for        The following descriptions preface the score:
 which the Gypsies were famous. No. 12 races by
 almost furtively at first, soon erupting in pas-       1. Joc cu bâtă—Dance with Sticks—or a game
 sionate outbursts. Tender strains sing sweetly         played with a stick. From Mezoszabad, district
 in the middle section, interrupted by their own        of Maros-Torda, in Transylvania. Merry and
 little tempest before the scampering opening           energetic with a gaily syncopated melody.
 music returns. A kind of graceful strut charac-
 terizes No. 19’s outer sections, which surround        2. Brâul—Waistband Dance. The word actually
 a delightful “music-box” central portion.              means: a cloth belt worn by men or women.
                                                        From Egres, district of Torontal, now a part of
    No. 5, possibly the most popular in the set,        Yugoslavia. Gay and quick in duple measure.
 enchants with its impassioned minore main
 theme that changes into a capricious mood,             3. Pe loc—Stamping Dance. Translation is: “on
 then slows seductively before speeding up once         the spot.” Undoubtedly a dance in which par-
 again. The middle section also contains its            ticipants do not move from a certain location.
 share of sudden tempo changes, leading back            From Egres. Rather slow with a steady step
 to a spirited reprise of the famous opening sec-       and a melody notable for small intervals. Like
 tion. The deliciously woeful melody of No. 20          bagpipe music.
 sets up a spirited romp before making its soul-
 ful return. Brahms fittingly closed his entire         4. Buciumeana—Hornpipe Dance—Dance
 output of Hungarian Dances with the brilliant          from Butschum, the district of Torda-Aranyos
 No. 21, whose varied dance strains scintillate         in Transylvania. Graceful, in three-quarter
 whether loud or soft, light or forceful.               measure with a haunting melody.

 Béla Bartók                                            5. Poargă românească—Romanian Polka—
 (b. Nagyszentmiklós, Hungary (now Sînnicolau           Romanian Children’s Dance. Poargă is a game
 Mare, Romania), 1881; d. New York, 1945)               played by the country children. From Belenyes
 Romanian Folk Dances, BB 68                            district of Bihar on the border between Hun-
 arr. Zoltán Székeley                                   gary and Transylvania. Quick and lively with a
                                                        broken-chord melody marked into groups of
 Bartók spent what he considered the happi-             three beats, three beats, two beats.
 est years of his life in the field collecting folk
 music from all over Hungary and neighboring            6. Mărunţel—Quick Dance. A fast dance using
 countries. He discussed three ways in which            very small steps and movements. From Belenyes.
 folk music could be used in art music: 1) tran-
 scribing authentic folk melodies, with little                                         —Jane Vial Jaffe
 change other than providing accompaniment
 or introductory or closing phrases, 2) invent-
 ing material that imitates folk song, and 3)
 absorbing the essence of folk melodies in such

				
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