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                                                             Nos Articles
                                                             Capstones Snapshot  01
                                                             Nos Articles
                                                             MPA Graduates
                                                             Nos Articles
                                                             MPA India Study Trip
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                                                             A revolutionary experience


Dear Readers,                                                Countries and Cultures
                                                             International Anecdotes
We are happy to present the 2008 second semester
edition of MPA Parisien, the bi-annual student publication
from the Masters of Public Affairs (MPA) at Sciences Po

                                                                      •          06
Paris. After a successful second semester, this edition
captures the highlights of student Capstone projects,
the study trip to India, and graduation activities, among    Selon Nos Experts
a host of other MPA news, events, and academic thought.      Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh
As the class of 2008 begins life post-MPA and the First

Year students disperse around the world to work on a

variety of summer projects, the MPA Parisien congra-
tulates the recent graduates and wishes everyone a           Le Portrait
safe and enriching summer. We are looking forward to
                                                             Federico - interview
sharing your experiences next fall.
Until then,

The MPA Parisien Team
                                                                         • 01
Nos Articles

Capstones Snapshot

By Elianna Konialis

The second year program at the MPA incorporates a Capstone project
that allows small teams of students to work on behalf of clients from
all over the world to gain hands on experience in a particular domain.
The following sections provide a brief snapshot of what this year’s
Capstones were all about.

Corporate Social Responsibility
Students: Lina Arbelaez, Sumathi Chandrashekaran,
Lina Marmolejo And Zhang Jinghan
Capstone Coordinator: Dr Daniel Vaughan-Whitehead

The capstone project on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is
about developing a new approach towards wages. It specifically
attempts to create a new tool kit to measure ’fair wage’, as part of
a project for the Fair Labor Association (FLA), a non-profit organi-
zation based in Washington, D.C., and Geneva. Besides revising
CSR in wages generally, the project has involved studying the
Chinese garment manufacturing sector with the aim to help global
brands, local enterprises and the FLA to understand and appre-
ciate the concept of fair wages.

For the past several years, China has been the cynosure of at-
tention for its rapid economic rise. But she has also been under

                                                                          MPA PARISIEN P 02
scrutiny, along with other countries in the fast developing world, for its
labor rights and policies. This comes with an increased international
awareness of and concern for social compliance on the part of national
governments as well as brands and enterprises. It is no surprise then
that all parties to the globalization compact are eagerly looking for the
                                                                                • 01
                                                                                 Capstones Snapshot
design of strategic scenarios that will help them adapt to the demands
of the modern consumer, as well as evolve towards achieving more
responsible business practices .

This project explores the nuances of the fair wage concept, as ope-
ratively distinct from minimum wage, which has traditionally been the
domain of any CSR activity in wages. Our fieldwork, while primarily
pilot testing the ‘fair wage’ toolkit, has included interacting with the
NGO, managerial and production-level representatives of Chinese en-
terprises, as well as wage and social compliance experts in China and
Europe. Preliminary results suggest that there is an active acknowled-
gement of the issue of fair wages, but little efforts are being made at
implementation. Primarily, while enterprises are keen to put in place a
wage system that better reflects their employees’ concerns; they are
simultaneously grappling with the pressures exerted by the market. It
is in this aspect that this project hopes to be of assistance, inter alia, in
assisting enterprises and employees adapt, change or modify existing
wage practices to keep pace with the changing social and corporate

Contribution to the OECD Review on Rural Development in
China (to be published in 2009)
Students: Isabel Huber, Qiang Luo, Gerrit Reininghaus
Capstone Coordinator: Chris Brooks

Conducting a review on China’s Rural Development, the OECD
Directorate is continuing to reach out to China. After their last Review
in 2006 on the general governance structure of China, this review will
focus specifically on the political, economic and social mechanisms of
rural development. Due to diverging living conditions between urban
and rural areas in China, tackling the challenges of rural development
is of special importance for China’s future.

The capstone is meant to support OECD experts on their research
through taking responsibility for a chapter of the review. The capstone
group consists of three students. Each of them brings in their specific
expertise to contribute to the OECD Review. One part describes how
service provision is organized in rural China and draws theory-based
conclusions and recommendations for each sector. Another part gives
a profound description of the historical development of today’s rural
strategy and integrates the institutional set-up for the future development.
A last part evaluates the fiscal process in China and the processes
relevant fiscal data for further analysis.

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The MPA capstone team accompanied the official exploratory OECD
mission to China, interviewing experts on rural development in Beijing,
and practitioners in rural areas in the province of Shandong. At the
international OECD conference on rural development in Cologne, the
team gathered additional information on best practices and perspectives
                                                                             • 01
                                                                              Capstones Snapshot
in rural policies.

Project on Regional Approaches to Peacebuilding
Students: Ariel Higgins-Steele, Elianna Konialis, Midori Ota,
Sumedh Rao, Ivy Wong
Capstone Coordinator: Hitomi Kubo

This capstone addresses the topic of regional approaches to peace-
building in West Africa and the Great Lakes regions with an actor-centred
focus. The project is being conducted under the guidance of Dr. Necla
Tschirgi of the United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office (PBSO),
a section of the United Nations Peacebuilding Commission (PBC).

The conceptual framework of this study relates to the observation that
most contemporary violent conflicts occur within not among states,
yet, they are rarely “internal” wars. In many cases, their causes and
ramifications cross over national borders and create a complex web
of cause and effect that is difficult to address at the level of a single
state. Recent research has increasingly drawn attention to the regional
dynamics of contemporary conflicts and the need to promote regional
approaches to peacebuilding. More concretely, Sierra Leone and
Burundi - the two countries under consideration by the Peacebuilding
Commission - have highlighted the need to underpin peace in their
sub-regions as part of their integrated peacebuilding strategies. However,
international experiences with regional approaches to peacebuilding
are both relatively limited and inadequately documented and analyzed.

                                                                              MPA PARISIEN P 04
The capstone is specifically designed to identify and extract lessons
from a variety of experiences with regional approaches to peacebuilding.
It examines the promises as well as the limitations of regional approaches
with a view to making concrete recommendations to the Peacebuilding
Commission as well as the UN system and other international actors
                                                                               • 01
                                                                                Capstones Snapshot
on ways of strengthening regional instruments for more effective

The project is based on both academic and operational research, and
includes significant fieldwork in order to validate findings. As part of the
fieldwork, two student teams visited Sierra Leone and Burundi, where
they conducted a series of interviews with UN agencies, international
organisations, government officials and civil society actors.

Livable Cities
Students: Ian Cohran, Isabel Morales, Sasha Lyutse,
Camille Perrier, Rex Wang Xiao
Capstone Coordinator: Chris Brooks

The “Livable Cities” capstone has the objective of assisting the Bureau
International des Expositions (BIE) in identifying ‘best’ or ‘good’
practices that contribute to improving the livability of cities. The
selected practices will be included in the ‘Best Practices Pavilion’ at
the 2010 World Exposition in Shanghai.

To complete this task, the team identified a number of policy areas
as important components of livability including Transportation, Water,
Waste, Air, Culture and Cities, Family and Leisure, Safety, Access and
Social Cohesion as well as Economic Development. Five case studies
have been identified within each policy area with a specific focus on

                                                                                MPA PARISIEN P 05
policy solutions from developing countries, institutional and resource
constraints, issues of transferability and the problems of rapidly growing
megacities. Instead of concentrating on the comparative idea of ‘best’
practice, the team has chosen to view projects through the lens of
‘good’ practice, attempting to identify contextually what works, where
                                                                             • 01
                                                                              Capstones Snapshot
and, when possible, why. Through this process, they have come to
understand that while cities worldwide are often confronted with similar
problems, context has an important role to play and there are no
ready-made solutions.

But this was not the only lesson to be learned from the project. The
team also quickly came to see that international politics has as large a
role to play as academic research in the identification of best practices.
They learned that aiming for geographic representativeness as well as
showcasing innovation and achievement can be a difficult balancing
act. As they attempted to apply a formalized analytical structure to the
selection of programs, they began to see a degree of arbitrariness that
enters into the process when comparing what at times felt like apples
and oranges.

The capstone also involved field research in Delhi and Mumbai. The
team had the opportunity to discuss urban policy issues directly with
policy makers in two cities facing the whole gamut of livability
challenges, which helped them to better understand and appreciate
the issues at hand.

                                                                              MPA PARISIEN P 06
                                                                          • 02
Nos Articles

MPA Graduates

MPA Class of 2006-08 Graduates
By Eduardo Vergara

The second class of the MPA at Sciences Po graduated after two years
of seminars, debates, travel, group work, class meetings, GPPNs, policy
debates, guest speakers, capstones, workshops, career breakfasts,
and the odd midnight Velib ride.
Mr. Descoings, Director of Sciences Po, proudly opened the ceremony
reminding us of the extensive efforts behind the creation of the MPA.
As a recent article in Le Monde stated, the MPA has garnered a
reputations as a world class program and Sciences Po is exceptionally
proud of its graduating classes.
So what is an MPA graduate? I believe they are effective, pragmatic
and well trained leaders. Sciences Po MPA graduates have the tools
and expertise to shape conventional wisdom and offer new and
innovative ways to take on the pressing challenges of the world, with
a new approach to public affairs.
Dr. Cardoso, one of Brazil’s ex-presidents delivered the graduation
speech. He framed the current state of globalization as a flood
of unexpected events and pressing challenges. Dr. Cardoso also
discussed the meaning of public service and evoked a common
debate that many graduates had engaged in at one point or another
during their time at the MPA. Graduation was, then, a celebration of
accomplishment. We were all reminded of how this was not the end,
but rather the beginning of something much more important for the
graduates receiving their diplomas.
On behalf of the MPA students, faculty and staff, I wish the 2006-08
graduating class the best as they embark on their next journeys.

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                                                                                      • 03
Nos Articles

MPA India Study Trip

By Analucia LeCompte

At the beginning of the second semester, the first year students had the
chance to travel for ten days to one of the most talked about countries in
the world today - India. Also hailed as one of the most complex strategic and
social networks, an important rising global power, and a leader in many
industries, India is a country filled with contrasts, fascinating history, culture,
spices, and admirable peace. I hope to briefly share the First Year’s
Indian study trip experiences and some of my personal reflections.

Our adventure began in the Indian capital, New Delhi, the government
center with a population of more than fifteen million people. Having the
opportunity to travel to India three years ago, I could see that major and
rapid changes have taken place all around the city. These changes
were often noted by the government officials, private industry executives,
and NGO leaders we met during the study trip. You could feel the
excitement and pride the Indians have as they embark in the moder-
nization of their cities. Infrastructure developments, and improvement
of city roads, as well as the improvement of the city traffic are striking
different from only three years before. We had the pleasure of meeting
several prominent personalities from both public and private sector
such as the deputy governor of the Reserve Bank of India, and the
Mumbai regional development authority, among many others who
expressed this sentiment and discussed the challenges and
opportunities for continuing to move forward in the country.

                                                                                       MPA PARISIEN P 08
Of course a visit to New Delhi would not be complete without visiting
the Taj Mahal, and as my 34 classmates arrived at the spectacular
wonder as the sun set, we were given the opportunity to reflect on our
time in New Delhi and prepare for our journey to the financial center of
the country, Mumbai.
                                                                            • 03
                                                                             MPA India Study Trip

Perhaps the Mumbai airport is one of the most striking changes. Being
your first and last experience in Mumbai (for those who fly there) the
new Mumbai airport is definitely a strong statement of modernity the
Maharashtra state presents to its visitors and residents. This state-
ment is further confirmed by the ambitious infrastructure developments
plans Mumbai shared with the study trip participants to make Mumbai
one of the most modern cities in the world by 2020.

We completed our trip exploring the spices of the south in the Indian
silicon valley- Bangalore. For those who dare to taste the spices, the
South Indian cuisine offered a rich combination of flavors. Our
meetings in Bangalore gave us a peek of the strengths and future
prospects of this Indian IT hub.

Aside of bringing back with us the nice pashminas, bangles, textiles
and pictures, we also brought with us many lessons that inspired our
India Reports dedicated to a variety of subjects such as basic educa-
tion and poverty reduction in India, the issues of child labor, paradoxes
of emergence, urban sustainable development in the particular case of
Mumbai, the impact of economic growth on poverty reduction in India,
as well as analyzing the infrastructure development in urban cities like
Delhi. These reports are available at the MPA office for those of you
who are interested in checking them out. Overall, we all managed to
explore India in our own ways, some went bollywood-ing, others went
to mosques, Sikh and Hindu temples, markets, ayurvedic massages,
discos, many enjoyed The King of Goodtimes, while some unfortunate
others had to take stomach breaks. Some took boat trips, walks, tuc
tuc (auto rickshaw) rides (in fact someone drove a tuc tuc!), others got
hair cuts in the street, met strangers, and danced with kids. Our Indian
experiences had it all and the class of 2007-09 has certainly grown
intellectually and personally as a result. We can all agree with the
national Incredible India campaign - our India experience was indeed

                                                                             MPA PARISIEN P 09
                                                                                 • 04
Nos Articles

A revolutionary experience

By Matías Bianchi

At the beginning of this semester, Papa Sarr and I visited Caracas,
Venezuela as part of our capstone project entitled “Trust in State”,
administered by our client, the Institute de Recherche et Débat sur la
Gouvernance (IRG). The purpose of the trip was to foster a better
understanding of a controversial topic in a controversial place. Inter-
personal trust is an important component for collective action. Similarly,
trust in the state and its institutions are instrumental to building political
consensus and technically efficient public policies. Although this is a
hot topic for academics in Western Europe, due to the decline of the
welfare state, my Capstone team concentrated our research efforts on
Latin America, specifically Chile and Venezuela. Latin America suffers
not only the lowest levels of trust in institutions, but also a seemingly
endemic interpersonal distrust, thus complicating the debate. This was
the thought process behind our decision to compare health policies in
Chile and Venezuela.

                                                                                  MPA PARISIEN P 10
Our experience in Venezuela was fascinating. The aim of our visit was
to better understand the health program “Misión Barrio Adentro” (Mi-
sión), the most important health policy in Venezuelan history and the
cornerstone of Hugo Chavez’s “Revolution”. The Misión was launched
in 2003 by President Chávez as a political measure aimed at rever-
                                                                            • 04
                                                                            A revolutionary experience
sing the lack of support for the Referendum of 2004, through which
his reelection was to be decided. The Misión was conceived as a way
to provide primary health care to the poorest regions in the country
by bringing doctors directly to the populations most in need of health
services. From our first hand field experience interviewing citizens in
slums, doctors, government officials, community leaders, political
opponents, academics and journalists, we quickly became aware that
in Venezuela, the lack of trust in institutions comes even from the
government itself. This fact led the government to create a para-
institutional structure supported by a legion of Cuban doctors. To the
surprise of many analysts, this policy ended up being the main cause
(along with booming oil prices) of Chávez’s political renaissance, and
also, to our surprise, even the harshest opponents of the President
agree that is unlikely that this policy will be reversed.

The evidence collected in Venezuela has triggered important
questions for our research: Is there a correlation between the trust in
the state and the quality of the services it provides? Do people in the
developing world differentiate between the State and the Government
as is customary in the developed world? Is there a differentiated way in
which trust operates at low levels of systemic trust? Can social distrust
coexist with trust in leaders? And ultimately, what are the strategies to
be pursued in order to build social trust in the context of developing

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                                                                             • 05
Countries and Cultures

International Anecdotes

By Isabel Huber

One of the perks of studying at the MPA at Sciences Po Paris is the
international travel that is incorporated into student projects. As anyone
who has traveled to far off places can attest, one is sure to encounter
the unknown, the unexpected, and the inspirational. I asked several
MPA students to share some of their favorite international anecdotes
for MPA Parisian readers. Here are some of the highlights:


«Arranging an interview in Burundi in French from Paris can yield some
pretty amazing results - as we learned from our interview with Radio
Isanganiro in Bujumbura as part of our field research for our capstone.
The office was down a dusty driveway a few blocks from the main
market in Bujumbura and the station director’s office looked like what
you would imagine any busy radio executive’s would look - piled high
with papers, barely room to move.

Our interviewee was brief but to the point - he was clearly dedicated
- we were interrupted several times by people needing a decision.
Radio Isanganiro is a pioneering organization in the conflict-troubled
Great Lakes Region of Africa (including Burundi, Rwanda and the
Democratic Republic of Congo) - and their mission is simple: to start
and sustain cross-cultural dialogue between Rwandans, Burundians
and Congolese and to bring healing and reconciliation. At the end of
our interview we were invited to attend the taping of the youth radio
show «Generations Grands Lacs» - a call-in show for young people
discussing the hot issues of the day.

The next day, a Saturday, we showed up at the radio station. We were
brought into a tiny studio with computers a sound board and a radio-
booth. The presenters were Burundian and Rwandan, the producer
was Congolese (Radio Isanganiro practices what it preaches - it’s a
company policy to include employees of all three nationalities in every
program aired). The show was about youth criminality - and the first
question for a caller was: «Have you ever committed a crime?»
Amazingly, people answered, speaking of poverty, unemployment,
hopelessness - and the healing process began...»

                                                                              MPA PARISIEN P 12

«Holi Hai!
Being in Delhi for the Holi Festival was a definite value-added to our
capstone research trip. Thanks to sneaky water balloon attacks by
                                                                              • 05
                                                                              International Anecdotes
groups of children in the days leading up to the event, we knew that
something was in air. We had the extreme luck of being able to celebrate
the «color festival» with a local, Tuhin Sen, MPA ‘07, and were warned
to wear clothes that we had no real attachment to, and be ready to
«get wet» playing with colors.
What awaited us was a whirlwind of children, friends and family
celebrating the arrival of spring with colored powder (we made sure
only to play with ‘natural’ colors) and water. Unwittingly participating in
the event we splashed, dashed, and powdered our way through one
of the most colorful afternoons of our lives. Even the cows and the
chickens got in on the fun!»


«As part of our capstone research trip, we were extremely fortunate to
be able to join the OECD exploratory mission to Beijing and Shandong
province for their Rural Review of China. Our group consisted of our
Italian mission director, his German assistant with excellent Chinese
language skills, one of their American colleagues, our ever patient
classmate, cultural and language translator Qiang, and two German
classmates, Gerrit and Isabel - in short, we were quite the cultural and,
most importantly, linguistic mix.
While on a visit to a vocational training school in Shandong province,
especially the German speakers enjoyed the close historic alliance of
Germany and these parts of China, conversing with our local guides in
German. Our guides spoke fluently, occasionally even with a touch of
a Bavarian accent most likely due to the Bavarian heritage of the local
foundation sponsoring their training facilities.
Our guides showed us the premises: several construction workshops,
dairy facilities - all of which were numerously attended by busy
students in uniforms.
The most striking - and certainly most confusing - part of the tour
was that of the meat products facilities. Not to be misunderstood:
the premises were of the highest quality standards, and our tour
showcased the care with which all products are made and handled.
What was confusing was that despite our genuinely Chinese environment
in the middle of one of China’s wealthiest agricultural provinces, every
button, doorway and product was labeled in impeccable, old-fashioned
German! Even the walls were decorated with German meat product
ads from the 1980s! Faced with «Schinkenspezialitaeten von Ihrem
Schinkenspezialisten!» (ham delicacies from your ham specialist), we
realized no matter where we are in the world, we can find the most
unlikely reminders of home...»

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                                                                            • 06
Selon Nos Experts

Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh

Human Security at the MPA
Interview conducted by Chung A Park

Most would associate the genesis of Human Security with the 1994
UNDP Global Human Development Report, when the concept saw
a public launch under a broad definition of “Freedom from Fear” and
“Freedom from Want”. Much in the same way that Amartya Sen
introduced ethics into economics, arguing that freedom is both the
end and means of development, Mahbub Ul Haq and his team, in the
1994 Human Development Report, similarly posited that “security”,
until then associated with the prerogative of states in realist interna-
tional relations and political science theories, should be seen from the
point of view of people.

From your point of view, what is actually Human Security?
Today, it is true that there are different definitions of human security,
ranging from the narrow to the broad. Narrow conceptualizations of
human security concentrate on physical violence and promote “free-
dom from fear” (the so-called ‘Canadian approach’). Broad conceptua-
lizations range from the original definition of human security as both
“freedom from want and freedom from fear” (the UNDP approach), to
definitions that focus on vital cores of human existence, thus, fears,
wants as well as the “freedom to live in dignity” (the Japanese or Com-
mission of Human Security approach). Although I am myself a propo-
nent of the broadest conceptualization, as in my view it encourages
interdisciplinary thinking and responds to the complex experiences of
individuals in a more ethical and realistic manner, the debate on
definitions should not be perceived as a sign of failure. In fact, who
can claim that even the word “security” has one single definition?
The definitional discussion shows, to me, two things: The first is the
healthy observation that academics like to debate, which in itself is the
entire purpose of paradigm shifts, norms and conceptual discussions.
The second is a bit more sinister: I suspect that this so-called defini-
tional debate reminds us of the way the world was divided between
those countries insisting on first generation human rights (political and
civil rights) versus those pushing for second generation rights (rights
to development); and that was when human rights were being deba-
ted. Today, the same debate is being carried out between scholars and
countries that want to narrow the definition of human security to ‘free-
dom from fear’, and those who want to include ‘freedom from want’,
i.e. development, as well. We are witnessing a political debate under
the guise of a definitional debate.

                                                                             MPA PARISIEN P 14
And, why teaching Human Security in an MPA?
Despite the ongoing political debate, the future of human security is
not really in international organizations only, if at all. If you goo-
gle “Human Security” for academic articles, you will find only 17,400
hits in the Scholar section, to date. This was hardly the case even
                                                                             • 06
                                                                             Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh
five years ago. This shows that the subject is being picked up consi-
derably amongst academics as well. To date, Tufts and Harvard in
the US, the University of Gratz in Austria, LSE and the University
of Coventy in the UK, the University of Marburg and the University
Duisburg-Essen in Germany, Tokyo, Osaka and Tohoku Universities
in Japan, and a host of Canadian universities are offering Master’s
Programs on Human Security. The list is growing every semester,
and this is not even counting the various universities where human
security stand-alone courses are being taught or the various Centers
for international relations or global governance where the concept is
being researched. At Sciences Po, we have been lucky to have had
the chance to introduce a stand-alone course, first, in the Master’s of
International Affairs (MIA) since 2005, and since 2007, as a concen-
tration program at the Master of Public Affairs (MPA), which I run with
Hitomi Kubo, a former MPA student and a student of previous Human
Security (HS) classes who became captured by the potential of the
concept. The MPA Director, Dr. Erhard Friedberg had the foresight to
see that the subject is growing in policy and academic circles. The
students of the concentration now also join us in the various projects
that we are running through the CERI Program for Peace and Human
Security, They act as reporters to
our conferences, and those interested also work on our student-run,
peer reviewed Human Security Journal.

What is special on the Human Security Concentration of the MPA
at Sciences Po?
The way we teach human security at the MPA concentrates on 3

 • 1 / HS as a political tool within international relations; We study
the introduction of the concept and its evolution within international
organizations and how Human Security has been co-opted by a num-
ber of states and regional organizations for their political benefits.
For example, some states, such as Canada (until last year, when a
change of government reversed this decision) and Japan, adopted
Human Security officially as their foreign policy objectives, albeit with
different definitions. Japan created the largest trust fund in the history
of the UN to fund Human Security projects. Regional organizations
such as the EU, ASEAN and the Arab League have also engaged with
the concept, each adopting it to their own normative interests, and are
setting up special units or departments. By analyzing this political
evolution, we draw lessons on how norms are introduced in inter-
national politics, how they are negotiated, and what such processes
reveal about interest-based alliances within international relations and
international and regional organizations.

                                                                                MPA PARISIEN P 15
• 2 / HS as an analytical tool that engages with, and adds to different
existing disciplines; For this, we analyze the differences between the
human security framework and traditional security studies, human de-
velopment and human rights. In our view, the concept goes beyond
just being an intersection between these three fields (a noble goal
                                                                            • 06
                                                                            Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh
by itself which it is trying to forge), but also adds the human referent
point to each of these different dimensions. This is easy to see in the
field of security studies, when the referent object and subject of “secu-
rity” concerns moves beyond states to non-state actors, communities
and individuals. In this sense, Human Security is a continuation of
critical theory, in line with all sorts of previous attempts to broaden
and deepen security studies by including non-traditional threats, such
as environmental degradation, forced displacement, extreme poverty,
HIV/AIDS and infectious diseases; and involving actors other than the
state, i.e. communities and people, in security paradigms.
We show how human security seeks to draw attention not just to
levels of achievement, but to secure development gains by deliberately
focusing on “downside risks”, such as conflicts, wars, economic fluc-
tuations, natural disasters, extreme impoverishment, environmental
pollution, ill health, and other menaces. It thus refers to the assurance
that the process and outcomes of development are ‘risk-free’.
Finally, to the human rights framework, human security does not really
add much, but takes the same concerns that have been formulated
within a legalist tradition and reframes them as threats. It goes beyond
duties of the state to utilizing a diverse range of actors that could
guarantee their prevention, or dealing with them when they occur, on
the basis of issue-specific approaches at the local, national or interna-
tional levels.

• 3 / HS as an operational tool. This is the area where the Sciences
Po program is trying to establish a niche among other universities.
We have been developing a number of tools for designing, implemen-
ting and evaluating human security projects, programs and policies.
These tools seek to apply the Human Security Principles (HSP), such
as intersectorality, needs assessment, participatory design, externa-
lities framework and impact assessment. We want to make sure that
when students go out into their various assignments in the future, they
would include the human outcome of their projects/policies, they check
against the negative externalities that sector-specific projects could
have on other fields and that they are equipped with the necessary
methods to do so.

During the 2007-2008 academic year, students engaged in a capstone
project for the UN Peace-building Support Office, looking at regional
approaches to peace-building, and applying the Human Security
Principles to the growing field of peace-building.

                                                                               MPA PARISIEN P 16
Traditionally, practitioners and researchers have tended to specialize
in one discipline, i.e. development, security, humanitarian affairs,
human rights etc. As a result, they have often gone unaware of the
positive or negative impact their actions may have upon the dynamics
in the other fields, and vice versa. We believe that people’s problems
                                                                            • 06
                                                                            Human security edited
are multi-dimensional and that progress made in one area cannot be
sustainable without simultaneously targeting the others. Policy-makers,
practitioners, researchers, and activists all need to look deeper into
root causes of insecurities and the connections between them.

The tools are new, they need to be coined as they say, tested in the
field, corrected, and then produced for wider use. And in this adventure,
we count on the contribution of MPA students. We are developing
something exciting in this laboratory, something that can be both
complex, revolutionary but ultimately, useful to deal with the com-
plexity of changes in our new international order, and, as I always say,
more ethical in terms of responding to reality. In these introductory and
transformative years for us, MPA students should see their own contri-
bution. We would like to tickle their minds to explore new horizons of
interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral thinking, and then ask them to help
us develop those tools that will recast our current ways of designing
projects, programs, policies and budgets.

                                                                              MPA PARISIEN P 17
                                                                             • 07
Le Portrait

Federico Rostrán Chávez

By Sumathi Chandrashekaran

For this edition of the MPA Parisien, we profile Federico Rostrán
Chávez, a 2007 MPA graduate, who is presently working with the US
Agency for the International Development (USAID) in Nicaragua, as
part of its Civil Society program. Federico was kind enough to take
some time out, and answer a few questions:

Where you were before you joined the MPA at Sciences Po?

Before joining the MPA, I was working with the civil society sectors
in Nicaragua supporting initiatives to open spaces of public partici-
pation within public institutions, particularly the National Assembly
of Nicaragua. I also had experience in communications and PR
with many NGOs and the cooperation community. Just before the
MPA, I was working at a school in Montreuil as part of a cultural
exchange program run by the government of France.

I decided to come to France in hope of pursuing graduate studies
in France or in Europe. This is how I came across with Sciences
PO and the MPA.

Why did you decide to pursue an MPA?

I think the MPA is primarily focused on public good and public interest,
but it is different from a regular political science program because it is
professionally oriented and tailored for practitioners. My objective was
precisely to join such a professionally oriented program that would
allow me to gain analytical tools and experience to pursue positions of
greater responsibility.

In today’s world firms, organizations and government agencies need
professionals who can deliver and work on in their own; professionals
who are goal oriented and can take measured risks. I think this can
happen only when there is an understanding of the situation you are
dealing with, and when you are capable of going beyond the apparent
truth. This, I think, is the strength of an MPA.

                                                                              MPA PARISIEN P 18
What are you doing right now? How does the MPA relate to your
current work?

I am currently working for the US Agency for the International Development
(USAID) in Nicaragua, on its Civil Society program. My responsibilities
                                                                             • 07
                                                                             Federico Rostrán Chávez
include providing advice on programs and implementation which
requires analyzing a complex and constantly changing reality.

My experience at the MPA, including my internship at the Inter-American
Development Bank (IADB) and my capstone project with the OECD,
were closely linked to Latin America and the developing world in general.
The program gave me a particular opportunity to research issues of
development practice. Before the MPA, I had the field experience and
I think a fair sense of the implementation challenges, but since then, I
believe I am able to understand better the formulation process. I think
the MPA has to do a lot with what I do now and am very glad to have
pursued this program.

                                                                                 MPA PARISIEN P 19
The MPA at Sciences Po is a challenging new Master’s
degree designed for young professionals looking to
master complex organizations in an evolving global
environment, solve problems using sophisticated
analytical tools, and assume leader roles in the public,
nonprofit, and private sectors.

Newsletter Team
Director of the Publication: Erhard Friedberg
Editorial Board: Ruiwen Lin, Kimberly Panicek,
Anne White
Contributors: Matias Bianchi,
Sumathi Chandrashekaran, Isabel Huber,
Analucia LeCompte, Elianna Konialis,
Chung A Park, Eduardo Vergara

MPA Sciences Po

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Phone: +33 (0)1 45 49 59 72