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					SOLAR DRYING
           Importance of solar drying
•       The world population is more than 6 billion and about
        800-900 million people do not have enough food to eat.
•       There are three methods to solve hunger problem:
    –     Increase food production
    –     Reduce population growth
    –     Reduce loss of food during and after harvesting
•       It has been estimated that world as a whole more than
        20-30 percent food grains and 30-50 percent vegetables,
        fruits/fish etc. are lost before it reaches to the
        consumers.
•       Drying is a traditional method for preserving food. Solar
        drying is an effective method to preserve food.
•       Solar energy is diffuse in nature and thus suitable for
        crop drying, locally available and thus saves
        transportation, solar dryers can be made locally of any
        size and capacity and solar dryers are economical if cash
        crops are dried.
     Advantages in Favour of Crop Drying
• It permits early harvesting and reduces the field losses
  of the products,
• Reduces the risk of field losses caused by wild animals,
• It permits better planning of harvesting season,
• It reduces spoilage in storage drastically,
• It permits the farmer to sell his product at better price
  during early period of harvesting season,
• Quality of the product gets enhanced significantly and
  hence farmer gets more money for his product, and
• Transportation is easy with dried product.
          OPEN SUN DRYING
•   It is the simplest method of drying used in most
    developing countries.
•   The food / crop is spread out in the open under the sun.

Advantages
(1) No technology involved
(2) Very low cost (cost of labour only)

Disadvantages
(1) Contamination of the product due to dirt and insects.
(2) Wastage by birds / mice.
(3) Spoilage due to sudden and unpredicted rain.
(4) There is no control of temperature over crop drying.
(5) Overdrying may cause loss of germination power,
     nutritional changes, sometimes complete damage.
PARAMETERS FOR SOLAR DRYING
• The drying of product depends on external variables like
  temperature, humidity and velocity of air stream and
  internal variables which is a function of drying material and
  depends on parameters like surface characteristics (rough
  or smooth surface), Chemical composition (sugar, starch,
  etc.), physical structure (porosity, density, etc.). and size
  and shape of the product. The rate of moisture movement
  from the product inside to the air outside differ from one
  product to another and very much depends weather the
  material is hygroscopic or non-hygroscopic. Non-
  hygroscopic materials can be dried to zero moisture level
  while the hygroscopic materials like most of the food
  products will always have a residual moisture content.
• The design of a solar dryer depends on : solar radiation,
  temperature of air, relative humidity of air, moisture
  content of the product, amount of product to be dried, time
  required for drying, availability of auxiliary energy, material
  of construction of dryer and the resource availability.
         PHYSICS OF DRYING
• Heat by convection and radiation to Surface of product
 Goes to interior of product
• Increase in temperature
• Formation of water vapour
 Evaporation of moisture from Surface

Drying can be accelerated by:
• Increasing flow rate of air
• Increasing temperature of drying air
• Initial Drying - Surface drying, later on drying depends on
  type of materials.
• Non hygroscopic- drying possible upto zero moisture
  content.
• Hygroscopic - grains, fruit, food stuff have residual
  moisture.
    RATIONALE FOR CONTROLLED DRYING
1. Grain
• Improves product quality,
• Improves storage capability,
• Reduces time and space requirement for drying,
• Facilitates quick preparation of fields for next cropping,
• Facilitates wet season harvesting and storage,
• Improves drying hygene.
2. Timber
• Improves product quality,
• Reduces period capitoltied up in drying stock,
• Improves low expertise, low capital, improved drying options,
• Expands range of usable timber species,
• Improves attainable drying level.
3. Fruits, Vegetables & Fish
• Reduces product seasonability,
• Improves marketing control of farmer,
• Reduces spoilage,
• Improves drying hygene,
• Improves storage capability,
• Reduces nutritional fluctuations.
     EARLY WORK ON SOLAR DRYING IN INDIA
1.   In NPL, New Delhi in 1954 solar heated air was used for
     drying of coal fines.
2.   In NPL, New Delhi in 1955, plane glass mirror concentrators
     with overall dimensions of 1.83m x 0.91 m were used for
     making jaggery from sugar cane and palm juice.
3.   Khadi & Village Industries Commission (KVIC), Ahmedabad
     in 1968, using similar mirrors erected a pilot plant which
     dehydrates palm nira and turns it into gur or syrup.
4.   Forest Research Institute (FRI), Dehradun, Developed a 7.1
     cu.m, capacity timber seasoning kiln in 1972.
5.   Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI), Jodhpur
     developed a solar cabinet dryer in 1972 and tested it for several
     years for drying fruits and vegetables.
6.   Annamalai University, in the year 1978 developed one ton per
     day solar paddy dryer.
7.   National Industrial Development Corporation (NIDC) of
     India developed several solar grain dryer in 1980 and put to use
     in few cities in India.
REQUIREMENTS FOR SOLAR ENERGY AS AN
 ALTERNATIVE OF HIGH ENERGY DRYERS

• Capacity of solar dryers must be equivalent to
  fossil fuel based dryer
• The labour input for solar dryer operation should
  not increase
• Solar dryer operation must be independent of
  weather conditions
• With solar dryer the quality of dried product
  should not be lowered
• The operating conditions should be reliable
• Total drying cost should not increase
   Estimated Energy Requirements for drying of some crops

Crops                  Initial moisture   Final moisture   Water removed    Energy
                       content (%) wb     content (%) wb   (kg/t of dried   requirement
                                                           product)         (106 kJ/t)
GRAIN
Wheat, barley, rye,    20-25              14-16            50-147           0.30-0.88
oats, paddy Corn       25-45              12-14            147-600          0.80-3.60
VEGETABLES
Peas, beans Potatoes   60-70              5-10             1250-2157        7.50-13.00
Onion, Garlic,         65-85              14               1458-4733        8.75-28.40
Carrot, beets,         70-80              5-10             2000-3750        12.00-22.50
Cabbage, Tamatoes      80-90              5-10             3500-8500        21.00-51.00

                       90-95              5-10             8000-3300        48.00-108.00
FRUITS
Apples,                75-80              14-23            2080-3300        12.48-19.80
Apricots, peaches,
prunces, grapes,
figs, banana
FORAGES
Hay                    40-60              10-14            433-1250         2.60-7.50
Grass, alfala          80-90              10-14            3300-8000        19.80-48.00
CLASSIFICATION OF SOLAR DRYERS
• DIRECT TYPE DRYERS : In direct or natural convection type dryers,
  the agricultural product is placed in shallow layers in a blackened
  enclosure with a transparent cover. The solar radiations are directly
  absorbed by the product itself. The food product is heated up and the
  moisture from the product evaporates and goes out by the natural
  convection/circulation.
• INDIRECT TYPE DRYERS : In these dryers the food product is
  placed in a drying chamber. The air is heated in solar air heaters and
  then blown through the drying chamber. In some of the designs, dryers
  receive direct solar radiations and also heated air from solar air heaters.
  In these dryers manipulation of temperature, humidity and drying rate
  is possible to some extent.
• FORCED CIRCULATION TYPE DRYERS : In these dryers, hot air is
  continuously blown over the food product. The food product itself is
  loaded or unload continuously or periodically. These kind of dryers are
  comparatively thermodynamically efficient, faster and can be used for
  drying large agricultural product. These dryers can be of Cross-flow
  type, concurrent flow type or counter-flow type.
 (a) Direct type solar dryers




 (b) Indirect type solar dryers




   (c) Forced circulation type solar dryers
TYPE OF SOLAR DRYERS
                           Drying terminology
• Percent moisture content, dry basis :
The mass ratio of water to dry solid multiplied by 100.
            W d
 M (dry )        100%
             d
where, W is the wet mass and d is dry mass of the product.
• Percent moisture content, wet basis:
The mass fraction of water in the commercially dry solid multiplied by
100.

             W d
 M ( wet )       100%
              W
  • Bound moisture :
  The amount of water in the material which exhibits a vapor
  pressure less than that of pure liquid at the same temperature.
• Unbound moisture:
  The moisture contained by a material which exerts an
  equilibrium vapour pressure equal to that of pure liquid at
  the same temperature.

• Equilibrium moisture :
  The amount of moisture in the material that is in the
  equilibrium with its vapour in the gas phase. For a given
  temperature and humidity conditions, the material cannot
  be dried below its corresponding equilibrium moisture
  content.

• Hydrogroscopic material :
  A material that may contain bound moisture in small
  capillaries.

• Non-hydroscopic material:
  The material which cannot hold moisture in the bound
  form.
•   Constant rate period:
    The part of the drying process during which the drying rate is constant and is
    controlled by external rather than internal conditions.
•   Falling rate period:
    The part of the drying during which the drying rate varies with time. Internal factors,
    i.e., physical and transport properties of the material, control the drying process.
•   External drying factors:
    The independent variables associated with the conditions and flow of gas phase.
•   Internal drying factors:
    The properties of the material that influence the transport of heat and mass within the
    phase.
•   Critical moisture content:
    The moisture content of a material at the end of constant rate period. The critical
    moisture content is not a unique moisture property of a material but is influenced by
    its physical shape as well as the conditions of the drying process.
•   Batch drying:
    The type of drying operation in which the material is fed to and discharged from
    drying chambers in batches at definite intervals of time.
•   Specific volume:
    The volume per unit weight of dry air.
•   Enthalpy:
    The total energy contents of the substrate. For moist air, it is equal to the heat content
    of the moist air per unit weight of dry air above a certain reference temperature.
                 Basics of Solar Drying
• Drying or dehydration of material means removal of moisture from the
  interior of the material to the surface and then to remove this moisture
  from the surface of the drying material.
• The drying of product is a complex heat and mass transfer process which
  depends on external parameters such as temperature, humidity and
  velocity of the air stream; drying material properties like surface
  characteristics (rough or smooth surface), chemical composition (sugar,
  starches, etc) physical structure (porosity. density. etc.); size and shape of
  the product.
• The rate of moisture movement from the product inside to the air outside
  differs from one product to another and very much depends on whether
  the material is hygroscopic or non-hygroscopic. Non-hygroscopic material
  can be dried to zero moisture level while the hygroscopic materials like
  most of the food products will always have a residual moisture content.
  This moisture in hygroscopic material may be a bound moisture (remains)
  in the material due to closed capillaries or due to surface forces) or
  unbound moisture which remains in the material due to surface tension of
  water. When the hygroscopic material is exposed to air, it will either
  absorb moisture or desorb moisture depending on the relative humidity of
  air. The equilibrium moisture content (EMC) will soon be reached when
  the vapour pressure of water in the material becomes equal to the partial
  pressure of water in the surrounding air. The equilibrium moisture content
  is, therefore, important in the drying since this is the minimum moisture
  to which the material can be dried under a given set of drying conditions.
            Basics of Solar Drying (contd.)
• A series of drying characteristic curves can be plotted. The best
  is, if the moisture content M of the material is plotted versus
  time as shown in Fig. Another curve can be plotted between
  drying rate i.e. dM/dt versus time t as shown in Fig. But more
  information can be obtained if a curve is plotted between
  drying rate dM/dt versus moisture content M as shown in Fig.
  As is seen from this figure for both hygroscopic and non-
  hygroscopic materials, there is a constant drying rate
  terminating at the critical moisture content followed by falling
  drying rate. The constant drying rate for both non-hygroscopic
  and hygroscopic materials is the same while the period of
  falling rate is little different. For non-hygroscopic materials, in
  the period of falling rate, the drying rate goes on decreasing till
  the moisture content becomes zero. In the hygroscopic
  materials, the period of falling rate is similar until the unbound
  moisture is completely removed. then it further decreases and
  some bound moisture is removed; this continues till the vapour
  pressure of material becomes equal to the vapour pressure of
  drying air. When this equilibrium reaches then the drying rate
  becomes zero.
Moisture in the drying material
Rate of moisture loss
                        22
Drying rate with time curve
Typical drying rate curve
          Basics of Solar Drying (contd.)
Eight thermodynamic properties of moist air, generally used in drying
are vapor pressure, relative humidity, humidity ratio, dry bulb
temperature, dew point temperature, web bulb temperature, enthalpy,
and specific volume. These parameters are correlated and the effect of
one on another can be seen on psychometric chart.

The drying process can be explained with the help of the psychometric
chart of Fig. If the air is not saturated (say dry bulb temperature is 30C
and wet bulb temperature is 20C) and is allowed to pass over the
material and if no external heat is applied, then the sensible heat of air
and material is exchanged for latent heat of vaporization of water. The
path travelled on psychometric chart will be 20C wet bulb line shown by
line AB. During this process the humidity ratio changes from 0.0140 to
0.0104 i.e. about 0.0036 kg of vapour per kg of dry air is absorbed. Now
by using solar energy, the air is heated to 45C with a relative humidity
of 17 per cent and is passed over the drying material. During the drying
process, this air is cooled-adiabatically along the 24 C wet bulb line,
then the final humidity ratio will be 0.0189. Thus the moisture
evaporated with the. heated air will be 0.0075 kg of vapour per kg of dry
air which is almost double the water evaporated compared to when air
was not heated.
Psychometric chart for pressure 101.35 kPa with drying process indicated
  Natural Convection or Direct type
            Solar Dryer
• These dryers appear to be more attractive for use in
  developing countries since these do not use fan or blower to
  be operated by electrical energy.
• These dryers are low in cost and easy to operate.
• Some of the problems with these dryers are: slow drying, no
  control on temperature and humidity, small quantity can be
  dried, and some products change colour and flavour due to
  direct exposure to sun.
• Several direct type dryers are fabricated, tested, and
  analysed in many countries.
• The simplest direct type solar dryer is solar cabinet dryer.
              Solar Cabinet Dryer
• The solar cabinet dryer in its simple form consists of a
  wooden (or of any other material) box of certain width and
  length (length is generally kept as three times its width),
  insulated at its base and preferably at the sides and covered
  with a transparent roof.
• The inside surfaces of the box are coated with black paint
  and the product to be dried is kept in the trays made of wire
  mesh bottom. These trays loaded with product are kept
  through an openable door provided on the rear side of the
  drier.
• Ventilation holes are made in the bottom through which
  fresh outside air is sucked automatically. Holes are also
  provided on the upper sides of the dryer through which
  moist warm air escapes.
• This dryer has given encouraging results and reduced the
  drying time by one third compared to open sun drying.
Details of solar cabinet dryer
Photograph of Solar Cabinet Dryer
          Mixed Mode Type Solar Dryer
• In the mixed mode type of solar dryers, the solar air heater with
  or without any electric fan along with a drying bin is used.
• Such simple mixed mode type solar dryer was developed at
  AIT Bangkok for drying paddy and therefore named as rice
  dryer.
• It consists of a solar air heater made of a frame of bamboo
  poles and wire covered with 0.15 mm thick transparent PVC
  sheet. The ground is covered with burnt rice husk which
  absorbs the solar radiation and heats the air in contact.
• The hot air in this air heater rises to the drying chamber which
  either consists of transparent PVC sheets on bamboo frame
  absorbing directly the solar radiation or a bamboo frame
  covered from all the four side with some opaque material.
• The drying material (rice etc.) is kept on the nylon net tray in
  thin layer through which hot air heated from air heaters enters
  its bottom and goes up into the chimney.
      Mixed Mode Type Solar Dryer (contd.)

• The chimney is a long cylinder made of bamboo
  frame covered with black PVC to keep the inside
  air warm. There is a cap at the top of the chimney,
  leaving some space in between chimney top and
  cap to allow warm humid air to go out and
  protecting the product from rain and other foreign
  materials.
• The height of the chimney and the hot air inside it
  creates a pressure difference between its top and
  bottom thereby creating forced movement of air
  through the rice bed to the top of the chimney.
• The drying rate will depend on the depth of the
  bed, initial moisture content of the material, solar
  insolation, ambient temperature, and the design of
  the dryer.
Cross section of chimney type solar dryer
Photograph of Solar Rice Dryer
    Forced Circulation Type Solar Dryer
• As the name implies, such dryers use some kind of one or
  several electric operated blower/exhaust fan to circulate air
  between air heater/storage bin/drying chamber.
• Such dryers are more efficient, faster, reliable, preferred and
  can be used for drying large quantities of agricultural products.
• These dryters can be used at low as well as at high
  temperatures and used for drying large quantities of product.
• These dryers are of bin type, tunnel type, belt type, column
  type, or rotary type.
• Some forced circulation type solar dryers use some kind of
  thermal storage unit, heat recovery wheel and auxiliary heating
  arrangement.
• Auxiliary energy may be supplied either by electric heating or
  oil or gas burners and used only when solar air heaters or the
  heat from the thermal storage device is not sufficient to supply
  necessary energy for drying the product.
        Forced Circulation Type Solar Dryer (contd.)
• Several storage systems are proposed but the most preferred one is
  the rock bed storage system which stores the heat in the form of
  sensible heat and performs the dual function of storing the heat
  and that of a heat exchanger.
• A hybrid solar dryer (solar assisted) was developed at Fresno,
  California for drying large amount of fruits and vegetables.
• It consists of several solar air heaters with a total area of 1350 m2, a
  thermal storage (rock bed type) of 350m3 volume, a rotary wheel
  type heat recovery whell and a tunnel dehydration in which 14
  trucks loaded with prepared food move at a rate of 24 hours per
  truck in one direction and the heated air is sent from the other
  direction.
• The system is designed for a fixed air flow rate of 9.5m3/s to the
  dehydrator 24 hours a day. The drying temperature varies from
  60C in the beginning of June to 66C in August to September.
• The solar contribution in this hybrid systems is 1582 MJ/hr which
  is about 60 per cent of the total heat requirement of drying.
Photograph of Forced Circulation Type
             Solar Dryer
             Important Conclusions
• Experience over the past four decades has shown that inspite of
  high potential of solar drying it has not taken off. Some of the
  reasons are;
• Systematic work on solar dryer has been done only in few
  countries.
• Solar dryer has not been developed as a system.
• In industralized countries, there is great interest towards solar
  drying. However, neither the temperature nor the heat
  requirement can be achieved with solar collector.
• Solar drying is considered more applicable to low temperature in-
  storage type drying in tropical and subtropical countries.
• Pre-healing of drying air in batch dryers has been demonstrated
  to be techno-economically viable.
• Solar drying should be disseminated for medium and low scale
  farmers for drying cash crops.
• To popularise solar drying, pilot demonstration followed by
  training and workshop will have to be intensified.

				
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