PowerPoint Presentation - Thomas Jefferson

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					    Thomas Jefferson
The Country’s Greatest President
 1. Background and Education
• Father: Peter Jefferson
• Like most sons of land owners, he studied
  land surveying
• Graduated from William and Mary
  University in Williamsburg, VA
• Tall, red-headed, quiet
          2. Political Beliefs
• The government which governs least,
  governs best
• Strongly favored States Rights as opposed
  to a strong national government
• Believed in a strict construction, or strict
  interpretation, of the U.S.Constitution
• Wanted to end all taxes of any kind paid
  by U.S. citizens
    3. Accomplishments Prior to
        becoming President
• Wrote the first draft of the Declaration of
• Wrote the Statute of Virginia for Religious
• Created the University of Virginia
• Served as an ambassador to Europe from
  the United States
      4. The Election of 1800
• Democratic-Republican Candidates:
     Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr
      4. The Election of 1800
• Federalist Candidates:
      John Adams and Charles C. Pinckney
       4. The Election of 1800
• Adams would have won re-election, perhaps
  easily, had Alexander Hamilton not split the
  Federalist Party
      4. The Election of 1800
• Instead, the Democratic-Republicans won
  the election
• Both winning candidates, Jefferson and
  Burr, received 73 electoral votes
• Election was settled the House of
  Representatives after 35 votes
• Hamilton swings the election to Jefferson
  and angers Burr
      4. The Election of 1800
• The messed up election pointed out the
  need for a Constitutional amendment
  regarding the Presidential election
• The 12th Amendment modified the
  Constitution so that the President and the
  Vice-President are elected using separate
      4. The Election of 1800
• John Adams, the 1st President to live in
  Washington, D.C., leaves before
  Jefferson’s inauguration
• Jefferson’s Inauguration takes place on
  March 4, 1801 in Washington, D.C.—the
  1st done there
• The unfinished White House and Capitol
  were just about the only buildings in town
      4. The Election of 1800
• Federalists fear what Jefferson will say—
  will he start a new revolution?
• Jefferson, surprisingly, calls for unity—he
  states “We are all Republicans, we are all
• Jefferson DOES NOT propose to change
  or destroy the structure of the federal
 5. Accomplishments made during
  early part of Jefferson’s 1st term
• Appointed Albert Gallatin as Secretary of
  the Treasury
• Cut military spending
• Reduced the army from 4000 to 2500 men
• Reduced the navy from 25 to 7 ships
• Reduced national debt from $83 million to
  $45 million
• Cut ALL internal taxes
 5. Accomplishments made during
  early part of Jefferson’s 1st term
• Only source of government income: tariffs
  and sales of Western land
• Let the Alien and Sedition Acts expire
     6. Issues with the Courts
• Marbury vs. Madison: Does William
  Marbury, one of John Adams’ last minute
  “midnight judges,” receive his commission
  to be judge or not?
• Jefferson had James Madison refuse to
  give the commission to Marbury
• Issue went before the Supreme Court
• Ruling became a precedent—an example
  for future court cases
     6. Issues with the Courts
• With Marbury vs. Madison, the Supreme
  Court established the concept of “Judicial
  Review” of laws
• Judicial Review means that the Court may
  decide if a law is constitutional or not.
• If a law is judged to be unconstitutional, or
  goes against the U.S. Constitution, then
  the law ceases to be a law.
   7. The Louisiana Purchase
• By 1800, the western boundary of the U.S.
  was the Mississippi.
• The Louisiana Territory, that is all lands
  west of the Mississippi River which
  drained into the river, was originally
  controlled by France.
• As part of losing the French-Indian War,
  France ceded, or gave, the Louisiana
  Territory to Spain
   7. The Louisiana Purchase
• The Louisiana Territory continued to be
  controlled by Spain until 1800.
• A war fought in Europe between Spain
  and France ended with a victory for
  Napoleon and the French.
• Secretly, the Louisiana Territory was
  transferred from Spain to France as a
  result of that European war.
   7. The Louisiana Purchase
• Jefferson learned that Louisiana Territory
  was now controlled by France
• French ownership of the Louisiana
  Territory posed several problems for the
  U.S.—mainly the French were popular
  with the Indians and the French presence
  blocked any sort of westward movement
  by U.S. citizens into the Louisiana
    7. The Louisiana Purchase
• The other major problem involved the city
  of New Orleans. New Orleans controlled
  all river trade. River trade came from not
  only the Louisiana Territory, but also from
  the United States. If France decided to
  close the city of New Orleans to U.S.
  trade, then the U.S. would suffer great
  economic hardship.
   7. The Louisiana Purchase
• Jefferson realized the problems involved
  with France owning the Louisiana
• Jefferson sends Robert Livingston and
  James Monroe to buy New Orleans and
  West Florida for $2 million from France.
• Livingston and Monroe may spend UP to
  $10 million.
   7. The Louisiana Purchase
• Despite being more money and more land
  than expected, both Livingston and
  Monroe quickly agree to the deal.
• The deal poses a personal problem for
  Jefferson—is this small government? Still,
  Jefferson agrees to the deal.
• Congress debates the issue—lots of
  money involved—still, they agree to it.
   7. The Louisiana Purchase
• Napoleon experiences slave rebellion
  trouble in the French colony of Saint
  Domingue located in the Caribbean.
• Napoleon also needs money for another
  war with Great Britain. He decides to sell
  ALL of the Louisiana Territory. His price:
  $15 million.
7. The Louisiana Purchase
            8. Lewis and Clark
• For a variety of reasons, Jefferson
  decides to send a military expedition
  to explore the Louisiana Territory.
• Jefferson’s personal secretary,
  Captain Meriwether Lewis, is placed
  in charge of the expedition. The men
  on this expediton are called the
  Corps of Discovery.
• Lewis was to explore the territory,
  map it, find a water route to the
  Pacific, make friends with the Native
  Americans, and drive out all French
  and/or British traders if possible.     Meriwether Lewis
            8. Lewis and Clark
• Lewis selects Lt. William Clark as a
  co-commander. The army refuses
  to recognize co-commanders so
  Clark remains a lieutenant.
• The men of the Corps of Discovery
  are told that Clark is a Captain and
  a co-commander of the expedition.
• Lewis and Clark, along with the
  other members of the Corps of
  Discovery, depart St. Louis on May
  14, 1804 and travels upriver.
• They stop for the winter of 1805 in
  the Mandan villages and create Fort    William Clark
          8. Lewis and Clark
• At Fort Mandan, Lewis and Clark hire the French
  trader Toussaint Charbonneau as an interpreter
  and guide. The true prize was Charbonneau’s
  2nd wife, Sacagawea and Sacagawea’s newborn
  infant son.
• Charbonneau proves useless. Sacagawea,
  while not a guide, does prove helpful: no war
  party would travel with a woman and young
  child. Sacagawea’s presence eases tensions
  between Corps of Discovery and the Indians.
           8. Lewis and Clark
• The Corps of Discovery reach the Pacific Ocean
  on November 7, 1805. Clark writes: “Ocean in
  view! O! The joy!”
• The first American vote involving an African-
  American (York), a female (Sacagawea), and
  men of several different nationalities takes place
  to decide where to stay for the winter.
• The Corps of Discovery create Fort Clatsop and
  spend the 1806 winter on the Pacific coast.
  They experience problems with the natives.
         8. Lewis and Clark
• The journey becomes a race down the
  Missouri River. Lewis and Clark arrive in
  St. Louis on September 23, 1806.
• They traveled almost 8,000 miles along
  the journey. They mapped the entire
  distance using “line of sight”
  approximations. They were off by only 4
9. Zebulon Pike
    • Zebulon Pike also explores
      the western territory.
    • Pike reaches the Colorado
      area and finds the mountain
      which now bears his name:
      Pike’s Peak.
    • Pike then moves south into
      the Spanish territories which
      eventually become Texas
      and Mexico.
    10. Jefferson’s Reelection
• By 1804, Jefferson was unquestioned
  success as a President. He was easily
• Burr decided to run for governor of New
  York. Hamilton criticized Burr; Burr
  challenged Hamilton to a duel; Burr shoots
  and kills Hamilton. Burr’s term as Vice
  President was not quite over at the time of
  the duel.
      11. Jefferson’s 2nd Term
• Pirates from the Barbary Coast States in
  the Mediterranean Sea demand tribute
  from U.S. trade ships.
• Jefferson refuses to pay the tribute
• The Barbary pirates from Tripoli declare
  war on the U.S.
• Jefferson does not want to fight; instead,
  he orders a blockade of the port of Tripoli.
     11. Jefferson’s 2nd Term
• The blockade eventually works. The U.S.
  forces the pirates to sign a peace treaty
  which ends all tribute payments.
• The military action is popular in the U.S.,
  but shows the need for a U.S. navy.
• Jefferson puts aside his own personal
  problems with the government paying for a
  navy, and the country develops a stronger
     11. Jefferson’s 2nd Term
• Great Britain continues its policy of
• Impressment is when the British kidnap
  U.S. sailors and force them to work as
  British sailors.
• The impressment issue becomes a big
  deal with the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
  in June 1807.
     11. Jefferson’s 2nd Term
• Jefferson deals with the impressment
  issue by asking for an embargo, or block
  of trade, against both Great Britain and
• Congress passes the Embargo Act of
  1807. The main victim of the law was
  neither Great Britain nor France—it was
  the U.S. merchants who could no longer
  trade with either country.
      11. Jefferson’s 2nd Term
• The Embargo Act proves EXTREMELY
  unpopular and Jefferson’s popularity suffers as a
• Eventually, Congress repealed the Embargo Act
  and replaced it with the Non-Intercourse Act.
• The Non-Intercourse Act was no more
  successful than the Embargo Act. American
  merchants and shipowners suffered greatly.
• Jefferson leaves office with a loss of respect.
  12. Jefferson after the Presidency
• James Madison, the author
  of the Constitution, a
  and Jefferson’s hand-
  picked successor becomes
  the next President.
• Madison leads the country
  during the War of 1812.
 12. Jefferson after the Presidency
• Jefferson renews his friendship with his
  long-term friend and political rival, John
• Jefferson and Adams exchange tons of
  letters with each other.
• Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both
  die on the same day: July 4, 1826. It was
  the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of
  Independence which both men help write.