Docstoc

Classification

Document Sample
Classification Powered By Docstoc
					161-177_CH.12_61613 9/8/03 3:36 PM Page 161




            12
            Classification
            Writing That Sorts Things into Groups


            Understand What Classification Is       161
            Read and Analyze Classification       170
            Write Your Own Classification        173




             Understand What Classification Is                                              You Know This
                                                                                           You have had experience
            Classification is writing that organizes, or sorts, people or items into        classifying various items:
            categories.                                                                    • You see how movies in a
                                                                                             video store are arranged.
                  FOUR BASICS OF GOOD CLASSIFICATION                                       • You group items into
                                                                                             boxes when you move.
            1.    It makes sense of a group of people or items by organizing them
                                                                                           • You sort laundry by color
                  into categories.                                                           before washing it.
            2.    It uses a single organizing principle.
            3.    It applies useful categories.
            4.    It gives examples of what fits into each category.                        ■ IDEA JOURNAL Write
                                                                                           about the different kinds of
                                                                                           students in this class or the
               In the following paragraph, each number corresponds to one of the Four      different kinds of friends you
            Basics of Good Classification.                                                  have.

                    1 Since I’ve been working as a cashier at Wal-Mart, I’ve discovered
                 there are several kinds of 2 customers who drive me crazy. 3 First are
                 the openly rude ones. 4 They frown and make loud, sarcastic remarks
                 about how long the line is and how long they’ve been waiting. 4 They
                 throw their money on the counter and never say hello or acknowledge
                 me as anything but human scum. I’m embarrassed for myself, but I’m
                 also embarrassed for them. 3 Second are the silent but obviously impa-
                 tient customers. 4 Although they don’t say anything, you’ve been aware
                 of them since the time they got in line. 4 They make faces, roll their
                 eyes, and look at their watches every ten seconds. What do they expect?
                 This is Wal-Mart; there are always lines. 3 The third kind is really my
                                                                                                                       161
161-177_CH.12_61613 9/8/03 3:36 PM Page 162




                  WRITING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS
        162       Chapter 12 • Classification


                                           least favorite: suspicious customers who watch my every move as if my
                                           goal in life is to overcharge them. 4 They turn the monitor so they can
                                           see every price, but that’s not enough. 4 After looking at the price there,
                                           they lean over the counter toward me and look at what price comes up
                                           on the register. 4 Then their heads snap back to look at the monitor.
                                           They clearly don’t trust me and are just waiting for me to make a mis-
                                           take, at which point they will jump all over me. This kind of customer
                                           make me nervous and a lot more likely to mess up. If you are one of
                                           these three kinds of customers, remember me next time you’re at Wal-
                                           Mart; I’m the one just trying to do my job, and you’re driving me crazy!
                                                                                                     — Joyce Kenneally

                                           Sometimes when you are writing a classification (or reading one), it
                                       helps to think of classification in diagram form. Here is a diagram of the pre-
                                       vious paragraph:


                                       TOPIC
                                                                             CUSTOMERS
                                                                            AT WAL-MART

                                       PURPOSE                            To describe the bad
                                                                         customers at Wal-Mart

                                       ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE
                                                                           Types of customers
                                                                           who drive me crazy


                                                       Openly rude             Silent but            Suspicious
                                       CATEGORIES
                                                                               impatient

                                       EXAMPLES            Frown               Make faces           Watch monitor

                                                      Make sarcastic                                  Lean over
                                                                                Roll eyes
                                                        remarks                                        counter

                                                       Throw money            Look at watch         Check register



                                          You use classification any time you want to organize people or items.
                                       Consider the following examples:

                                           COLLEGE          In a criminal justice course, you are asked to discuss
                                                            the most common types of chronic offenders.
                                           WORK             For a sales presentation, your boss asks you to classify
                                                            the kinds of products your company produces.
                                           EVERYDAY LIFE    You classify your typical monthly expenses to make a
                                                            budget.
                                         PROFILE OF SUCCESS: Classification in the Real World:
161-177_CH.12_61613 9/8/03 3:36 PM Page 163




                                                       WRITING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS
                                                                                 Understand What Classification Is            163



             PROFILE OF SUCCESS: Classification in the Real World
             The following profile gives more insight into a work application of classi-
             fication. In particular, it provides some information about a director of
             human services, including the kinds of writing she does at work and,
             specifically, how she uses classification on the job. Following the profile is
             an example of classification Rosalind has done at work.
             BACKGROUND:    At eighteen, I was a complete mess. I was a homeless single
             mother living in a shelter for abused women and children. I realized that
             things weren’t going to get any better unless I helped myself, so I en-
             rolled in a community college, where I met some teachers who encour-
             aged me. Going to school was hard because of my situation and location,
             but my teachers kept encouraging me. Once I’d taken a few courses, I got
             the hang of it and started to do better. I knew it was the only good way
             out for me.                                                                        Rosalind Baker
             COLLEGE(S)/DEGREES: A.A., Massachusetts Bay Community College; B.S. in             Director of Human Services
             history from Suffolk University, with a minor in public policy
             EMPLOYER:   City of Marlborough, Massachusetts                                     ■ RESOURCES: For a discus-
                                                                                                sion of how to use the pro-
             WRITING AT WORK:   Reports, proposals, summaries, letters, requests for pro-       files in Part Two, see Practical
             posals, memos                                                                      Suggestions.

             HOW ROSALIND USES CLASSIFICATION: Many of the grants and proposals I
             write classify people, projects, or funding into different categories. Break-
             ing things down into categories helps other people understand the whole
             project and who it benefits.
             COMPUTER SKILLS:   PowerPoint, word processing, and spreadsheet programs
             TEAMWORK ON THE JOB:    The Human Services Department is a government
             agency, so part of my job is to coordinate programs with other agencies
             in the city. Often a program is sponsored by two or more cooperating
             organizations, and people in all of them have to band together to imple-
             ment a program.
             A TYPICAL PROBLEM AT WORK:   Because Human Services is a municipal agency,
             there are often other government bureaucracies to work with. Sometimes
             it seems to take forever to get through all the red tape in order to create
             necessary programs that will help real people.

             ROSALIND BAKER’S CLASSIFICATION

             This paragraph was part of a grant proposal that Rosalind Baker com-
             pleted at her job. The grant application requires the applicant to describe
             how the funds will be spent, who will receive the money, and what the
             outcome will be. In the paragraph that follows, Rosalind classifies the
             population that will be served by the grant program.

                  The funding from this grant would subsidize training programs and
                child-care arrangments for three types of currently unemployed resi-
                dents of this city, making it possible for them to become self-supporting.
                One group consists of those who were laid off when Johnson Rubber
                closed its factory here. Many workers who had been employed at John-
                son Rubber for decades have been unable to find other work and need
                                                                                 (continued)
161-177_CH.12_61613 9/8/03 3:36 PM Page 164




                  WRITING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS
        164       Chapter 12 • Classification



                                          to learn new skills. Another group consists of recent immigrants to this
                                          country who are eager to work but need instruction in English-language
                                          skills in order to find jobs. The third major group targeted for funds
                                          from the grant are single mothers, many of whom are presently on
                                          welfare because they cannot afford child care. Our agency has already
                                          identified and interviewed many people from each of these three
                                          groups, and they are very eager to do whatever they can to find suit-
                                          able jobs in our area.

                                       1. Double-underline the topic sentence.
                                       2. What is the main point? that the grant would help unemployed residents
                                          become self-supporting

                                       3. How many categories are there? three               What are they?
                                          unemployed factory workers, recent immigrants, single mothers

                                       4. Underline the examples of people or items in each category.




                                       Main Point in Classification
                                       The explanations, examples, and practices in the next two sections will help
                                       you develop a good main point and support for your classification. The
                                       main point in classification depends on the system, or organizing prin-
                                       ciple, you use to sort information about your topic for your readers. First
                                       think about your purpose: What do you want to help your readers do or un-
                                       derstand? That will help you decide on the best way to organize (or sort)
                                       your topic.
                                           To help you discover the organizing principle for your classification,
                                       complete the following sentences:

                                               My purpose for classifying my topic is . . .
                                               It would make most sense to my readers if I sorted this topic
                                           by . . .

                                           The organizing principle is the single guideline you use to sort the group
                                       of people or items, not the categories into which you group the information.
                                           Imagine the following situation in your college bookstore. The purpose
                                       of sorting textbooks is to help students find them. The best way to organize
                                       the books is by subject area or course number. But not in this bookstore . . .

                                               You walk into the bookstore looking for an algebra text and expect
                                           to find it in the math textbook area, classified according to its subject
                                           area. Instead, the books on the shelves aren’t classified in any way you
                                           can make sense of.
                                               When you ask the sales clerk how to find the book, he says, “What
                                           color is it? The right half of the store has them arranged by color: blue
161-177_CH.12_61613 9/8/03 3:36 PM Page 165




                                                               WRITING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS
                                                                                      Understand What Classification Is   165


                 over there, green in the middle, and so on. The left half of the store has
                 them arranged by author.”

                You may never find your book. The first problem is that books are not
            shelved according to a single organizing principle. Instead there are two: by
            color and by author. The other problem is that the categories of organiza-
            tion (color and author) are not useful for the purpose of helping you to find
            the text you want. Even if you know the color of the book, you still won’t
            know whether you will find it in the color section; it might be in the author
            section. The following diagram shows how you would expect textbooks to
            be classified.


            TOPIC                                       TEXTBOOKS


            PURPOSE                                 To help students find
                                                             TO
                                                    textbooks for courses

            ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE                   Sorted by subject area


            CATEGORIES            English               Mathematics             Business


            EXAMPLES           Composition                    Algebra        Intro. to Business


                                  Literature                  Calculus          Marketing



                  PRACTICE 1       USING A SINGLE ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE

            For each topic that follows, one of the categories does not fit the same or-
            ganizing principle as the rest. Circle the letter of the category that does not
            fit, and write the organizing principle the rest follow in the space provided.
            Answers may vary.
                 EXAMPLE:

                 TOPIC:   Shoes
                 CATEGORIES:

                 a. Running           c. Golf
                 b. Leather           d. Bowling
                 ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE:     by type of activity

            1.   TOPIC:   Relatives
                 CATEGORIES:

                 a. Aunts             c. Sisters
                 b. Uncles            d. Nieces
                 ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE:     female relatives
161-177_CH.12_61613 9/8/03 3:36 PM Page 166




                    WRITING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS
        166         Chapter 12 • Classification


        ■ COMPUTER Have students           2.   TOPIC:   Jobs
        type in a topic and write one
        example of a category. Then             CATEGORIES:
        have them move to the next
        computer and write another              a. Weekly          c. Monthly
        category that would fit that             b. Hourly          d. Summer
        topic. They should keep moving
        and adding categories until             ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE:   pay period
        each topic has five categories.
        Then have students return to
        their original computers and       3.   TOPIC:   Animals
        see if the categories all follow
        one organizing principle. Have          CATEGORIES:
        students read the categories
        aloud, and let the class decide
                                                a. Dogs            c. Rabbits
        whether they fit.                        b. Cats            d. Whales
                                                ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE:   pets; four legs



                                               In classification, writers may go right to the categories themselves instead
                                           of stating their organizing principle in a topic sentence or thesis statement.
                                           Read the examples that follow: one that states the organizing principle, one
                                           that states both the organizing principle and the categories, and one that
                                           states only the categories.

                                                           Topic                  Organizing principle

                                                Students at this college represent a wide range of races .

                                                           Topic                 Organizing principle           Categories

                                                Students at this college represent a wide range of races, including white,

                                                African American, Asian American, and Hispanic American.

                                                                                Topic                           Categories

                                                This college has a diverse student body composed of white, African
                                                American, Asian American, Hispanic American, and Portuguese Amer-
                                                ican students.


                                           Support in Classification
                                           In classification, support consists of the categories you sort information
                                           into and the examples of things that fit into each category. First you need to
                                           choose useful categories; then you need to find the best examples for these
                                           categories.


                                           Choose Useful Categories
                                           The categories you choose for your classification will tell your readers
                                           how you are organizing your topic. First, though, you need to find useful
                                           categories.
161-177_CH.12_61613 9/8/03 3:36 PM Page 167




                                                            WRITING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS
                                                                                 Understand What Classification Is          167


                Suppose, for example, that you work in an office and need to sort the
            stack of papers on your desk. Before making random piles, you decide on
            some useful categories: papers that can be thrown away; memos you need to
            take action on; articles you need to read; information that can be passed on
            to others; paperwork that you’ve seen and that needs to be filed; and so on.
            Deciding on such categories is the first step in classification.


                  PRACTICE 2      CHOOSING USEFUL CATEGORIES                                    ■ TEACHING TIP Walk stu-
                                                                                                dents through this step. Use a
                                                                                                simple topic (stores in town or
            In the items that follow, you are given a topic and a reason for sorting. For
                                                                                                a local mall, clothing students
            each item, list three useful categories. (There are more than three correct         are wearing, courses offered at
            categories for each item.)                                                          the college) and demonstrate
                                                                                                how you would classify it. Or
                                                                                                break the class into small
                 EXAMPLE:
                                                                                                groups and give each group a
                                                                                                topic. Then call on students
                 TOPIC:   Pieces of paper in my wallet
                                                                                                from each group to tell what
                                                                                                they did.
                 REASON FOR SORTING:    To get rid of what I don’t need
                 CATEGORIES:

                 a. Things I need to keep in my wallet
                 b. Things I can throw away
                 c. Things I need to keep, but not in my wallet

            1.   TOPIC:   Animals in a pet shop
                 REASON FOR SORTING:    To decide what kind of pet to get
                 CATEGORIES:   Answers will vary. Possible answers:
                 a. Dogs
                 b. Birds
                 c. Fish

            2.   TOPIC:   College courses
                 REASON FOR SORTING:    To decide what I’ll register for
                 CATEGORIES:   Answers will vary. Possible answers:
                 a. English
                 b. Accounting
                 c. Math

            3.   TOPIC:   Stuff in my notebook
                 REASON FOR SORTING:    To organize my schoolwork
                 CATEGORIES:   Answers will vary. Possible answers:
                 a. Homework
                 b. Notes
                 c. Doodles
161-177_CH.12_61613 9/8/03 3:36 PM Page 168




                  WRITING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS
        168       Chapter 12 • Classification


                                       4.   TOPIC:   Wedding guests
                                            REASON FOR SORTING:      To arrange seating at tables
                                            CATEGORIES:    Answers will vary. Possible answers:
                                            a. Family members
                                            b. Neighbors
                                            c. Friends

                                       5.   TOPIC:   Clothing
                                            REASON FOR SORTING:      To get rid of some clothes
                                            CATEGORIES:    Answers will vary. Possible answers:
                                            a. Out of style
                                            b. Don’t fit
                                            c. Good

                                       Give Examples of People or Items That Fit in the Categories
                                       Your readers need specific examples of things that fit into each category.
                                       After you find useful categories, look for examples.You will also need to add
                                       facts and details about your examples to make them clear for your readers.
                                       To find examples and details, you might want to use some of the prewriting
                                       strategies discussed in Chapter 2.

                                               PRACTICE 3     GIVING EXAMPLES

                                       In the spaces provided for each topic, give at least two examples of people or
                                       items that fit into each category.Then add a fact or detail about one example.

                                            EXAMPLE:

                                            TOPIC:   Pieces of paper in my wallet
                                            REASON FOR SORTING (PURPOSE):    To get rid of what I don’t need
                                            a.   CATEGORY:    Things I need to keep in my wallet
                                                 EXAMPLES:    money, license, phone numbers

                                                 FACT OR DETAIL:   I always keep at least ten dollars in my wallet.
                                            b.   CATEGORY:    Things I can throw away
                                                 EXAMPLES:    ticket stubs, old receipts, old grocery lists

                                                 FACT OR DETAIL:   Sometimes I find ticket stubs from movies I can’t even

                                                 remember.
                                            c.   CATEGORY:    Things I need to keep, but not in my wallet
                                                 EXAMPLES:    bank receipts, addresses on slips of paper

                                                 FACT OR DETAIL:   I’ll add the addresses to my address book and throw

                                                 the slips away.
161-177_CH.12_61613 9/8/03 3:36 PM Page 169




                                                          WRITING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS
                                                                               Understand What Classification Is   169


            1.   TOPIC:   Animals in a pet shop
                 REASON FOR SORTING:      To decide what kind of pet to get
                 a.   CATEGORY:   Dogs
                      EXAMPLES:   Answers will vary.

                          FACT OR DETAIL:

                 b.   CATEGORY:   Birds
                      EXAMPLES:

                          FACT OR DETAIL:

                 c.   CATEGORY:   Fish
                      EXAMPLES:

                          FACT OR DETAIL:




            2.   TOPIC:   College courses
                 REASON FOR SORTING:    To decide what I’ll register for
                 a.   CATEGORY:   English
                      EXAMPLES:

                          FACT OR DETAIL:

                 b.   CATEGORY:   Accounting
                      EXAMPLES:

                          FACT OR DETAIL:

                 c.   CATEGORY:   Math
                      EXAMPLES:

                          FACT OR DETAIL:




            3.   TOPIC:   Stuff in my notebook
                 REASON FOR SORTING:  To organize my schoolwork
                 a.   CATEGORY:   Homework
                      EXAMPLES:

                          FACT OR DETAIL:
                 b.   CATEGORY:   Notes
                      EXAMPLES:

                          FACT OR DETAIL:

                 c.   CATEGORY:   Doodles
                      EXAMPLES:

                          FACT OR DETAIL:
161-177_CH.12_61613 9/8/03 3:36 PM Page 170




                      WRITING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS
        170           Chapter 12 • Classification




                                            Read and Analyze Classification
        ■ READING SELECTIONS                Reading examples of classification and analyzing their structure will help
        For further examples of and         you understand what good classification looks like before you write your
        activities for classification, see
        Chapter 44.                         own. The first example is paragraph-length, and the second is essay-length.
                                            Your instructor may ask you to read and answer the questions for one or
                                            both of these.


                                            Classification: Paragraph
                                                     Test questions generally fall into two categories, depending on how
                                               they are answered: objective and subjective. The first kind, [objective
                                                       ]
                                               questions, have definite right and wrong answers. Multiple-choice,
                                               matching, and fill-in-the-blank questions are objective. Although objec-
                                               tive questions can be tricky because of their wording, most students
                                               prefer such questions, particularly multiple choice and matching. The
                                               answers are already there, and the student just has to choose the right
                                               ones. The questions in the second category are tougher.[Subjective test
                                                   ]
                                               items, such as short-answer and essay questions, have no single correct
                                               answer. There is a range of possible responses. Students have to know
                                               the information in order to answer each question, and they have to pre-
                                               sent it in their own words. For most people, the more concrete, objec-
                                               tive questions are less intimidating than the subjective ones. You can
                                               make a lucky guess on an objective question, but a subjective question
                                               doesn’t offer much hope for a student relying on dumb luck.

                                            1. The topic sentence of a classification paragraph usually includes the
                                               topic being classified and how it is being classified — the organizing
                                               principle. Sometimes the categories themselves are named. Remem-
                                               ber: In classification, the organizing principle is usually (but not al-
                                               ways) the main point.


                                                   Topic             +          How classified             +

                                               Courses are classified according to the reason for taking them:

                                                   Categories (sometimes)            =          Topic sentence


                                               basic requirements, concentrators’ requirements, and electives.
161-177_CH.12_61613 9/8/03 3:36 PM Page 171




                                                            WRITING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS
                                                                                          Read and Analyze Classification           171


                Double-underline the topic sentence in the example paragraph.

            2. The support in a classification paragraph consists of the categories
               used and the examples of items in each category. In the sample para-
               graph, what examples does the writer give of each category? Put brack-
               ets around the [categories] and underline the examples.

            3. Writers of classification paragraphs can use time, space, or importance
               order. They use transitions to guide the reader from one category to
               another.

                COMMON CLASSIFICATION TRANSITIONS

                another               the   first type            the third group
                the final              the   second group         the third kind
                the first group        the   second kind          the third type
                the first kind         the   second type

                Circle the transitions used in the sample paragraph.

            4. Does the paragraph have the Four Basics of Good Classification (see
               p. 161)? Why or why not?
                Yes. Specific answers will vary, but students should be able to give examples of the

                Four Basics.



            Classification: Essay
                                     Blood Type and Personality
                                              Danny Fitzgerald
                    In Japan, the question “What’s your blood type?” is as common as                   ■ TEAMWORK If most stu-
                                                                                                       dents know their blood type,
                “What’s your sign?” in the United States. Some Japanese researchers                    form groups according to blood
                                                                                                       type and have students deter-
                claim that people’s personalities can be classified by their blood types.               mine if they have the traits dis-
                                                                                                       cussed in the essay. They could
                You may be skeptical about this method of classification, but don’t judge               then write a classification essay
                                                                                                       on their own blood type’s char-
                its validity before you read the descriptions the researchers have put                 acteristics.

                together. Do you see yourself ?
                    If you have blood type O, you are a leader. When you see something
                you want, you strive to achieve your goal. You are passionate, loyal, and
                self-confident, and you are often a trendsetter.Your enthusiasm for proj-
                ects and goals spreads to others who happily follow your lead.When you
                want something, you may be ruthless about getting it or blind to how
                your actions affect others.
161-177_CH.12_61613 9/8/03 3:36 PM Page 172




                  WRITING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS
        172       Chapter 12 • Classification


                                                 Another blood type, A, is a social, “people” person. You like people
                                           and work well with them.You are sensitive, patient, compassionate, and
                                           affectionate. You are a good peacekeeper because you want everyone to
                                           be happy. In a team situation, you resolve conflicts and keep things on a
                                           smooth course. Sometimes type A’s are stubborn and find it difficult to
                                           relax. They may also find it uncomfortable to do things alone.
                                                 People with type B blood are usually individualists who like to do
                                           things on their own.You may be creative and adaptable, and you usually
                                           say exactly what you mean. Although you can adapt to situations, you
                                           may not choose to do so because of your strong independent streak.You
                                           may prefer working on your own to being part of a team.
                                                 The final blood type is type AB. If you have AB blood, you are a
                                           natural entertainer. You draw people to you because of your charm and
                                           easygoing nature. AB’s are usually calm and controlled, tactful and
                                           fair. On the downside, though, they may take too long to make deci-
                                           sions. And they may procrastinate, putting off tasks until the last
                                           minute.
                                                 Classifying people’s personalities by blood type seems very unusual
                                           until you examine what researchers have found. Most people find the
                                           descriptions fairly accurate. When you think about it, classification by
                                           blood type isn’t any more far-fetched than classification by horoscope
                                           sign. What will they think of next? Classification by hair color?


                                       1. The thesis statement of a classification essay usually includes the
                                          topic being classified and how it is being classified — the organizing
                                          principle. Sometimes the categories themselves are named.


                                                                                  Categories           Thesis
                                               Topic   +   How classified   +     (sometimes)   =     statement


                                           The kinds of music that I like best are rap, reggae, and jazz.


                                           Double-underline the thesis statement in the example essay.

                                       2. In a classification essay, the categories are usually presented in the
                                          topic sentences. Underline the topic sentence for each paragraph.
161-177_CH.12_61613 9/8/03 3:36 PM Page 173




                                                             WRITING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS
                                                                                             Write Your Own Classification            173


            3. The support in a classification essay consists of the categories used
               and the examples of items in each category. In the sample essay, what
               examples does the writer give of each category?
                 type O: leader, trendsetter; type A: peacekeeper; type B: individualist; type AB:

                 entertainer

            4. Writers of classification essays can use time, space, or importance
               order. They use transitions and transitional sentences to guide the
               reader from one category to another. (For a list of common classifica-
               tion transitions, see p 171.)

                 Circle the transitions used in the sample essay.

            5. Does the essay have the Four Basics of Good Classification (see p. 161)?
               Why or why not?
                 Yes. Specific answers will vary, but students should be able to give examples of the
                 Four Basics.



                                                                                                        ■ TIP Look back at your idea-
             Write Your Own Classification                                                               journal entry (p. 161) for ideas.

            In this section, you will write your own classification paragraph or essay
            based on your (or your instructor’s) choice among three assignments.
                To complete your classification, follow this sequence:

            1. Review the Four Basics of Good Classification (p. 161).
            2. Choose your assignment.
            3. Read the Critical Thinking box on page 175.
            4. If you are asked to complete Assignment 3, read Using Problem Solv-
               ing and Teamwork in Writing (Chapter 8, pp. 109–11).
            5. Write your classification using the Checklist: How to Write Classifica-
               tion (pp. 175–76).


                  ASSIGNMENT 1 WRITING ABOUT COLLEGE, WORK,                                             ■ TIP If you use the Writing
                  AND EVERYDAY LIFE                                                                     Guide Software with this book,
                                                                                                        you’ll find step-by-step guid-
                                                                                                        ance for writing classification
            Write a classification on one of the following topics.                                       paragraphs and essays.

                 COLLEGE

                 PARAGRAPH                                   ESSAY

                 Types of                                    Types of
                 • Teachers                                  • Courses offered
                 • Students in your class                    • Degree/certificate programs
                 • Assignments                               • Resources in a college library
161-177_CH.12_61613 9/8/03 3:36 PM Page 174




                     WRITING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS
        174          Chapter 12 • Classification


        ■ TEACHING TIP Suggest to               WORK
        students that they make jour-
        nal entries on some of the top-         PARAGRAPH                             ESSAY
        ics that they don’t write about
        for this assignment.                    Types of                              Types of
                                                • Bosses                              • Positions at your company
        ■ ESL Suggest to students
        that they write about some-             • Work you like                       • Work benefits
        thing unique to their native
        cultures: foods, holidays, stores,
                                                • Skills needed to do your last job   • Workers/employees
        vacation spots, housing, and so
        on.                                     EVERYDAY LIFE

                                                PARAGRAPH                             ESSAY

                                                Types of                              Types of
                                                • Monthly expenses                    • Drivers
                                                • Fast food restaurants               • Friends
                                                • Cars                                • Responsibilities you have


                                                  ASSIGNMENT 2     WRITING ABOUT IMAGES

                                             Write either a paragraph or an essay about what is being classified in the
                                             series of photos and what the categories are.




                                                  ASSIGNMENT 3     WRITING IN THE REAL WORLD/SOLVING A PROBLEM

                                             PROBLEM: Every month you find yourself short on money, and you realize
                                             that as a first step you need to manage your finances better. You decide to
                                             make a monthly budget that categorizes the kinds of expenses you have.
        ■ TEAMWORK For more de-                  ASSIGNMENT: Working with a group or on your own, break your monthly
        tailed guidance on group work,       expenses into categories, thinking of everything that you spend money on.
        see Practical Suggestions.
                                             Then review the expenses carefully to see which ones might be reduced.
                                             Next write a classification paragraph or essay that classifies your monthly
                                             expenses, with examples, and end with suggestions about how you might re-
                                             duce your monthly spending.You may want to refer to the problem-solving
                                             steps on p. 110.
161-177_CH.12_61613 9/8/03 3:36 PM Page 175




                                                      WRITING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS
                                                                                Write Your Own Classification           175


                Before writing, read the Critical Thinking box that follows.               ■ TEACHING TIP Walk stu-
                                                                                           dents through the Critical
                                                                                           Thinking guide, explaining the
               CRITICAL THINKING: WRITING CLASSIFICATION                                   importance of asking and an-
                                                                                           swering the questions.
               FOCUS
               Think about what you want to classify and the categories you could
               use.
               ASK YOURSELF
               • What is my purpose? What do I want to help my readers under-
                 stand?
               • How should I sort my topic according to my purpose and my
                 readers’ needs? What is my organizing principle?
               • What categories will help my readers understand my topic?
               • What people or items will fit into each category?
               WRITE
               Write a classification that demonstrates your main point by sorting
               items into useful categories and giving detailed examples.                  ■ RESOURCES All chapters in
                                                                                           Part Two have writing check-
                                                                                           lists, which are reproduced in
                                                                                           Additional Resources. You can
                                                                                           photocopy and distribute them
                Use the checklist that follows to help you write your classification.
                                                                                           if you want students to hand in
            Check off the steps as you complete them. If you need help completing a        the checklists with their assign-
            step, read the information in the right-hand column.                           ments.


               CHECKLIST: HOW TO WRITE CLASSIFICATION

               STEPS IN CLASSIFICATION         HOW TO DO THE STEPS

               1. Narrow and explore           ❑ Narrow the topic to one that you are familiar with and can
                  your topic (see Chapter        break into groups.
                  2).                          ❑ Jot down a few ideas about the possible categories and things
                                                 that might fit into the categories.

               2. Write a topic sentence       ❑ The main point of a classification usually (but not always)
                  (for a paragraph) or a         includes the organizing principle.
                  thesis statement (for an     ❑ Use one of the following structures for your topic sentence or
                  essay) (see Chapter 3).        thesis statement:
                                                 topic + organizing principle
                                                 topic + organizing principle + categories
                                                 topic + categories

               3. Support your main            ❑ Use a prewriting technique (see Chapter 2) to find possible
                  point by choosing use-         categories and detailed examples of items.
                  ful categories and giv-      ❑ Review your categories to make sure they all follow the same
                  ing detailed examples          organizing principle.
                  of items that fit into
                                               ❑ Find examples of people or items that fit into each category
                  those categories (see
                                                 and add details about them so your readers understand the
                  Chapter 4).
                                                 items as you do.
                                                                                                            (continued)
161-177_CH.12_61613 9/8/03 3:36 PM Page 176




                  WRITING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS
        176       Chapter 12 • Classification




           STEPS IN CLASSIFICATION             HOW TO DO THE STEPS

           4. Make a plan (see                 ❑ Arrange the categories in the order you think will best explain
               Chapter 5).                       the topic to your readers.

           5. Write a draft (see               FOR A PARAGRAPH:
               Chapter 6).                     ❑ Write a paragraph using complete sentences, including your
                                                 topic sentence, the categories you are using, and examples of
                                                 those categories.
                                               ❑ Write a concluding sentence that reminds your readers of your
                                                 main point and makes an observation based on what you have
                                                 written.
                                               ❑ Write a title that previews your main point but doesn’t repeat
                                                 your topic sentence.

                                               FOR AN ESSAY:

                                               ❑ Write topic sentences for each of the categories.
                                               ❑ Write paragraphs that explain each category in detail.
                                               ❑ Consider using one of the introductory techniques described in
                                                 Chapter 6 (pp. 71–73) for your introductory paragraph.
                                               ❑ Write a conclusion (see Chapter 6, pp. 73–75) that reminds
                                                 your readers of your main point and makes an observation
                                                 based on what you have written.
                                               ❑ Write a title that previews your main point but doesn’t repeat
                                                 your thesis statement.

           6. Revise your draft,               ❑ Get feedback from others if possible (see Chapter 7, pp. 81–82).
               making at least                 ❑ Review for unity: Ensure that the categories all follow a single
               four changes (see                 organizing principle.
               Chapter 7).
                                               ❑ Review for support: Ensure that you provide enough specific de-
                                                 tail about each category.
                                               ❑ Review for coherence: Make sure that the categories are arranged
                                                 logically and that transitions help the reader understand when
                                                 you are moving from one category to another. Consider repeat-
                                                 ing a key word.
                                               ❑ Read your introduction and conclusion to make sure they are
                                                 related, specific, and firm.

           7. Edit your revised draft          ❑ Find and correct problems with grammar, spelling, word use,
               (see Parts Four                   or punctuation.
               through Seven).                 ❑ Print out a clean copy.

           8. Ask yourself:                    ❑ Does my paper include the Four Basics of Good Classification
                                                 (p. 161)?
                                               ❑ Is this the best I can do?
                                               ❑ Is the paper ready to be graded?
161-177_CH.12_61613 9/8/03 3:36 PM Page 177




                                                            WRITING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS
                                                                                        Chapter Review: Classification            177



             Chapter Review: Classification
            1. Classification is writing that organizes/sorts people or items into categories.       ■ IDEA JOURNAL Reread
                                                                                                    your idea-journal entry (p. 161)
            2. The organizing principle is how you sort the group of people or items.               on the kinds of students in
                                                                                                    this class or the kinds of friends
                                                                                                    you have. Make another entry
            3. The topic sentence in a classification paragraph or the thesis statement              on the same topic, using what
                                                                                                    you have learned about classifi-
                in a classification essay can include what elements? The topic being                 cation.

                classified and how the topic is being classified.
                                                                                                    ■ RESOURCES A blank dia-
                                                                                                    gram of a classification (big
            4. What are the Four Basics of Good Classification?                                      enough to write in) is in Addi-
                                                                                                    tional Resources. You may want
                It makes sense of a group of people or items by organizing them into categories.    to copy it and give it to stu-
                                                                                                    dents to plan their writing.
                It uses useful categories.

                It uses a single organizing principle.
                It gives examples of what fits into each category.



            What Will You Use?
            List some situations in college, work, or in everyday life where you will use
            classification.

				
DOCUMENT INFO