The University of Oklahoma Faculty Guide to Service Learning

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					          The University of Oklahoma
          Faculty Guide to Service Learning




                   Sowing Seeds of:
                 Disciplinary Learning
                  Civic Engagement
                   Critical Thinking




A Publication of the Program for Instructional Innovation
              The University of Oklahoma
                      Spring 2006

                           1
                  Table of Contents

1   Defining Service Learning
2   Why Service Learning/Why Now?
3   Planning for Service Learning
4   Designing and Assessing Service Learning
5   References and Resource
6   Appendix




                              2
                         One: Defining Service Learning
Some Definitions of Service Learning:

“…an educational methodology which combines community service with academic learning
objectives, preparation for community work, and deliberate reflection” (Campus Compact,
2001, p. v).

“…a credit bearing educational experience in which students participate in an organized
service activity that meets identified community needs in such a way to gain further
understanding of course content, a broader appreciation of the discipline, and an enhanced
sense of civic responsibility (Bringle and Hatcher, 1996, p. 222).

“Service learning seeks to prepare students with knowledge, skills, and propensities for active
involvement in their future communities” (Howard, 2001).

A model for service learning at OU places emphasis on how integrating a service experience in
a class leads to mutually supportive learning gains in both disciplinary and civic knowledge.
These gains are facilitated by increased academic and civic engagement.




The model allows for multiple conceptualizations of civic knowledge and engagement that are
consistent with the diversity of thought in a research university. As a beginning point, we
propose a broad definition of civic knowledge as: purposeful knowledge that provides a
foundation for students to use learning from multiple disciplines to engage in service to a
diverse democratic society. This model recognizes that service learning may not be possible in
all courses and that service learning will probably be defined differently across diverse
disciplinary areas.

                                                3
                   Two: Why Service Learning – Why Now?


Service learning is a powerful framework for student learning. Its emphasis on service and
learning is consistent with the historic aims of universities to produce and disseminate
knowledge and to use this knowledge production in service to society. Service learning
allows faculty to guide students to deeper understanding of their disciplines and to apply this
disciplinary knowledge in ways that serve societal needs. The effect is that disciplinary
learning and civic learning are mutually supportive.

UCLA’s Higher Education Research Institute conducted a national study of service learning and
found that service participation was significantly related to gains in 11 outcome measures:
academic performance, values, self-efficacy, leadership, choice of a service career, and plans to
participate in service after college. (Astin, et al, 2000). The benefits associated with course-
based service learning were strongest for academic outcomes, especially writing skills (Astin, et
al., 2000). Qualitative findings suggest that students participating in a service learning course
are more engaged in the classroom experience and that they had an increased sense of personal
efficacy, an increased awareness of the world and of their own personal values (Astin, et al.,
2000).

In addition to the substantial learning gains benefits of service learning, another justification
for service learning relates to the needs of society for college graduates prepared for an
increasingly global society. The Association of American Colleges and Universities
(AAC&U) assembled a national panel to examine the types of learning needed by college
graduates in a rapidly changing 21st Century. The panel concluded:

       Students will continue to pursue different specializations in college. But across all fields,
       the panel calls for higher education to help college students become intentional learners
       who can adapt to new environments, integrate knowledge from different sources, and
       continue learning throughout their lives. To thrive in a complex world, these intentional
       learners should also become:

           •   Empowered through the mastery of intellectual and practical skills
           •   Informed by knowledge about the natural and social worlds and about forms of
               inquiry basic to these studies
           •   Responsible for their personal actions and for civic values.
               (AAC&U, 2002, p. xi).

Service learning affords a unique framework for helping students develop the attributes
identified by AAC&U.




                                                  4
                                  Three: Planning for SL


An important point for consideration:

Zlotkowski (1995) argues that service learning is the work of “socially, morally, and pedagogically
concerned academicians” rather that that of “socially and morally concerned activists operating from an
academic base” (p. 25). Zlotkowski (1995) further maintains that for service-learning to have value to
higher education institutions it must connect service to academic learning, specifically, disciplinary
learning.




Questions to Consider:

1. As a result of a service learning experience, what do I expect my students to:

        a. know:

        b. be able to do:

        c. value:


2. Will the service learning experience

        a. be a unit within the course

        b. be the organizing framework for the entire course


3. Will students work

        a. individually

        b. in teams

        c. as a class




                                                   5
     Four: Designing and Assessing Service Learning Experience

The success of service leaning activities in promoting gains in academic and civic knowledge is
enhanced through course design. Astin, et al (2000) found an important determinant of the
extent to which the service experience facilitates understanding of the academic material and the
academic material enhances the service experience is the frequency with which professors
connect the service experience to the course subject matter. Additionally, it appears that
students need a certain level of disciplinary and civic knowledge prior to the service activity and
they need to reflect on the service experience once it is completed. These findings support a
three module course design that embeds assessment in the activities and deliverables.

The Modular Framework is provided in this section. As a supplement, matrices designed by the
Edward Ginsberg Center for Community Service and Learning at the University of Michigan
are included in the Appendix. These matrices are helpful in defining goals and learning
outcomes for your service learning course.




                                                6
Module 1: Pre-Service Knowledge

Prior to the “formal” service activity, what do students need to know and/or be able to do?




                               Disciplinary




                                                      Thinking
Expected Learning Outcome                                        Knowledge/Skills                     Resources/Activities/Strategies


                               Course/




                                                      Critical
(Objective)                                                      Needed Prior to Service Experience   (Embed Assessment)




                                              Civic




Maki (2004) suggests that one think of an outcome as what students should be able to demonstrate, represent or produce as a result of
their learning. Include both the academic outcomes and civic outcomes you expect of students. Matrix 2 (Appendix) may help you
identify these outcomes.


                                                                             7
Module 2: Service Activity


                                                      Expected Learning Outcome               Student
Dates     Description                                 (From Module 1)                         Deliverables




Describe the service experience the students will complete. For that experience, what are the expected learning outcomes? Finally,
specify the types of deliverables (service outcome, journal or field notes, etc.) that students will provide as evidence that the service
activity was completed.




                                                                   8
Module 3: Post-Service Reflection


   Expected Learning Outcome                       Reflection/Integration Activity                                    Assessment
        (from Module 1)




The process of purposefully reflecting on the experience contributes positively to student ability to connect the service experience to
the academic course material (Astin, et al., 2000). For the expected learning outcomes, please specify how you will encourage
students to reflect on their experience. Reflection also serves as a natural point at which to assess the extent to which the service
learning experience contributed both to academic and civic learning outcomes. The assessment can either be embedded in the
reflection activity (e.g. an analysis of journal entries using a rubric to rate the quality of learning), or done as a separate activity (e.g. a
poster presentation, a direct assessment of specific learning outcomes using a test paradigm, written or oral communication, essays,
etc.).




                                                                       9
                            Five: References and Resources


                                             References:

Astin, Vogelgesang, Ikeda, and Yee (2000). How Service Learning Affects Students. Los
       Angeles, CA: Higher Education Research Institute.
Bringle and Hatcher (1996). Implementing service learning in higher education. Journal of
       Higher Education, 67(2), 221-239.
Howard (2001). Service-Learning Course Design Workbook. Ann Arbor, MI: Edward Ginsberg
       Center for Community Service and Learning at the University of Michigan.
Campus Compact (2001). Fundamentals of Service Learning Course Construction. Providence,
       RI: Campus Compact National Office
Zlotkowski, E (1995). Does service learning have a future? Michigan Journal of Community
       Service Learning. 2(1), 123-133.




                                             Resources:

Research on Service Learning

Eyler, Giles, Stenson, and Gray (2001). The Effects of Service Learning on College Students,
       Faculty, Institutions and Communities. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University.
       http://www.compact.org/resource/aag.pdf
Astin, Vogelgesang, Ikeda, and Yee (2000). How Service Learning Affects Students. Los
       Angeles, CA: Higher Education Research Institute.

Service Learning Tools

Seifer, Sarena D., and Stacy Holmes. Tools and Methods for Evaluating Service-Learning in Higher
        Education. National Service-Learning Clearinghouse Fact Sheet (May 2002).
        http://www.servicelearning.org/resources/fact_sheets/he_facts/tools_methods/inde x.php




                                                  10
                       Appendix – Matrices and Worksheets




The following matrices and worksheets are reprinted by permission from:

Howard (2001), Service-Learning Course Design Workbook. Ann Arbor, MI: The Edward Ginsberg
Center for Community Service and Learning at the University of Michigan with




                                                11
Worksheet 1 - Establishing Academic Learning Objectives
A. Course-Specific Academic Learning

Learning objectives under this goal category include knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors that are
particular to your course. Write your current course learning objectives in the numbered spaces below, reflect
on how service in the community might strengthen one or more of them or enable new ones, and then jot these
revised and/or additional objectives in the unnumbered spaces below. (See section C below to stimulate your
thinking.)

Current Academic Learning Objectives

1. ______________________________________________________________

2. ______________________________________________________________

3. ______________________________________________________________

4. ______________________________________________________________

Revised Academic Learning Objectives

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

B. Generic Academic Learning

Learning objectives under this goal category include knowledge and skills that are learned in and are
instrumental for all college courses. Which ones of these (or similar ones) are important in your service-learning
course? (Some of these may have been identified in the list above.)

1. Critical thinking skills
2. Problem-solving skills

3. ______________________________________________________________

4. ______________________________________________________________

C. Learning How to Learn

Learning objectives under this goal category include knowledge and skills that build learning capacity. Which
ones of these (or similar ones) are important in your service-learning course?

1. Learning to become an active learner
2. Learning to be an independent learner
3. Learning how to extract meaning from experience
4. Learning how to apply academic knowledge in the real world
5. Learning how to integrate theory and experience
6. Learning across disciplines

7. ______________________________________________________________

8. ______________________________________________________________

                                                       12
D. Community Learning

Learning objectives under this goal category include knowledge and skills that can only be learned in the
community. Which ones of these (or similar ones) are important in your service-learning course?

1. Learning about a particular community or population in the community
2. Learning about a particular social issue (e.g., homelessness)
3. Learning about the provision of social services in a particular community
4. Learning about a particular agency or grass-root effect

5. ________________________________________________________________________

6. ________________________________________________________________________

E. Inter- and Intra-Personal Learning

Learning objectives under this goal category are critical to the development of the whole learner and are valued
in a broad liberal arts education. Which ones of these (or similar ones) are important to include as learning
objectives for your service-Learning course?

1. Learning how to work collaboratively with others
2. Learning about other groups and cultures (diversity)
3. Exploring personal values, ethics, and ideology
4. Learning about self
5. Strengthening personal skills (e.g. listening, assertiveness, etc.)
6. Developing a sense of appreciation, awe, and/or wonder

7. _______________________________________________________________________________________

8. _______________________________________________________________________________________

Once you have concluded this worksheet you are in a position to know whether student involvement in
community service can enhance academic learning in ways that you deem important for your course. If it can,
then the next step is to identify methods to realize and assess students’ academic learning.

If it cannot, then it is appropriate to question the advisability of service-learning for this course. Perhaps another
course that either you or a colleague teach would be a better fit for service-learning.

If service-learning is a good fit with your course, please proceed to the next page.




                                                         13
Worksheet 2 -          Learning Strategies and Assessment Methods
                       Course-Specific Academic Learning
                       Generic Academic Learning
What learning strategies and assessment methods will you use for the objectives under “Course-Specific Academic Learning” and “Generic
Academic Learning” that you identified on page 12?

Place your specific objectives from Worksheet 1 in the objectives column below, then complete the page.



                                OBJECTIVES                              STRATEGIES                            ASSESSMENT

     Goal Category            Specific Objectives      Classroom Strategies       Student Assignments       Assessing Learning




    Course-specific
   Academic Learning




   Generic Academic
      Learning




                                                                   14
Matrix 1 - Learning Strategies and Assessment Methods
Having set objectives to enhance academic learning in your service-learning course, this matrix offers a panoramic view of next steps. To
simplify completing this matrix, we have transferred each row of this grid to worksheets on the following pages.


                                  OBJECTIVES                                STRATEGIES                                ASSESSMENT

   Categories of Goals          Specific Objectives        Classroom Strategies        Student Assignments          Assessing Learning
     For Enhancing
   Academic Learning



     Course-Specific
    Academic learning




    Generic Academic
       Learning




     Learning How to
          Learn




   Community Learning




     Inter- and Intra-
    Personal Learning




                                                                    15
Worksheet 3 -        Learning Strategies and Assessment Methods
                     Learning How to Learn
                     Community Learning
What are your learning strategies and assessment methods for the objectives under “Learning How to Learn” and “Community Learning”
that you identified on pages 12 and 13?

Use the same process you used to complete the previous page.


                                 OBJECTIVES                              STRATEGIES                              ASSESSMENT

     Goal Category             Specific Objectives       Classroom Strategies      Student Assignments         Assessing Learning




      Learning How
        To Learn




   Community Learning




                                                                 16
Worksheet 4 -            Learning Strategies and Assessment Methods
                         Inter- and Intra-Personal Learning
What are your learning strategies and assessment methods for the objectives included under “Inter- and Intra-Personal Learning” that you
identified on page 13?

Use the same process you used to complete the previous page.


                                  OBJECTIVES                   STRATEGIES                                             ASSESSMENT

      Goal Category            Specific Objectives         Classroom Strategies        Student Assignments          Assessing Learning




     Inter- and Intra-
    Personal Learning




                                                                    17
Matrix 2 - Purposeful Civic Learning Objectives
The categories of learning that contribute to purposeful civic learning are depicted in Matrix 2 below. As you see, purposeful civic learning
objectives can be in the form of knowledge, skills, or values. This rubric is not exhaustive; are there other rows or columns that you would
add? While we do not wish to have you complete this matrix until you have had a chance to do worksheets 5 - 8, we also do not wish to
crimp your style. So, if you find this way to depict civic learning objectives counter-productive, do not hesitate to create your own way to
identify civic learning outcomes for your service-learning course.


                                                    L   E   A   R   N     I   N   G     O      B   J   E   C   T   I   V   E   S


      Goal Categories for                      Knowledge                              Skills                               Values
   Purposeful Civic Learning

       Academic Learning


      Democratic Citizenship
           Learning


        Diversity Learning


        Political Learning


       Leadership Learning


         Inter- and Intra-
        Personal Learning


       Social Responsibility
             Learning


On the next page an exemplar for each cell in the above matrix may be found.

                                                                     18
Matrix 3 - Exemplars – Purposeful Civic Learning Objectives
We offer below some sample direct and purposeful civic learning objectives to assist your efforts with the worksheets on the next pages. These are not
meant to be prescriptive, but rather illustrative of what we have in mind for purposeful civic learning objectives that will prepare you for undertaking the
next few worksheets. Once you’ve had a chance to become familiar with the exemplars below, please proceed to the next page.

Please keep in mind that a total of three to six specific civic learning objectives are a reasonable target for a service-learning course. Fewer than three
may have a negligible effect on students’ civic development. More than six may compromise attention to the academic learning objectives of the course.


                                                         L   E    A   R      N     I     N    G       O      B   J   E     C   T     I     V    E   S


       Goal Categories for                          Knowledge                                       Skills                                       Values
    Purposeful Civic Learning

        Academic Learning                   Understanding root causes                  Developing active learning skills       There is important knowledge only
                                               Of social problems                                                                  Found in the community

      Democratic Citizenship             Becoming familiar with different                 Developing competency in                       Communities depend on
           Learning                      conceptualizations of citizenship              identifying community assets                       an active citizenry


         Diversity Learning                Understanding individual vs.                   Developing cross-cultural            Voices of minorities are needed to
                                               institutional “isms”                         communication skills               make sound community decisions

         Political Learning                 Learning about how citizen                   Developing advocacy skills                Citizenship is about more than
                                          groups have effected change in                                                               voting and paying taxes
                                                their communities
                                                                                                                               Understanding that leadership is a
        Leadership Learning              Understanding the social change           Developing skills that facilitate the        process, and not a characteristic
                                              model of leadership                     sharing of leadership roles              associated with an individual or a
                                                                                                                                              role

          Inter- and Intra-             Understanding one’s multiple social         Developing problem-solving skills                    Learning an ethic of care
         Personal Learning                          identities


       Social Responsibility              How individuals in a particular            Determining how to apply one’s            Responsibility to others applies to
             Learning                       profession act in socially             professional skills to the betterment       those pursuing all kinds of careers
                                                responsible ways                                of society

                                                                              19
Worksheet 5 -        Objectives that Contribute to Purposeful Civic Learning
                     Academic learning
                     Democratic Citizenship Learning
On this page identify academic and democratic citizenship learning objectives that you would like to establish for the students in your
service-learning course that can contribute to their civic learning. Some examples have been provided in the matrix on page 19. If you
choose not to focus on either of these, skip to the next page.


                                                 L   E   A   R   N     I   N   G    O       B   J   E   C   T   I   V   E   S


      Goal Categories for                    Knowledge                             Skills                               Values
   Purposeful Civic Learning




       Academic Learning




     Democratic Citizenship
          Learning




                                                                  20
Worksheet 6 -          Objectives that Contribute to Purposeful Civic Learning
                       Diversity Learning
                       Political Learning
On this page identify diversity and political learning objectives that you would like to establish for the students in your service-learning
course that can contribute to their civic learning. Some examples of diversity and political learning objectives that contribute to civic
learning have been provided in the matrix on page 19. If you choose not to focus on either of these, skip to the next page.


                                                   L   E   A   R   N     I   N   G    O       B   J   E   C   T   I   V   E   S


      Goal Categories for                     Knowledge                              Skills                               Values
   Purposeful Civic Learning




        Diversity Learning




        Political Learning




                                                                    21
Worksheet 7 -          Objectives that Contribute to Purposeful Civic Learning
                       Leadership Learning
                       Inter- and Intra-Personal Learning
On this page identify leadership and inter- and intra-personal learning objectives that you would like to establish for the students in your
service-learning course that can contribute to their civic learning. Some examples of leadership and inter- and intra-personal learning
objectives that can contribute to civic learning are identified in the matrix on page 19. If you choose not to focus on either of these, skip to
the next page.


                                                     L   E   A   R   N     I   N   G     O      B   J   E   C   T   I   V   E   S


      Goal Categories for                       Knowledge                              Skills                               Values
   Purposeful Civic Learning




       Leadership Learning




         Inter- and Intra-
        Personal Learning




                                                                      22
Worksheet 8 -          Objectives that Contribute to Purposeful Civic Learning
                       Social Responsibility Learning
On this page identify social responsibility learning objectives that you would like to establish for the students in your service-learning course
that can contribute to their civic learning. Some examples of social responsibility learning objectives that can contribute to civic learning
are identified in the matrix on page 19. If you choose not to focus on social responsibility learning that contributes to civic learning, skip
this page.


                                                     L   E   A   R    N     I   N   G    O       B   J   E   C   T   I   V   E   S


      Goal Categories for                       Knowledge                               Skills                               Values
   Purposeful Civic Learning




       Social Responsibility
             Learning




                                                                       23
Matrix 4 -      Learning Strategies and Assessment Methods
Having established learning objectives for purposeful civic learning for your service-learning course, a panoramic view of next steps is
offered in this matrix. There is no need to complete this matrix at this time. Each of the next set of worksheets consists of two rows each of
this matrix.


                                  OBJECTIVES                                  STRATEGIES                                 ASSESSMENT

   Goal Categories for          Specific Objectives         Classroom Strategies         Student Assignments          Assessing Learning
Purposeful Civic Learning


    Academic Learning


  Democratic Citizenship
       Learning


    Diversity Learning


     Political Learning


   Leadership Learning


     Inter- and Intra-
    Personal Learning


   Social Responsibility
         Learning




                                                                     24
Worksheet 9 -           Learning Strategies and Assessment Methods
                        Academic Learning
                        Democratic Citizenship Learning
What are your learning strategies and assessment methods for the “Academic learning Objectives” and “Democratic Citizenship Learning
Objectives” that you identified on Worksheet 5? Complete the chart



                                OBJECTIVES                              STRATEGIES                              ASSESSMENT

   Goal Categories for        Specific Objectives      Classroom Strategies       Student Assignments         Assessing Learning
Purposeful Civic Learning




    Academic Learning




  Democratic Citizenship
       Learning




                                                                25
Worksheet 10 - Learning Strategies and Assessment Methods
               Diversity Learning
               Political Learning
What are your learning strategies and assessment methods for the “Diversity Learning Objectives” and “Political Learning Objectives” that
you identified on Worksheet 6? Complete the chart.



                                 OBJECTIVES                                STRATEGIES                                ASSESSMENT

   Goal Categories for         Specific Objectives        Classroom Strategies       Student Assignments          Assessing Learning
Purposeful Civic Learning




    Diversity Learning




     Political Learning




                                                                   26
Worksheet 11 - Learning Strategies and Assessment Methods
               Leadership Learning
               Inter- and Intra-Personal Learning
What are your learning strategies and assessment methods for the “Leadership Learning Objectives” and “Inter- and Intra-Personal Learning
Objectives” that you identified on Worksheet 7? Complete the chart.



                                 OBJECTIVES                                STRATEGIES                                ASSESSMENT

   Goal Categories for         Specific Objectives        Classroom Strategies       Student Assignments          Assessing Learning
Purposeful Civic Learning




   Leadership Learning




     Inter- and Intra-
    Personal Learning




                                                                   27
Worksheet 12 - Learning Strategies and Assessment Methods
               Social Responsibility Learning
What are your learning strategies and assessment methods for the “Social Responsibility Learning Objectives” that you identified on
Worksheet 8? Complete this chart.



                                OBJECTIVES                              STRATEGIES                              ASSESSMENT

   Goal Categories for        Specific Objectives      Classroom Strategies       Student Assignments        Assessing Learning
Purposeful Civic Learning




   Social Responsibility
         Learning




                                                                28