Middle Ages in Western Europe
1. After Clovis’s conversion, the Church supported his military campaigns against other Germanic peoples.
2. He broadened the Church’s power to include secular affairs and spread the idea of a churchly kingdom.
3. The victory halted a Muslim invasion, prevented the Frankish kingdom from becoming part of the Muslim Empire, and made him a hero.
4. He successfully fought the Lombards and was anointed by the pope, establishing an informal alliance between the pope & Frankish kings.
5. The event signaled the joining of Germanic power, the Church, and the heritage of the Roman Empire.
6. He sent out agents to see that counts governed their counties justly; he visited every part of his kingdom; he supervised management of his
7. In exchange for military and other services, a lord (landowner) granted land to a vassal.
8. The same noble might be a vassal to several different lords.
9. There were three groups—those who fought, those who prayed, and those who worked. Social class was usually inherited.
10. The manor was practically self-sufficient, producing almost everything needed for daily life.
11. Acceptance was part of Church teachings; they believed that God decided people’s social position.
12. Cause: Otto wants to limit power of nobles & form alliance Gregory to step down from papacy.
with Church. 14. Cause: Gregory excommunicates Henry, bishops and princes side
Outcome: Pope crowns Otto emperor. with pope, and Henry wants pope’s forgiveness.
13. Cause: Pope resents control emperors had over clergy. Outcome: Henry is forgiven, returns home, and punishes nobles.
Outcome: Henry IV calls a meeting of bishops and orders
15. Reformers there wanted to return to basic principles of 18. Isabella & Ferdinand wanted to unify Spain under Christianity & to
Christianity. consolidate their own power.
16. The church had its own court, tax system, and diplomats. 19. The Crusades weakened the feudal nobility. Thousands of knights lost
17. Saladin & Richard the Lion-hearted agreed to a truce in 1192. their lives and their fortunes in the Crusades.
20. Horses gradually replaced oxen for plowing & pulling wagons. 24. Towns grew and flourished.
21. Food production, including sources of vegetable protein, 25. People moved to towns to pursue the economic and social opportunities
increased resulting in an increase in population. they offered.
22. Guilds became powerful forces in medieval society. 26. Universities, or groups of scholars & students, arose in western Europe.
23. More goods were available, new trade routes opened, and 27. Europeans acquired a huge new body of knowledge.
banking becomes an important business.
28. English lords lost their land; William granted fiefs to Norman lords, who swore loyalty to him personally, thus laying foundation for
29. sent royal judges to parts of England to collect taxes, settle lawsuits, and punish crimes; introduced use of the jury in English courts; laid
foundation for English common law
30. By increasing the territory of France, he increased land under his own control and became more powerful than any of his vassals; he also
established royal officials called bailiffs who presided over his courts and collected his taxes throughout France.
31. It guaranteed what are now seen as certain basic legal rights in both England and the United States. These guaranteed rights include no
taxation without representation, a jury trial, and the protection of the law.
32. He created an appeals court, which could overturn decisions of local courts.
33. It was a legislative group composed of commoners—burgesses from every borough and knights from every county. Although under Edward
I, Parliament was a royal tool that weakened the great lords, as time went on it became strong enough to provide a check on royal power.
34. in 1305, when the College of Cardinals chose a French pope 37. a severe decline in population and trade, higher prices, peasant revolts,
who moved from Rome to Avignon and decline of the manorial system
35. in 1417, when the Council of Constance elected a new pope to 38. When prayer & penances failed to stop the plague, Church lost prestige.
replace the three popes who had been forced to resign 39. English claims to the French throne
36. weakened the church 40. French eventually won and English left France except for port of Calais
41. age of chivalry died and nationalism replaced feudal loyalties
Feudal Europe’s Religious Influences
1. pagan lands 5. the Baltic Sea
2. Islam 6. in the southern two-thirds of Spain, because expanding its influence there would
3. Ireland, England, Scandinavia, Poland, the Kingdom of Hungary, the drive out the only non-Christian influence on virtually the whole European
Holy Roman Empire, Italy, France, and Spain continent
4. parts of the Holy Roman Empire and Poland in the north and a section
of the Kingdom of Hungary in the southeast
Middle Ages in Western Europe
1. What role did the Church play in helping Clovis conquer other Germanic peoples?
2. What role did Pope Gregory the Great play in spreading the idea of a vast unified kingdom?
3. What was important about Charles Martel’s victory at the Battle of Tours?
4. How did Pepin the Short strengthen the Frankish kingdom?
5. What was the importance of Charlemagne’s coronation as emperor?
6. How did Charlemagne govern his unified kingdom?
7. Explain the mutual obligations of the feudal system.
8. Explain why the feudal system often resulted in complicated alliances.
9. Describe feudal social classes.
10. Explain why the serfs rarely had to leave their manor.
11. Explain why the serfs accepted their economic hardships.
Identify the (A) causes and the (B) effects for each of the following actions
12. Otto invades Italy on pope’s behalf.
13. Pope Gregory bans lay investiture.
14. Henry IV travels to Canossa.
Identify the causes for each of the following events.
15. The Benedictine monastery was founded at Cluny.
16. The power of the pope was extended.
17. Jerusalem remained under Muslim control, though unarmed Christian pilgrims could visit the city’s
18. In Spain, Isabella and Ferdinand used the Inquisition to suppress heretics.
19. European kings strengthened their own power as a result of the Crusades.
Identify the effects of each of the following events
20. Farmers began using a new type of harness that fit across a horse’s chest.
21. Using the three-field system, farmers began to grow crops on two-thirds of their land each year, rather
22. Merchant and craft guilds organize and change ways to do business.
23. The Commercial Revolution changes trade and banking practices.
24. As trade blossomed and farming methods improved, the population of Western Europe rose from
around 30 million to about 42 million between 1000 and 1150.
25. As people left life on the manor for life in towns, they challenged the traditional ways of feudal society
in which everyone had a place.
26. Authors began writing in the vernacular.
27. Growing trade and growing cities brought a new interest in learning.
28. How did The battle of Hastings affect the course of English history?
29. How did Henry II strengthen England’s legal system?
30. How did Philip strengthen the central government in France?
31. Why is the Magna Carta so important?
32. How did Louis strengthen the monarchy while weakening feudal ties?
33. How was the Model Parliament a major step toward democratic government?
34. When and how did the Great Schism begin?
35. When and how was it resolved?
36. How did the Great Schism affect medieval life?
37. What were some economic effects of the plague?
38. How did the plague affect the Catholic Church?
39. What was the primary reason for the Hundred Years’ War?
40. What was the outcome of the war?
41. How did the Hundred Years’ War affect medieval society?
Feudal Europe’s Religious Influences
The influence of the Latin Church – the Roman
Catholic Church – grew in western Europe after 800.
By 1000, at the end of the age of invasions, the
Church’s vision of a spiritual kingdom in feudal Europe
was nearly realized.
A sign of the spread of Roman Christianity in
western Europe was the increased presence of
churches. The population of the continent was
increasing rapidly – from around 14 million in 600 to 22
million in 950 – and the need to accommodate all the
new faithful caused a boom in religious buildings.
It was an era of new Roman Christian states. By
966 much of the Polish region had sided with Rome,
as did that of Hungary around 986. Large sections of
Scandinavia adopted the Latin Church by 1000. In the
fifth century, Ireland became the “island of saints.”
Then, between 500 and 900, Ireland helped bring England under the influence of Roman Christianity.
However, in 988, in far eastern Europe, the prince of Kiev received baptism from the Eastern Orthodox, or
Byzantine, Church, as regions to the south had done in the eighth century. Disputes between the two wings of
Christianity – headed by Constantinople and Rome – would soon separate the two forever.
1. What surrounds most of the northern section of Eastern Orthodox land?
2. What was the main religion of Southern Spain?
3. What countries, or portions of countries made up the Latin church in Europe?
4. What areas of the Latin Church were bordered by pagan lands?
5. What body of water touched Latin, Eastern Orthodox, and pagan lands?
6. What part of Europe would you expect the Latin Church to put the most effort into converting to Catholicism?
A. Avignon K. Great Schism U. lord EE. tithe
B. burghers L. Henry II V. Magna Carta FF. Thomas Aquinas
C. canon law M. heresy W. manor GG. Treaty of Verdun
D. Carolingian Dynasty N. Inquisition X. monasteries HH. vassal
E. Charlemagne O. Interdiction Y. Richard the Lion-Hearted II. vernacular
F. Crusade P. journeyman Z. sacrament JJ. Vikings
G. Edward III Q. knights AA. Saladin KK. William the Conqueror
H. ﬁef R. letters of credit BB. secular
I. Franks S. lay investiture CC. serfs
J. Gothic T. longbow DD. simony
_____ 1. where monks lived and devoted their lives to God.
_____ 2. They were a Germanic people who were in power in the Roman province of Gaul.
_____ 3. The division in the Church that led to three popes vying for power.
_____ 4. Sacred rituals required for salvation in the Catholic Church
_____ 5. When the papacy moved from Rome to this city, it greatly weakened the power of the Church.
_____ 6. documents given by a bank which allow a person to withdraw money from that bank or one of its branches.
_____ 7. The use of this by the English army greatly revolutionized European warfare.
_____ 8. Begun by Pepin the Short, this family became the most powerful rulers in Western Europe
_____ 9. ruler in the Carolingian Dynasty who reunited western Europe and sparked renewed interest in learning
_____ 10. a document that guaranteed basic political rights and limited the English king’s powers
_____ 11. town merchants & craftspeople who demanded privileges (ex. freedom from tolls) & the right to govern their town
_____ 12. A day worker, who had to complete several steps in order to become a master in his craft.
_____ 13. Papal power that forced Henry IV to apologize to Gregory VII.
_____ 14. This king started the Hundred Years’ War when he claimed the right to rule two countries
_____ 15. a scholar in the 1200s who said that logic could prove many religious truths.
_____ 16. This power enabled the pope to force kings to obey him
_____ 17. another term for “holy war” to take control of the Holy Land
_____ 18. the everyday language of a region; first used by poets during the 12th century
_____ 19. Muslim leader who let Christians visit the Holy Land after reaching a truce with the English king in 1192
_____ 20. the duke of Normandy who defeated the Anglo-Saxons to conquer England
_____ 21. practice of religious beliefs that differed from accepted beliefs of the Church
_____ 22. A ceremony in which kings or nobles appointed church officials.
_____ 23. This divided the Frankish Empire into three kingdoms.
_____ 24. people who were bound to the land of a lord & couldn’t lawfully leave the place where they were born
_____ 25. a church tax paid to the village priest equaling one-tenth of a peasant’s income
_____ 26. a landowner who granted land in exchange for military protection and other services
_____ 27. mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lords’ lands in exchange for their own land
_____ 28. land granted by a landowner
_____ 29. a lord’s estate
_____ 30. English king who was left to lead the Third Crusade and regain the Holy Land
_____ 31. a court held by the Church to suppress heresy
_____ 32. the person receiving land from a landowner
_____ 33. a Germanic people sometimes referred to as Northmen or Norsemen
_____ 34. a style of architecture that evolved in medieval Europe in the early 1100s
_____ 35. worldly; not religious
_____ 36. the practice of selling positions in the Church
_____ 37. Medieval Christians, whether rich or poor, had to follow these rules of the Church.
_____ 38. English king who introduced use of juries; added Aquitaine to the French territory that England controlled