Post War Society and Culture Change and Adjustment by sja20118

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									Post War Society and Culture:
   Change and Adjustment
       Reference Chapter 25
  The American Nation 12th edition
      Closing the Gates to New
            Immigrants
• Xenophobia did not die with red scare
• Millions of Europeans flee war’s devastation
• Congress attempts to bar their entry into U.S.
• Bowing to nativist pressures, Congress establishes
  entry quotes based on national origin
• Congress restricts overall immigration to a max of
  150,000 in 1929
• Dislike of new immigrants who were Jewish
  related to a growth of anti-Semitism
    New Urban Social Patterns
• 1920 census-urban Americans outnumber
  rural Americans
• City life affects family, employment,
  education, culture
• Ethnic background, socio-economic status,
  family size determine if women work
  outside of home and their work patterns
New Urban Social Patterns cont..
• Compulsory education laws/ child labor
  laws limits number of children working
• New ideas about family life, sex, child
  rearing, and divorce gained attention
• Large cities contributed to loosening of
  sexuality
• Homosexuals develop a distinct culture
      The Younger Generation
• Failure to achieve goals during WWI creates a
  feeling of alienation among America’s youth
• Young people began to behave differently because
  they were adjusting to rapid changes
• Patterns of courtship change, women start
  smoking in public and stopped wearing corsets,
  wore lipstick, shortened their hair and skirts
• Parents worried about loosening moral standards
• Young people related to each other changed
           The “New” Woman
• Margaret Sanger led the battle for birth control
• Encounters legal and religious barriers but did
  help win wide acceptance for birth control
• Many states modified divorce laws to protect
  women’s rights
• More women attended college and worked, but
  earned less than men and were not part of
  management jobs
• Radical feminists realize voting did not mean
  equality; women’s groups form and push for
  reform
   Popular Culture: Movies and
             Radio
• Moving pictures help change pop culture
• Sound introduced in 1927
• Filmmakers like D.W. Griffith and radio
  have impact on America
• Radio brings wide variety of public events
  into the homes
• Using radio to spread message, ad industry
  get to mass markets
     The Golden Age of Sports
• Prosperity increased leisure time
• Radio promotes popularity of sports in
  1920s
• Harold Grange, Jack Dempsey, Bill Tilden,
  and Babe Ruth were all popular
• Radio brings sports into the living rooms
• Football dominates college sport
• Americans turn to tennis, golf, water sports
        Urban-Rural Conflicts:
          Fundamentalism
• Rural American viewed cities as dens of sin
• Religious fundamentalists emerge to deal with
  excesses of urban culture
• Scopes Monkey Trial illustrates rift between
  fundamentalism and modernism
• John T. Scopes and ACLU
• Tenn. Law bans teaching evolution in public
  schools
• Darrow for Scopes, William J. Bryan for state
       Urban-Rural Conflicts:
            Prohibition
• 18th amendment ratified in 1919
• Prohibits manufacture, transportation and
  sale of alcoholic beverages and signals
  victory for rural conservatism
• Alcohol abuse declines during this period
• Illegal booze trade brings corruption
• By end of decade, prohibition fails, but no
  repeal yet
                  The KKK
• The new KKK was founded in 1915 by William J.
  Simmons and had 5,000,000 members by 1923
• Targeted immigrants, Jews, Catholics, and blacks
• Appeal to patriotism, nativism, morality, and
  traditional Americanism
• Found supporters in small cities, towns, village,
  Midwest and West
• Some of its own leaders weaken the KKK
• By the late 1920s, it was in decline; 1930-9,000
          Sacco and Venzetti
• 1921-Sacco and Venzetti convicted of
  murder in Mass.
• Italian immigrants and anarchists
• Trial was a travesty of justice
• Executed
• Contributed to dissolution and alienation of
  many intellectuals who saw the system as
  flawed
           Literary Trends
• Horrors of WWI, fundamentalists, and red
  scare led intellectuals to abandon hope
• Intellectuals became critics of society
• F.Scott Fitzgerald symbolizes lost
  generation
• This Side of Paradise, The Great Gatsby
• Expatriates Ernest Hemmingway
• The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms
        Literary Trends cont…
• Hemmingway writes about life’s meaningless
• Edith Wharton focuses on New York’s elite
• H.L. Mencken reflects distaste of intellectuals for
  the climate of the times
• Most popular at the time-Sinclair Lewis
• He portrays bigoted attitude of small town
  America in Main Street
• 1920s-big increase in circulation literature like
  Book of the Month club, and women writers
             The New Negro
• Southern blacks continue their northward
  migration
• Concentration produces ghettos
• Disappointment after wartime leads to new
  militancy
• W.E.B. Dubois promotes integration and black
  nationalism
• Marcus Garvey-advocates return to Africa
• Dubois distrusts Garvey; Garvey defrauds
  supporters
         The New Negro cont..
• Ghettos produce some advantages in North
• Concentration of black population enable them to
  elect state legislators and members of Congress
• Harlem becomes a cultural center for writers for
  black musicians, writers and artists
• Opportunities for blacks in ghettos they never had
  in the American South
         Economic Expansion
• 1920s were prosperous; business boomed, wages
  rose, and unemployment declined
• 40 percent of the world’s wealth was in America
• Government policy, demand from war, continuing
  mechanization of industry fueled growth
• Assembly lines and scientific advancement grew
  profits for American businesses
      The Age of the Consumer
• Increases in productivity brought a new era of
  consumerism
• Advertising industry becomes vital
• Consumer help lead the economic surge
• Automobile sales help power economy
• By 1929, Americans drove 29,000,000 privately
  owned autos
• Car changed family life and recreation, and made
  Americans more mobile
• Symbol of freedom, prosperity, and individualism
             Henry Ford
• Responsible for growth of auto industry
• Not an inventor, but a business genius
• Assembly lines allowed mass production
  cheaper
• Ford Motor Co. and the Model-T dominate
  market
• Unwilling to cater to consumer demand
  causes others to get into market
                The Airplane
• Internal combustion gas engine made motorized
  flight possible
• WWI speeded advance of plane tech
• Most planes were for military use before WWI
• After that, more planes became available for
  general use.
• 1927-first passenger and mail air service begins
• Charles A. Lindbergh and nonstop flight from
  New York to Paris in May, 1927

								
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