Cognitively Informed Web-based Instruction C by nfy87895

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									      Cognitively Informed
      Web-based Instruction

Candace Thille, Director of Open Learning
                Initiative
       Carnegie Mellon University
"If we understand the human mind, we begin
  to understand what we can do with
  educational technology."
                          - Herbert Simon
“Cognitively Informed Online Education”

– Theory-based
– Use Driven Design
– Evaluation throughout
                  The Expert’s Blind Spot:
•    Which is harder for a beginning algebra student, a
     story problem or the equivalent equation?
•    Teachers & researchers say story problems
    –   HS teachers more so than elementary teachers
•    Data says equations!
    –   Beginning students are initially better at thinking
        algebraically in words than in symbols!


    Kenneth R. Koedinger, Mitchell J. Nathan: Journal of the
    Learning Sciences, 2004, Vol. 13, No. 2: 129-164.
                   The Expert’s Blind Spot:
           100
            90
            80
            70

% Making    60
Correct     50
Ranking     40
(which
problems    30
hardest)    20
            10
             0
                  Elementary   Middle School   High School
                   Teachers      Teachers       Teachers


   Nathan, M.J. & Koedinger, K.R. (2000). Teacher’s and researchers
   beliefs of early algebra development. Journal of Mathematics Education
   Research, 31(2), 168-190
   Cognitive Design Essential to & Enabled by
                Online Courses

• Live instructors dynamically adapt instruction
  and engage students, online instruction is much
  more challenging
• Digital learning environments help us focus a
  movement for cognitively informed design
• Digital environments are uniquely structured to
  capture rich information about student
  performance
                       A Success Story: “Cognitive Tutors”
        • Full year classroom experiments with comparison classes
        • Replicated over 3 years in US city schools
        • In Pittsburgh        60
          & Milwaukee                                Traditional Algebra Course
                                                      50                                      Cognitive Tutor Algebra

        • Results:                                    40
             50-100% better on
                                                      30
             problem solving &
             representation use.
                                                      20

             15-25% better on                         10
             standardized tests.
                                                        0
Koedinger, Anderson, Hadley & Mark (1977)                         Iowa            SAT subset                 Problem    Represent-
Intelligent tutoring goes school in the big city. Int. Jrnl. Of Artificial Intelligece in Education, 8, 30-43 Solving     ations
b
                       Combining Theory and Practice
Research base

    Cognitive                Cognitive
    Psychology
                             Tutor
    Artificial               Technology
    Intelligence                               Curriculum Content
                                              Math Instructors
                                              Math Educators
                                              NCTM Standards

    Cognitive Tutors
      Algebra I        Equation    Geometry        Algebra II
                       Solver
b           Generalizing Cognitive Tutor Approach
Research base
    Cognitive &             Learning
    Educational
    Psychology              Science &
    Artificial              Technology
    Intelligence                               Curriculum Content
                                           University
                                           Instructors &
                                           Professors

    Technology-Enhanced Courses
       Statistics     Philosophy   Economics       Chemistry
                                                   …
Funding for Carnegie Mellon’s OLI has been provided by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
Demonstration of Virtual Chemistry Lab
Demonstration of OLI Chemistry Course
“Improvement in post-secondary education
will require converting teaching from a “solo
sport” to a community-based research
activity”
                         - Herbert Simon

        www.cmu.edu/oli
    Questions About Digital Resources to Explore in our
                         Session

• What are the benefits and limitations of learning
  object repositories ? (challenges of re-usability,
  modularity vs flow, grain-size, searching)
• What are the benefits and limitations of open-
  source resources?
• What are the key policy issues related to the use of
  learning objects repositories and open-source
  resources to improve access and usefulness?

								
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