Social Development (Gail Heyman) by gbi12430

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									                          Social Development (Gail Heyman)

Basic Questions:

What are the social influences on cognition? on learning?
How do we acquire our beliefs (about others, ourself)?
What factors control the way we reason about others?

Basic concepts & terms:

dependent vs. independent variables
problems that arise in soc. dev. research
developmental milestones
social referencing
parenting styles: authoritarian, permissive, authoritative, neglectful
“entity belief” vs. “incremental belief”
false belief test
achievement motivation framework: mastery-oriented vs. helplessness
effects of divorce
effects of gender
effects of language choice (in describing a person; “carrot-eaters/creature-believers”
study)



Independent vs. dependent variables (IV vs DV) =
  Cause    and    effect


        “Is divorce harmful?”             “Is it bad to watch too much TV?”

        age at divorce                    amount of TV per day
        custody arrangements              what programs?
        gender                            age?
 IV     financial situation               other activities?
        friends w/divorced parents?
        academic performance              academic performance
        social behavior                   - social behavior
 DV     self-report
Problems that arise:
   -   different people react differently to same situation
   -   some causes are not obvious, small, difficult to measure
   -   some effects are hard to measure
   -   may miss true causal factor (or, what’s cause, what’s effect?)
   -   cultural biases
                                      Milestones
         newborn           Newborn imitation; prefers mother’s voice;
                           recognizes mother’s smell

         9 months          1st acknowledges intentionality of social partner; 1st
                           social referring
         12 months         Clear attachment pattern to a caregiver; 1st attempts
                           at hurting & comforting
         18 months         1st understanding of desire; 1st evidence of gender-
                           stereotypes
         2 years           Interest in expressing independence
         3 years           Same-sex preferences; hiding emotion
         4 years           Understanding of false belief; understands gender
                           stability; aggression becomes verbal
         5 years           Gender constancy; understands real vs. apparent
                           emotions
         6 years           Understands complex emotions
                               Parenting styles

                                  2 dimensions, 4 styles


                              ACCEPTANCE

                              HI                       LO
                              authoritative            authoritarian

                         HI


          CONTROL
                              permissive               neglectful

                         LO




   outcomes?

authoritative: good grades, self-confidence, altruistic
authoritarian: academic problems; peer problems
permissive: problems with aggression; lack of maturity w/peers; lack of independence
neglectful: most consistent negative outcomes; antisocial behavior; academic problems
                    Social Cognitive Development
Achievement motivation:
How do people interpret their successes or failures?
How do their interpretations affect what they do?
  1. “helpless style”
          a. negative affect
          b. lack of persistence
          c. self-blame

   2. “mastery-oriented style”
          a. neutral or positive affect
          b. persistence
          c. focus on improving strategy

Q: Any correlation between response type and intelligence?


Beliefs about intelligence:

       1. entity
       2. incremental


Effects of language:

      Personal characteristics will be seen as more (or less) stable (or changeable),
depending on how they’re described. Labels promote seeing characteristics as stable
and unchangeable.
                          Culture & Development (Mike Cole)


Basic questions:

What is the role of culture in development?


Basic concepts & terms:

development
culture
Bronfenbrenner embedded context model
Vygotsky’s “zone of proximal development”
4 frameworks for understanding development & culture
how the effect of culture changes at different stages of development


Types of contexts: Bronfenbrenner’s ‘Environments as Contexts of
Development’ model

      Microsystems (e.g.,   family; see also ‘proximal processes’)
      Mesosystems (e.g.,    family-school)
      Exosystems (e.g.,     home-parent’s workplace)
      Macrosystems           (e.g., all of the above, together)


4 frameworks for understanding development + culture

biological/maturational perspective
environmental perspective
interactionist view (Piaget)
culture as context + mediator (Vygotsky; “zone of proximal development”)

The “double world” of culture

      …culture as physical surroundings, artifacts, etc.
      …culture as social conventions, customs, expectations, etc.
Timelines & how culture effects development differently at different points in
time:

      prenatal
      birth
      early infancy
      later infancy (6-9 mos; attachment issues, social referencing)
      language acquisition
      preschool (e.g., differences in adult:child ratios across cultures)
      adolescence: stage or transition?




Interpreting cultural differences is hard…


                      Children’s responses to ‘The Stranger’ scenario

            country               Anxious/           Secure         Anxious/
                                  Avoidant                          Resistant
   United States              71                67                12
   Germany                    52                35                13
   Israel                     7                 57                34
   Japan                      0                 68                32
                             Multiculturalism (Olga Vasquez)

Basic questions:

Do two or more cultures operate as one? Or as two?
Or…does culture operate singularly?
      is there melding/blending?
      or are cultures kept separate


Basic concepts & terms:

“zone of proximal development”
monocultural systems
multicultural systems (several possibilities)
cultural artifacts
la Clase Mágica

Bruner’s metaphor…
           learning culture is like being born into a drama and learning your role and
           the roles of others


Possible cultural models:

                             early childhood              school age

Monocultural                                                            Monocultural

Multicultural 1                                                         Cultural minority

Multicultural 2                                                         Multicultural




What is the goal of la Clase Mágica?

               “facilitating the acquisition and transmission of social and cultural capital”



How does la Clase Mágica implement Vygotzky’s ‘zone of proximal
               development’?
                      Gender development (Michael Gorman)


Basic Questions:

What interpersonal differences are sex-linked?
How do hormones affect
      …our bodies
      …our brains
What other factors influence brain development?
What do sex-linked differences mean? I.e., how do we
      interpret them?


Basic concepts & terms:

   •   sex chromosomes (X, Y); SRY gene
   •   gonads (testis, ovaries) vs. genitalia
   •   Wolffian ducts; Mullerian ducts
   •   single anlgagen vs. dual anlagen effects in development
   •   variations in sexual development:
           o CAH (congennital adrenal hypoplasia)
           o AIS (androgen insensitivity syndrome)
           o 5-alpha reductase deficiency (‘Guevadoces’/penis-at-12)
                                  MALE            FEMALE

            chromosomes           XY              XX
categorical gonads                testis          ovaries
            genitalia             penis/scrotum   clitoris/vagina/labia
almost no hormones                hi T; low E,P   hi E,P; low T
overlap


            brain weight          1400g           1300g
strong      SCN (brain nucleus)   spherical       elognated
tendencies INAH-3                 0.10 mm3        0.05 mm3
but overlap


            % engineers           high            low
            sexual attraction     mostly -> F     mostly -> M
variable    bench press           150 lbs.        75 lbs.
with more
overlap


            hair length           shorter         longer
highly      average pay           higher          shorter
variable,
lots of
overlap
How do hormones sculpt bodies?


       observation:        XX:           female
                           XXY:          male
                           XXXY:         male
                           XYY:          male
                           XXX:          female


   •   For first 6 weeks post-conception, no obvious sex differences
   •   “Indifferent gonad”
   •   plumbing (ducts):
          o Wollfian -> male
          o Mullerian -> female
   •   genitalia:
          o genital tubercles -> clitoris or penis
          o genital folds -> scrotum or labia
   •   Y chromosome has SRY gene that triggers changes


Two styles of development occur:


single anlagen: is when you have a single embryonic structure that can develop into
either a female or male organ

dual anglagen: is when you have two embryonic structures, one of which can become
an adult male organ and the other can become an adult female organ. Normally, only one
will actually develop and the other will atrophy.

Examples:
(1) Indifferent gonad can become either testis or ovary – not both
              single anlagen style of development

(2) If testis, secretes Testosterone + Mullerian-inhibiting hormone (MIH);
        T causes Wollfian Ducts to turn into male plumbing
        MIH causes Mullerian ducts to disappear
                dual anlagen style of development
(This opens the possibility, in abormal development, if there is T present but no MIH, for
both ducts to mature, and to end up with both female and male ducts. Under normal
conditions, even with dual anlagen development, only one of the two embryonic organs
matures.)
Variations:
   (1)   CAH: female embryos exposed to high T
         a. gonad -> normal female gonads
         b. Mullerian ducts -> female
         c. Wullfian ducts -> male (because of T)
         d. genitalia -> in between
   (2)   AIS: genetic males but can’t respond to T
         a. gonad -> male
         b. Wullfian ducts disappear (can’t respond to T)
         c. Mullerian ducts disappear
         d. genitalia -> female (insensitive to T)
   (3)   5-alpha reductase (‘Guevadoces’ – penis-at-12); inability to convert T to DHT
         (more potent form needed to form genitals)
         a. gonad -> male
         b. Mullerian ducts disappear
         c. Wolffian ducts -> male
         d. genitalia -> in-between (no DHT) but at puberty, surge of T starts to
            masculinize


How do hormones sculpt behavior?
     Activational effects (transient)
     Organizational effects (permanent)

      The example of “lordosis” (female mating posture):
            (a) in adulthood, exposure to E,P triggers;
            (b) but: early exposure to T prevents lordosis later in life

How do hormones act?
     (1)  directly on neurons (change their # or their function)
     (2)  indirectly by affecting muscles, other systems, which then causes different
          activity patterns that affects neurons
     (3)  by triggering actions in others (e.g., hormones in urine of male pups causes
          mother rats to lick them more, which in turn affects sexual development; or
          pheromones)
                               Daycare (Mark Appelbaum)


Basic Questions:

       What   is the effect of daycare on children?
       What   makes daycare better or worse?
       What   are difficulties in doing this research?
       What   are public policy implications?


Basic concepts & terms:

   •   what are types of daycare (“non-maternal care”)?
   •   how prevalent is it?
   •   the independent variables and dependent variables in the study

Types of daycare:
     1) daycare centers
            commercial, church, community, company-based
     2) family daycare
            (in another home; provider may/may not be related)
     3) in-home daycare
            (father, relative, domestic employee as provider)
Prevalence:
     1975: 26% of new mothers back at work w/in 3-5 months
     1990: 80% of new mothers back at work w/in 3-5 months
     By 3 years of, 90% of US children in daycare > 20 hrs/wk

Independent variables:
     age of entry
     quality of care (distal: environment; proximal: provider style)
     quantity of care (how many hours in care)
     stability of care
     type of care
Dependent variables:
     language, cognitive, attachment, school-readiness, mother-child interactions, self-
     control, compliance, problem behaviors
What matters?
     small groups and low child-adult ratios
     amount of care doesn’t matter much
     for infants, “distal” (structural) matters more
     family characteristics
     maternal style (warm, nurturing, not ‘in your face’, supportive)
     child characteristics (gender; health)
Difficulties in doing this research

   1. selection bias
           people who agree to participate may be different than rest of population
   2. range restrictions
          family income may correlate with quality of care, so how can we tell which one
          matters more? (see Educ. Policy)
   3. iatrogenic effects
          parents might behave different as a result of being involved in the study
   4. cost

   Implications for public policy
   1. the “interventionist fallacy”
          things may seem fine now…if we ease up on regulations, maybe things would
          break?
   2. scientific vs. community values
          who gets to decide what’s “good” daycare?
   3. cost/benefit considerations
                    University admission policies (Mark Appelbaum)

Basic Questions:

       How has nature of college/university education changed during this century?
       How have university admissions policies changed recently, and why? What
            motivates or justifies the changes?


Basic concepts & terms:

   •   “top 1/8 policy”
   •   Two factor admission criteria (courses; GPA+SAT)
   •   Previous ‘Tier I, Tier II admission policy’
   •   New ‘Comprehensive admission policy’

Change in university attendance
     1920’s: < 10% population went to college
                   (Why?)
     In 40’s-50’s: 2 changes
                 (1)    goal of admitting the “intellectual elite” vs. the
                        economically/socially privileged;
                 (2)    goal of universal college attendance
     Led to:
                 (1)    SATs
                 (2)    land grant and state universities

Tier I / Tier II:
                    everyone ranked on basis of Academic Index (GPA+SAT)
                    (a)
                    50% of freshman class admitted by rank
                    (b)
                    remaining applicants’ files examined, awarded points for
                    (c)
                           different factors; reranked
             (d)    50% of freshman class admitted based on re-ranking
New comprehensive policy:
             (a)    everyone’s file ranked based on GPA+SAT+extra factors)
             (b)    100% of class admitted based on ranking
                                 Aging (Terry Jernigan)

Basic Questions:

       What changes with age?
       Do all people age at the same rate, in the same way?
       Does aging affect all abilities and functions equally?
       Or does aging affect only certain abilities and functions?
       What are the brain bases for age-related changes?



Basic concepts & terms:

   •   cross-sectional vs. longitudinal studies
   •   crystallized vs. fluid intelligence
   •   semantic priming; semantic biasing
   •   speeded tasks
   •   short-term memory vs. working memory
   •   explicit memory vs. implicit memory
   •   age-related changes in visual acuity; hearing; memory + recall
   •   know the brain-related changes that occur with aging




Crystallized intelligence: [relatively spared]
      -> language comprehension; vocabulary; general knowledge
      Tasks:
             semantic (conceptual) priming;
             semantic biasing;
             detecting spelling errors;
             primary (= short-term) memory


Fluid intelligence:                 [more deficits]
       -> speed of processing; new learning
       Tasks:
              any speeded (= timed) task
              language production (e.g., picture naming)
              working memory tasks (e.g., ‘n-back’; ordered report of letter strings)
              explicit memory tasks (e.g., recall/recognition; learning novel word-pair
                       associations)
      General explanations vs. specific eplanations
                  (see Slide 9 in on-line lecture notes)




      Brain-bases for changes:

               (1)    neurons: fewer in number; smaller in size
               (2)    tangles and plaques (“brain crud”)
               (3)    as brain shrinks, more surrounding fluid
                      • this occurs pretty consistently in older people
               (4)    also greater water content inside brain (white matter)
                      • this is more variable; not true of all older people
               (5)    Two areas are especially affected:
                      • frontal lobe
                      • hippocampus
               (6)    Comparing older and younger individuals on same task, older seem
                      to have more activity in more brain areas.
                      • Is this because they recruit additional areas to help out?
                      • Or is it because they lose the ability to suppress/inhibit activity in
                          these other areas?




See also:


Class web page: http://crl.ucsd.edu/~elman/Courses/HDP1


            o lecture notes for each class

            o midterm review notes (Jeff’s; Tas)

            o final review notes (Jeff’s; Tas)
                      FINAL INFORMATION

1.   The final is Thursday (Dec. 6) from 11:30 – 2:30, in WLH 2001 (Peterson
     108)
2.   Pick up SCANTRON form at the door as you enter the lecture hall. We will
     provide SCANTRON forms.
3.   Fill out SCANTRON form (#2 pencil) while you wait for exams
4.   Exams will be handed out after everyone has arrived
5.   Fill out information on top of Exam:
     a.     your name, PID
     b.     section #, day/time, TA
6.   Answers go on SCANTRON form, but you may take notes on Exam
7.   Before you turn your exam in, CHECK SCANTRON.
            MAKE SURE YOU HAVE BUBBLED IN YOUR NAME AND PID
            CORRECTLY!!
8.   When you finish, bring
     a.     filled out SCANTRON
     b.     signed Exam form
     to front of lecture hall




                                  Good luck!

								
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