Social Development (Gail Heyman) Basic Questions: What are the social influences on cognition? on learning? How do we acquire our beliefs (about others, ourself)? What factors control the way we reason about others? Basic concepts & terms: dependent vs. independent variables problems that arise in soc. dev. research developmental milestones social referencing parenting styles: authoritarian, permissive, authoritative, neglectful “entity belief” vs. “incremental belief” false belief test achievement motivation framework: mastery-oriented vs. helplessness effects of divorce effects of gender effects of language choice (in describing a person; “carrot-eaters/creature-believers” study) Independent vs. dependent variables (IV vs DV) = Cause and effect “Is divorce harmful?” “Is it bad to watch too much TV?” age at divorce amount of TV per day custody arrangements what programs? gender age? IV financial situation other activities? friends w/divorced parents? academic performance academic performance social behavior - social behavior DV self-report Problems that arise: - different people react differently to same situation - some causes are not obvious, small, difficult to measure - some effects are hard to measure - may miss true causal factor (or, what’s cause, what’s effect?) - cultural biases Milestones newborn Newborn imitation; prefers mother’s voice; recognizes mother’s smell 9 months 1st acknowledges intentionality of social partner; 1st social referring 12 months Clear attachment pattern to a caregiver; 1st attempts at hurting & comforting 18 months 1st understanding of desire; 1st evidence of gender- stereotypes 2 years Interest in expressing independence 3 years Same-sex preferences; hiding emotion 4 years Understanding of false belief; understands gender stability; aggression becomes verbal 5 years Gender constancy; understands real vs. apparent emotions 6 years Understands complex emotions Parenting styles 2 dimensions, 4 styles ACCEPTANCE HI LO authoritative authoritarian HI CONTROL permissive neglectful LO outcomes? authoritative: good grades, self-confidence, altruistic authoritarian: academic problems; peer problems permissive: problems with aggression; lack of maturity w/peers; lack of independence neglectful: most consistent negative outcomes; antisocial behavior; academic problems Social Cognitive Development Achievement motivation: How do people interpret their successes or failures? How do their interpretations affect what they do? 1. “helpless style” a. negative affect b. lack of persistence c. self-blame 2. “mastery-oriented style” a. neutral or positive affect b. persistence c. focus on improving strategy Q: Any correlation between response type and intelligence? Beliefs about intelligence: 1. entity 2. incremental Effects of language: Personal characteristics will be seen as more (or less) stable (or changeable), depending on how they’re described. Labels promote seeing characteristics as stable and unchangeable. Culture & Development (Mike Cole) Basic questions: What is the role of culture in development? Basic concepts & terms: development culture Bronfenbrenner embedded context model Vygotsky’s “zone of proximal development” 4 frameworks for understanding development & culture how the effect of culture changes at different stages of development Types of contexts: Bronfenbrenner’s ‘Environments as Contexts of Development’ model Microsystems (e.g., family; see also ‘proximal processes’) Mesosystems (e.g., family-school) Exosystems (e.g., home-parent’s workplace) Macrosystems (e.g., all of the above, together) 4 frameworks for understanding development + culture biological/maturational perspective environmental perspective interactionist view (Piaget) culture as context + mediator (Vygotsky; “zone of proximal development”) The “double world” of culture …culture as physical surroundings, artifacts, etc. …culture as social conventions, customs, expectations, etc. Timelines & how culture effects development differently at different points in time: prenatal birth early infancy later infancy (6-9 mos; attachment issues, social referencing) language acquisition preschool (e.g., differences in adult:child ratios across cultures) adolescence: stage or transition? Interpreting cultural differences is hard… Children’s responses to ‘The Stranger’ scenario country Anxious/ Secure Anxious/ Avoidant Resistant United States 71 67 12 Germany 52 35 13 Israel 7 57 34 Japan 0 68 32 Multiculturalism (Olga Vasquez) Basic questions: Do two or more cultures operate as one? Or as two? Or…does culture operate singularly? is there melding/blending? or are cultures kept separate Basic concepts & terms: “zone of proximal development” monocultural systems multicultural systems (several possibilities) cultural artifacts la Clase Mágica Bruner’s metaphor… learning culture is like being born into a drama and learning your role and the roles of others Possible cultural models: early childhood school age Monocultural Monocultural Multicultural 1 Cultural minority Multicultural 2 Multicultural What is the goal of la Clase Mágica? “facilitating the acquisition and transmission of social and cultural capital” How does la Clase Mágica implement Vygotzky’s ‘zone of proximal development’? Gender development (Michael Gorman) Basic Questions: What interpersonal differences are sex-linked? How do hormones affect …our bodies …our brains What other factors influence brain development? What do sex-linked differences mean? I.e., how do we interpret them? Basic concepts & terms: • sex chromosomes (X, Y); SRY gene • gonads (testis, ovaries) vs. genitalia • Wolffian ducts; Mullerian ducts • single anlgagen vs. dual anlagen effects in development • variations in sexual development: o CAH (congennital adrenal hypoplasia) o AIS (androgen insensitivity syndrome) o 5-alpha reductase deficiency (‘Guevadoces’/penis-at-12) MALE FEMALE chromosomes XY XX categorical gonads testis ovaries genitalia penis/scrotum clitoris/vagina/labia almost no hormones hi T; low E,P hi E,P; low T overlap brain weight 1400g 1300g strong SCN (brain nucleus) spherical elognated tendencies INAH-3 0.10 mm3 0.05 mm3 but overlap % engineers high low sexual attraction mostly -> F mostly -> M variable bench press 150 lbs. 75 lbs. with more overlap hair length shorter longer highly average pay higher shorter variable, lots of overlap How do hormones sculpt bodies? observation: XX: female XXY: male XXXY: male XYY: male XXX: female • For first 6 weeks post-conception, no obvious sex differences • “Indifferent gonad” • plumbing (ducts): o Wollfian -> male o Mullerian -> female • genitalia: o genital tubercles -> clitoris or penis o genital folds -> scrotum or labia • Y chromosome has SRY gene that triggers changes Two styles of development occur: single anlagen: is when you have a single embryonic structure that can develop into either a female or male organ dual anglagen: is when you have two embryonic structures, one of which can become an adult male organ and the other can become an adult female organ. Normally, only one will actually develop and the other will atrophy. Examples: (1) Indifferent gonad can become either testis or ovary – not both single anlagen style of development (2) If testis, secretes Testosterone + Mullerian-inhibiting hormone (MIH); T causes Wollfian Ducts to turn into male plumbing MIH causes Mullerian ducts to disappear dual anlagen style of development (This opens the possibility, in abormal development, if there is T present but no MIH, for both ducts to mature, and to end up with both female and male ducts. Under normal conditions, even with dual anlagen development, only one of the two embryonic organs matures.) Variations: (1) CAH: female embryos exposed to high T a. gonad -> normal female gonads b. Mullerian ducts -> female c. Wullfian ducts -> male (because of T) d. genitalia -> in between (2) AIS: genetic males but can’t respond to T a. gonad -> male b. Wullfian ducts disappear (can’t respond to T) c. Mullerian ducts disappear d. genitalia -> female (insensitive to T) (3) 5-alpha reductase (‘Guevadoces’ – penis-at-12); inability to convert T to DHT (more potent form needed to form genitals) a. gonad -> male b. Mullerian ducts disappear c. Wolffian ducts -> male d. genitalia -> in-between (no DHT) but at puberty, surge of T starts to masculinize How do hormones sculpt behavior? Activational effects (transient) Organizational effects (permanent) The example of “lordosis” (female mating posture): (a) in adulthood, exposure to E,P triggers; (b) but: early exposure to T prevents lordosis later in life How do hormones act? (1) directly on neurons (change their # or their function) (2) indirectly by affecting muscles, other systems, which then causes different activity patterns that affects neurons (3) by triggering actions in others (e.g., hormones in urine of male pups causes mother rats to lick them more, which in turn affects sexual development; or pheromones) Daycare (Mark Appelbaum) Basic Questions: What is the effect of daycare on children? What makes daycare better or worse? What are difficulties in doing this research? What are public policy implications? Basic concepts & terms: • what are types of daycare (“non-maternal care”)? • how prevalent is it? • the independent variables and dependent variables in the study Types of daycare: 1) daycare centers commercial, church, community, company-based 2) family daycare (in another home; provider may/may not be related) 3) in-home daycare (father, relative, domestic employee as provider) Prevalence: 1975: 26% of new mothers back at work w/in 3-5 months 1990: 80% of new mothers back at work w/in 3-5 months By 3 years of, 90% of US children in daycare > 20 hrs/wk Independent variables: age of entry quality of care (distal: environment; proximal: provider style) quantity of care (how many hours in care) stability of care type of care Dependent variables: language, cognitive, attachment, school-readiness, mother-child interactions, self- control, compliance, problem behaviors What matters? small groups and low child-adult ratios amount of care doesn’t matter much for infants, “distal” (structural) matters more family characteristics maternal style (warm, nurturing, not ‘in your face’, supportive) child characteristics (gender; health) Difficulties in doing this research 1. selection bias people who agree to participate may be different than rest of population 2. range restrictions family income may correlate with quality of care, so how can we tell which one matters more? (see Educ. Policy) 3. iatrogenic effects parents might behave different as a result of being involved in the study 4. cost Implications for public policy 1. the “interventionist fallacy” things may seem fine now…if we ease up on regulations, maybe things would break? 2. scientific vs. community values who gets to decide what’s “good” daycare? 3. cost/benefit considerations University admission policies (Mark Appelbaum) Basic Questions: How has nature of college/university education changed during this century? How have university admissions policies changed recently, and why? What motivates or justifies the changes? Basic concepts & terms: • “top 1/8 policy” • Two factor admission criteria (courses; GPA+SAT) • Previous ‘Tier I, Tier II admission policy’ • New ‘Comprehensive admission policy’ Change in university attendance 1920’s: < 10% population went to college (Why?) In 40’s-50’s: 2 changes (1) goal of admitting the “intellectual elite” vs. the economically/socially privileged; (2) goal of universal college attendance Led to: (1) SATs (2) land grant and state universities Tier I / Tier II: everyone ranked on basis of Academic Index (GPA+SAT) (a) 50% of freshman class admitted by rank (b) remaining applicants’ files examined, awarded points for (c) different factors; reranked (d) 50% of freshman class admitted based on re-ranking New comprehensive policy: (a) everyone’s file ranked based on GPA+SAT+extra factors) (b) 100% of class admitted based on ranking Aging (Terry Jernigan) Basic Questions: What changes with age? Do all people age at the same rate, in the same way? Does aging affect all abilities and functions equally? Or does aging affect only certain abilities and functions? What are the brain bases for age-related changes? Basic concepts & terms: • cross-sectional vs. longitudinal studies • crystallized vs. fluid intelligence • semantic priming; semantic biasing • speeded tasks • short-term memory vs. working memory • explicit memory vs. implicit memory • age-related changes in visual acuity; hearing; memory + recall • know the brain-related changes that occur with aging Crystallized intelligence: [relatively spared] -> language comprehension; vocabulary; general knowledge Tasks: semantic (conceptual) priming; semantic biasing; detecting spelling errors; primary (= short-term) memory Fluid intelligence: [more deficits] -> speed of processing; new learning Tasks: any speeded (= timed) task language production (e.g., picture naming) working memory tasks (e.g., ‘n-back’; ordered report of letter strings) explicit memory tasks (e.g., recall/recognition; learning novel word-pair associations) General explanations vs. specific eplanations (see Slide 9 in on-line lecture notes) Brain-bases for changes: (1) neurons: fewer in number; smaller in size (2) tangles and plaques (“brain crud”) (3) as brain shrinks, more surrounding fluid • this occurs pretty consistently in older people (4) also greater water content inside brain (white matter) • this is more variable; not true of all older people (5) Two areas are especially affected: • frontal lobe • hippocampus (6) Comparing older and younger individuals on same task, older seem to have more activity in more brain areas. • Is this because they recruit additional areas to help out? • Or is it because they lose the ability to suppress/inhibit activity in these other areas? See also: Class web page: http://crl.ucsd.edu/~elman/Courses/HDP1 o lecture notes for each class o midterm review notes (Jeff’s; Tas) o final review notes (Jeff’s; Tas) FINAL INFORMATION 1. The final is Thursday (Dec. 6) from 11:30 – 2:30, in WLH 2001 (Peterson 108) 2. Pick up SCANTRON form at the door as you enter the lecture hall. We will provide SCANTRON forms. 3. Fill out SCANTRON form (#2 pencil) while you wait for exams 4. Exams will be handed out after everyone has arrived 5. Fill out information on top of Exam: a. your name, PID b. section #, day/time, TA 6. Answers go on SCANTRON form, but you may take notes on Exam 7. Before you turn your exam in, CHECK SCANTRON. MAKE SURE YOU HAVE BUBBLED IN YOUR NAME AND PID CORRECTLY!! 8. When you finish, bring a. filled out SCANTRON b. signed Exam form to front of lecture hall Good luck!
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