Objective Theory

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					Objective Theory
                          Universe
                      (Mimetic Theory)




   Artist/Author                                Audience
                         Work of Arts
(Expressive Theory)                        (Pragmatic Theory)




                             Text
                      (Objective Theory)
 Mimetic Theories (interested in the relationship
  between the Work and the Universe)
 Pragmatic Theories (interested in the relationship
  between the Work and the Audience)
 Expressive Theories (interested in the relationship
  between the Work and the Artist)
 Objective Theories (interested in close reading of
  the Work)
 Analysis based on the idea that the form of a
  piece of literature will echo or somehow
  illuminate its content. More resources on
  Formalism.
 Formalists practice this type of criticism. See the
  "New Criticism" of Cleanth Brooks, John Crowe
  Ransom, Wimsatt and Beardsley, and others. See
  also Trotsky's rebuff of the Russian Formalists as
  counterrevolutionaries.
 The fourth coordinate emphasizes the integrity
  and ontologically sound status of the work itself,
  without immediate reference to audience, poet,
  or external reality.
 The coordinate of objective theory is the
  text itself. The text is already all we need to
  examine/analyze the novel.
 The basics method is close reading.
   Facts
         Plot
            
        Character
        Setting
 Theme
 Literary Device
        Title
        Point of View
        Style and Tone
        Symbolism
        Irony
   Facts
    Fact or fact of story is the factual level of the story.
    Fact of story are recorded of an imaginable
    occurrence by plot, character, and setting.
     Plot is the entire sequence of events. Plot is linked
      events that result or result other events.
     Character is designate the individual who appear in
      the story and refers to the mixture of interest,
      desire, emotion, and moral principles.
     Setting is the environment of any events, the
      immediate world in which the events occur. The
      setting can be visible, part of time, and emotional
      tone or mood.
 Theme
  Theme is corresponds to the meaning of a human
  experience, it may be anything that could make an
  experience memorable. Exp. Love, grief, fear,
  maturation, the discovery of betrayal, disillusion,
  etc. According to the context, the other term for
  theme are central idea and central purpose.
 Literary device
  Literary device is the author methods of selecting
  and arranging the detail of a story so as the
  meaningful patterns. Literary device are title, point
  of view, and style and tone, symbolism, and irony.
   Title is relevant to its work as a whole. Title have
    several levels of meaning. Many title is allusion.
   Point of view is point of consciousness from which we
    perceive the event of a story. Point of view has four
    main type that is first person central, firs person
    peripheral, third person limited, and third person
    omniscient.
   Style and tone. Style is the author manner using
    language. That is in complexity, rhythm, sentence
    length, subtlety, humor, concreteness, and a number
    of images and metaphor. Tone is the author emotional
    attitude as presented in the story; it may perhaps be
    light, romantic, ironic, mysterius, thoughtful,
    dreamlike, or impassioned.
   Symbolism
    Ideas and emotions often as real as any
    physical facts; yet the are invisible,
    intangible things. Symbolism in the context of
    literature is the way of giving Ideas and
    emotions vividness of reality, factual details
    that evoke these ideas and emotions in the
    readers mind. The author makes his meaning
    visible. The symbol may be anything from an
    egg to the story: a single object, a repeated
    type of object, a physical substance, a shape,
    a gesture, a color, a spund, a fragrance. This
    can facet a human personality, man suffering,
    futile ambition, human responsibility, the
    romanticism of youth.
 Irony
 Irony is a term that refers to discover that
 something is the opposite of what we have
 been led to expect. There are two different
 irony that is dramatic irony and ironic tone.
 Dramatic irony is the irony of plot or
 situation depends basically upon diametrical
 contrast between appearance and reality,
 between a character intention and what he
 accomplish, or between his expectation and
 what actually occurs.
Ironic tone or verbal irony is appear when
one event meaning by expressing it opposite.
The ironic often show ironic contrast
between attitude that an author express and
the one he really feels: usually he assumes
the point of view of a character or group
against whom the irony is directed.
Bab I
Pendahuluan
1.1 Latar Belakang
1.2 Rumusan Masalah
1.3 Tujuan
1.4 Landasan Teori
Bab II
Pembahasan
2.1 …

Bab III
Penutup
3.1 Simpulan
3.2 Saran
Abrams, M.H. 1953. The Mirror and the Lamp:
        Romantic Theory and the Critical
        Tradition. USA: Oxford University
        Press.
Daftar Laman
www.kompas.com.id (diunduh 10:00, 26/3/10)
Abrams, M.H. 1953. The Mirror and the Lamp:
  Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition.
  USA: Oxford University Press.
Stanton, Robert. 1965. An Introduction to
  Fiction. New York: Holt, Rinehart and
  Winstons, Inc.
Laman Internet
 http://www.ajdrake.com
 http://hhh.gavilan.edu/ecrook/1B/LiteraryT
  heory.htm
 Made   a group
 Analysis any literary works using the
  objective theory as coordinate.
 Suggest: Modern Literature.
 Presentate the result of your analysis in a
  seminar.
 This file can be download in:
  www.realitasfiksi.blogspot.com
 adzaniligth@yahoo.com
 085242259401

				
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