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Pregled gramatike engleskog jezika za 2. razred

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Pregled gramatike engleskog jezika za 2. razred Powered By Docstoc
					    PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED




Dragi učenici,



ovaj kratki pregled gramatike engleskoga jezika trebao bi vam pomoći da uspješno savladate sadržaj
prvoga polugodišta kako bi se što lakše prilagodili nadolazećem gradivu. Ovaj kratki preglednik sadrži
definicije na engleskom i hrvatskom jeziku kako bi što bolje shvatili srž i bit jezika kojim se bavimo.
Usto, pregledniku su dodane dvije kratke priča na engleskom jeziku i jedna zanimljivost o engleskoj
kulturi. Iščitavajući tekstove na engleskom jeziku, vi proširujete vlastiti rječnik i uspješno se
prilagođavate jeziku koji danas otvara sva vrata svijeta.



                                                                                   Jelena Vujčić, prof.




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    PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED


PRESENT SIMPLE:

Use:

    1. to express a habit:
       I get up at 8 o’clock.
       Marta drinks coffee every morning.

    2. a fact which is always true
       Cows eat grass.
       Snow falls in the winter.

Iz rečenica koje smo naveli kao primjer jasno je kako Present simple koristimo kako bi izrazili naše
navike, one radnje koje su dio nas i naše svakodnevnice. Tako imamo rečenicu, I get up at 8.00. (Ja
ustajem u 8 sati.) kojom izražavamo našu naviku o jutarnjem buđenju.

Usto, Present simple koristimo kako bi izrazili činjenice koje su uvijek točne pa tako imamo primjer
Cows eat grass (Krave jedu travu), što je opća istina o kravama pa je i izražena present simpleom.
Jednako je i s rečenicom Snow falls in the winter, što je također uvijek istinito jer snijeg i pada samo
zimi.

Form:

    1. positive sentences:

    I drink coffee.                               We drink coffee.

    You drink coffee.                             You drink coffee.

    He/ She/ It drinks coffee.                    They drink coffee.

    So, it is obvious that the verb gets suffix –s or –es only in the third person.

    Vidljivo je kako se u Present simpleu glagolu samo u trećem licu jednine dodaje nastavak –s ili –
    es. Važno je napomenuti kako taj nastavka izaziva promjenu kod glasa y ukoliko se on nalazi iza
    suglasnika, npr. He carries a new suitcase. Gdje je y prešao u i, (carry-carries). No, ukoliko se
    glas y nalazi iza samoglasnika ne dolazi do promjene. She buys bus ticket every day. Dakle, y
    ostaje nepromijenjen, (buybuys).

    2. negative sentences:

         -to make a negative sentence we use verb do or does + not, so we have do not or don’t and
         does not or doesn’t.
         Doesn’t is used only in the third person singular.

         Mark doesn’t ride a bike. -- this is a negative sentence, but positive sentence is:
         Mark rides a bike.

         So, it means that we mustn’t use the verb rides with suffix –s in negative sentence, but we
         have to use infinitive.

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    PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED

       Niječna rečenica u present simpleu se tvori tako da upotrijebimo don’t i glavni glagol u
       infinitive u svim licima množine te u prvom i drugom licu jednine. Dok doesn’t i glavni
       glagol koristimo samo u trećem licu jednine. Dakle, valja još jednom napomenuti kako nam se
       glavni glagol u niječnoj rečenici mora vratiti natrag u infinitiv i ne smije imati nastavak –s ili –
       es u niječnom izrazu.

       Dakle,

       Matt buys himself coffee every morning.
       Matt doesn’t buy himself coffee every morning.

       ...doesn’t buy....correct/točno
       ...doesn’t buys...incorrect/ netočno

    3. question

       -we also use do or does. Does is used only in the third person singular.

       Does Matt ride a bike every day?
       Do you have this CD?

       Dakle, u upitnim rečenicama imamo isto pravilo o korištenju glagola do/does. Does se koristi
       samo u trećem licu jednine i to tako da zamijeni mjesto sa subjektom i dođe na prvo mjesto.
       Sva druga lica koriste do, a pritom zamijeni mjesto sa subjektom.


       PRESENT CONTINUOUS:

       Use:

       We use present continuous to express an activity happening now:

       They are playing in the garden.
       He is drinking coffee at the moment.

       So, both sentences express and activity which is happening at the moment of speaking. In the
       present continuous we often use adverbials, such as at the moment or now.

       Pogledamo li dvije rečenice koje smo upotrijebili kao primjer jasno je kako te rečenice
       izražavaju radnju koja se događa u trenutku govora. Npr. They are playing in the garden.
       (Oni se igraju u vrtu.), jasno je da se radnja odvija u trenutku govora. Dok u drugoj rečenici
       imamo i priložnu oznaku at the moment/ u ovom trenutku, koja nam pomaže da odredimo
       vrijeme u kojem se radnja odvija. Usto, valja napomenuti kako je učestalo i korištenje priložne
       oznake vremena now/sada.




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    PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED
        1. positive sentences:

            -   to make a positive sentence in the present continuous we use the present form of the
                verb be + -ing.

                e.g.

                I am drinking coffee.                            We are drinking coffee.
                You are drinking coffee.                         You are drinking coffee.
                He/She/It is drinking coffee.                    They are drinking coffee.

                So, we use AM/ARE/IS (the present form of the verb be) and the full verb with –ing.
                Thus, we only have to be careful when we are choosing the correct AM/ARE/IS
                form.

Dakle, kada tvorimo jesnu rečenicu u present continuous, trebamo izabrati pravilan izraz prezenta
glagola BE, koji AM/ARE/IS, potom glavnom glagolu dodamo nastavak –ing. Važno je izabrati
pravilan oblik glagola BE, tako za prvo lice jednine koristimo AM, za treće lice jednine koristimo IS,
dok za drugo lice jednine i sva lica množine koristimo ARE.



        2. negative sentence:

            -   to make a negative sentence we use AM/ARE/IS + NOT + -ING

       Thus we have:

       I am not drinking coffee.        or      I’m not drinking....

       You are not drinking coffee.     or      You aren’t drinking.....

       He is not drinking coffee.       or      He isn’t drinking.....

       Dakle, kada tvorimo niječne rečenice glagolima AM/ARE/ IS dodamo negativnu riječ NOT, s
       tim da onda imamo i kratke oblike kao što su ‘m not, aren’t, isn’t.



        3. question:

            -   to make a question we only use inversion:

            Are you drinking coffee?

            Is she drinking coffee?

            Are they drinking coffee?

            Dakle, kako bi napravili upitnu rečenicu samo trebamo zamijenti mjesta pomoćnog
            glagola BE i subjekta.



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    PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED
EXERCISES:

    1. Complete the conversation by using present continuous of the verbs in brackets.
       /Nadopuni razgovor koristeći present continuous glagola u zagradama.

    A: What are you doing (you/do)?

    B: I’m writing (I/write) a letter to a friend. He is a DJ. Vicky and I (1)___________(try) to
    organize a disco.

    A: That sounds a lot of work. How(2)____________(you/find) time for your studies?

    B: Well, as I said, Vicky (3)_____________(help) me. (4)_____________(we/get) on all right. (5)
    ____________(we/not/spend) too much time on it. (6)_______________(it/not/take) me away
    from my studies, don’t worry about that. Oh, sorry, (7)_____________(you/wait) for this
    computer?

    A: Yes, but there’s no hurry.

    B: I (8)_______________( correct) the last bit of the letter. I’ve nearly finished.

    2. Complete the conversation by putting in the present simple forms. /Nadopuni razgovoor
       koristeći present simple glagola u zagradama.

    A: Do you like football (you/like), Tom?

    B: I love (/love), I am a United fan. (1)_____________(I/go) to all their games. Nick
    usually(2)____________(come) with me. And (3)___________(we/travel) to away
    games, too. Why (4)_________________(you/not/come) to a match some time?

    A: I’m afraid football (5) ___________(not/make) sense to me- men running a ball.
    Why(6)______________(you/take) it so seriously?

    B: It’s a wonderful game. (7) ____________(I/love) it. United are my whole life.



    ANSWERS:

    1. 1.- are trying, 2.- are you finding,3.- is helping, 4.-We’re getting, 5- We aren’t
       spending,6- It isn’t taking, 7.- are you waiting, 8.- I am correcting
    2. 1.- I go, 2.-comes, 3.-we travel, 4.- don’t you come, 5.-doesn’t make, 6.- do you take,
       7.- I love




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    PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED


PAST SIMPLE:

Use:

We use the past simple for something in the past which is finished.

Emma passed her exam last year.       tj. Ema je prošla ispit prošle godine.

Elvis died in 1977.                   tj. Elvis je umro 1977. godine.

Jasno je iz gore priloženih rečenica kako past simple izražava radnju koja je počela i završila u
prošlosti. U određivanju vremena u kojem se radnja odvija svakako nam pomažu i priložne oznake
vremena kao što su gore u rečenicama podebljane last year(prošle godine) i in 1977 (1977. godine).

Form:

    a) positive form:

    -In English regular past form has –ed or –d suffix. Thus regular verbs in English have these
    suffixes in the past form:

    It happened very quickly. - > regular verb happen + ed = happened

    The car crashed into the van. - > regular verb crash + ed = crashed

    They arrived at 6 o’ clock. - > regular verb arrive + d = arrived

    -   on the other hand, irregular past form is characteristic of the irregular verbs. Irregular verbs
        have to be memorised because without past simple form of these verb you are not able to
        make past simple sentences.

    Vicky won the game. - > irregular verb win has past form won

    I had breakfast at six. - > irregular verb have has past form had

    Some important irregular verbs:

                       Base form                                           Past simple
                          Be                                                was/were
                        Become                                              became
                          do                                                   did
                          Eat                                                  ate
                         Feel                                                  felt
                         Have                                                 had
    Thus:

    I drove a car.                      We drove a car.

    You drove a car.                    You drove a car.

    He/ She /It drove a car.            They drove a car.



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    PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED
    Vidljivo je, dakle, kako se jesna rečenica (positive sentence) u past simpleu tvori na sljedeći način:

    Subjektu se dodaje glagol u prošlom vremenu čija prošla forma zavisi o tome da li je glagol
    pravilan ili nepravilan. Stoga pravilni glagoli dobivaju nastavak –ed ili –d, dok nepravilni glagoli
    imaju uvijek isti izraz/formu koja mora biti naučena iz tablice nepravilnih glagola engleskoga
    jezika. Tako je gore navedeno nekoliko glagola koji su među najčešćima u uporabi. Ispod tablice
    nalazi se konjugacija nepravilnog glagola drive (drove), iz koje je vidljivo da glagol u rečenicama
    koje su u past simpleu ne mijenja oblik kroz lica nego uvijek ostaje isti. Ovo pravilo vrijedi i za
    sve pravilne glagole, npr. I arrived at 6 o’ clock. She arrived at 6 o’clock.

    b) negative form and question:

    -   in negatives and questions we use did
        1. negative sentences:
        Negative form is did not or didn’t:

        The car didn’t stop at the crossing. – >this is a negative sentence, while positive one is:
        The car stopped at the crossing.

        Thus, it is obvious that in a negative sentence the full verb has to go back to the infinitive.
        ...didn’t + stop... is correct
        ...didn’t + stop... is incorrect

        For example:
        I posted the letter yesterday. // I didn’t post the letter yesterday.
        I ate pizza last night. // I didn’t eat pizza last night.

        Dakle, jasno je iz gore navedenog kako niječne rečenice (negative sentences) u engleskom
        jeziku tvorimo uz pomoć glagola did koji u niječnim rečenicama poprima oblik did not ili
        didn’t. Ovdje je važno napomenuti kako u niječnim rečenicama nakon upotrebe glagola
        didn’t moramo glavni glagol vratiti natrag u infinitiv.

        2. questions:
           When forming questions we also use did, but now, in questions, subject and verb did are
           changing places.

            James unlocked the doors. ------- Did James unlock the doors?
            Jenny wrote a letter yesterday. ------Did Jenny write a letter yesterday?

            So, once again when we make a question and when we use did our full verb has to go
            back to infinitive.

            BUT: Marta rang me yesterday. ----- Who rang you yesterday?
            When we have WHO question word than we do not use the verb did, and the full verb
            stays in the past simple form.

            Valja zapamtiti da pri tvorbi upitnih rečenica u past simpleu koristimo glagol did koji
            pritom zamijeni mjesto sa subjektom, tj. ide na prvo mjesto u rečenici. Nakon što smo


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    PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED
            upotrijebili glagol did, glavni glagol u rečenici vraća se natrag u infinitiv. Iznimka je
            pitanje koje počinje zamjenicom WHO kada ne upotrebljavamo glagol did nego samo
            koristimo glavni glagol u past simpleu.



PAST CONTINUOUS

Use:

It was raining at three o’ clock.

This sentence means that at three o’ clock we were in the middle of a period of rain. The rain began
before three o’clock and stopped some time after three. So, we are stressing the length of time.

Soft music was playing.

This sentence means that we heard the music at that particular moment, but it was playing before we
heard it and it stopped some time after we heard it.



Prva rečenica It was raining at three o’ clock. (Kišilo je u tri sata), označava trenutak u prošlosti kada
smo mi svjedočili kiši, ali uporaba glagola was raining označava da je počelo kišiti prije nego smo
mi vidjeli da kiši i da je ta kiša prestala u nekom trenutku nakon što smo mi vidjeli da kiši. Dakle,
uporabom past continuous naglašavamo trajanje radnje u prošlosti. Isto vrijedi i za drugu rečenicu gdje
smo mi u jednom trenutku čuli kako svira nježna glazba, ali glagoli was playing naglašavaju kako je
glazba svirala i prije nego smo je mi čuli i kako je svirala i nakon što smo je mi čuli.



Form:

The past continuous is formed of the past tense of be (was/were) and an –ing form.

    1. positive sentences:

Mary was playing the piano.

Mary is the third person singular noun, so we use was form of the verb be, and verb play is
accompanied with the - ing form.

They were skiing in Switzerland.

They is the third person plural pronoun, so we use were form of the verb be, and the verb ski is
accompanied with the –ing form.




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    PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED


I was running.                          We were running.

You were running.                       You were running.

He/ She / It was running.               They were running.

To sum up, the first and the third person singular use the form was, while all the other use the form
were.

Dakle pri tvorbi jesnih rečenica u past continuousu koristimo was/were (tj. prošli oblik glagola be,
vidi tablicu 1.) i glavni glagol kojem se dodaje nastavak –ing. Jasno je iz prethodne konjugacije kako
u prvom i trećem licu jednine koristimo WAS, dok sva ostala lica koriste oblik WERE.

    2. negative sentences:
    - to form a negative sentence we use was/were + not
       so we have: was not or wasn’t and were not or weren’t

Mary wasn’t playing the piano.

They weren’t skiing in Switzerland.

Jednostavno se da zaključiti kao pri tvorbi niječnih rečenica u past continuous pomoćnom glagolu
was/were dodajemo not dok sve ostalo ostaje isto. Ipak, važno je paziti na to u kojem se licu nalazi
subjekt kako bismo upotrijebili pravilan oblik pomoćnog glagola.

    3. question:
    - to form a question in the past continuous, our verb was/were changes place with the subject:

        Was Mary playing the piano?

Dakle, u upitnoj rečenici kod past continuousa pomoćni glagol was/were i subjekt zamjene mjesta.



PAST SIMPLE OR PAST CONTINUOUS:

    -   we often use the past simple and past continuous together when one (shorter) action comes in
        the middle of another (longer) one.

    He broke his leg when he was skiing.

In this sentence the shorter action (broke) is expressed in the past simple tense, while the longer
action (was skiing) is expressed in the past continuous tense. To conclude, the shorter action
interrupts the longer action. So, to express shorter actions we always use past simple, and to express
longer actions we use past continuous.

Dakle, iz rečenice He broke his leg when he was skiing jasno je da u engleskom jeziku možemo u
jednoj rečenici koristiti i past simple i past continuous. I to na sljedeći način, past simple izražava
radnju koja je kraće trajala te je prekinula dužu radnju koju izražavamo past contionuousom.
Jednostavnije rečeno ako imamo situaciju u kojoj jedna radnja prekida trajanje druge radnje u



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     PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED
prošlosti, onda onu radnju koja prekida označavamo past simplom, a onu koja je prekinuta past
continuousom.

Na primjer, ako nam je zadatak ponudio sljedeću rečenicu:

When/he/carry/ a suitcase/ he /drop/it/ on his foot.

Prije nego pokušamo riješiti zadatak trebamo shvatiti tj. procijeniti koja je radnja trajala duže a koja
kraće. Dakle, on je nosio torbu te ju je ispustio na svoju nogu. Jasno je iz konteksta da je nošenje
torbe radnja koja je trajala duže, dok je ispuštanje torbe radnja koja je trajala kraće. Stoga ćemo
nošenje torbe izraziti past continuousom, a ispuštanje torbe past simplom.

Naposljetku, nakon što smo sve pravilno i logički razmotrili pišemo rečenicu ovako:

When he was carrying a suitcase, he dropped it on his foot.

PAST PERFECT:

Use:

I took the book the back to the library when I had read it.

Past perfect is used to talk about the things before the past time. So, it is clear that the subject had read
the book before he took it back to the library. Thus we use had read to express the activity which
happened in the past but before the past action.

Dakle, past perfect koristimo kako bismo izrazili radnju koja se dogodila prije neke radnje u prošlosti.
Tako u rečenici I took the book back to the library when I had read it, sasvim je jasno da je naš subjekt
najprije pročitao knjigu pa ju je tek onda vratio. Tako je vraćanje knjige u knjižnicu izraženo past
simpleom (took), a radnja koja se odvila prije te radnje u prošlosti (tj. vraćanja) izražena je past
perfectom (had read).



Form:

     1. positive sentences:

     The past perfect is formed of had + a past participle.

     I had written a letter.                       We had written a letter.

     You had written a letter.                     You had written a letter.

     He/She/It had written a letter.               They had written a letter.

     Thus, we can conclude that the form is always the same. However, we have to memorize the past
     participle of the irregular verbs, while regular verbs have the suffixes –d or –ed.

     Dakle, past perfect se tvori od glagola had i past participa. Jasno je iz primjera da je oblik
     glagola iti u svim licima. Ipak, valja napamet naučiti past particip nepravilnih glagola, dok pravilni
     glagoli na sebe primaju nastavke –ed ili –d.



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     PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED
     2. negative sentences:

        Negative sentences are formed of had + not + a past participle.

        The shorter form of had + not is hadn’t.

        So, it would be:

        I hadn’t written a letter.

        She hadn’t written a letter.

        Niječne rečenice se tvore tako da se glagolu HAD pridruži niječna riječ NOT, a kraćeni oblik
        glasi HADN’T.



     3. questions:

        Questions are formed by inversions. Thus, the verb changes place with subject.

        Had he written a letter?
        Had they written a letter?
        Had we written a letter?

        Pitanja kod past perfect tvore se inverzijom tj. tako da pomoćni glagol had i subjekt zamijene
        mjesto.


        EXERCISES:

        1. Put the verbs in the past perfect. / Stavi glagole u zagradama u past perfect.

        1.   We had no car at that time. We _______________(sell) our old one.
        2.   The park looked awful. People______________(leave) litter everywhere.
        3.   There was no sign of a taxi, although I _____________(order) one half an hour before.
        4.   I spoke to Melanie at lunch-time. Someone _______________(tell) her the news earlier.
        5.   I was really tired last night. I _____________(have) a hard day.

        2. Put one verb in Past simple and one in Past perfect/ Umetni jedan glagol u Past
           simpleu, a drugi u Past Perfectu.

        1. Lisa 1- ____________(give) me a lift because I 2-___________(miss) the bus.
        2. I 3- _______________(thank) her for everything she 4.-______________(do).
        3. When I got to the office, I 5.- ________________(realize) that I 6.- ____________(forget)
           to lock the front door.
        4. When they 7.-______________(finish) their work, they 8.- _________(go) home.




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     PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED


          ANSWERS:

          1. 1.- had sold, 2.- had left, 3.- had ordered, 4.- had told, 5.- had had.
          2. 1.-gave, 2.- had missed, 3.- thanked, 4.- had done, 5.- realized, 6.- had forgotten, 7.- had
             finished, 8.- went.



     PASSIVE

     A passive form is a form of be + past participle.

     We distinguish between the past participle of regular and the past participle of the irregular verbs.
     Past participle of the regular verbs is the same as the past simple form. So regular verbs have
     suffixes –ed or –d. For example, work-- worked. On the other hand, irregular verbs have the
     form which is always the same and it has to be memorized.

                 Base form                        Past simple                      Past participle
                     be                            was/were                             been
                  become                            became                            become
                     do                               did                               done
                    eat                               ate                              eaten
                    feel                              felt                               felt
                   have                               had                                had
                   write                             wrote                            written


     Pasiv se u engleskom jeziku tvori od glagola be + past participa. Valja znati da u engleskom
     jeziku razlikujemo past particip pravilnih glagola i past particip nepravilnih glagola. S tim da je
     past particip pravilnih glagola isti kao i past simple pravilnih glagola. Dakle, glagolu se dodaju
     nastavci ed ili –d. Nepravilni glagoli imaju zaseban oblik koji se treba naučiti kao što je bio slučaj
     s past simpleom nepravilnih glagola. Past particip nepravilnih glagola nalazi se u 3. stupcu. Prvo
     zlatno pravilo u tvorbi pasiva jeste znanje upravo tog trećeg stupca jer bez njega bi bilo ne moguće
     tvoriti pasiv rečenica u kojima se nalaze pravilni glagoli.




     It is also important to know the object of the active sentence becomes a new subject of the passive
     sentence. For example:

     They bake bread here. (ACTIVE SENTENCE)

      S      V    O     Adverbial

     In passive sentence, we use the object (BREAD) as a new subject.

     BREAD is baked here.




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     PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED
     Drugo zlatno pravilo pasiva je ono koje kaže kako object aktivne rečenice postaje subjekt pasivne
     rečenice. Tako je u našem primjeru imenica BREAD u aktivnoj rečenici bila objekt, a u pasivnoj
     rečenici prelazi na prvo mjesto u ulogu subjekta.

     When it comes to passive, the verb BE is extremely important. In the passive sentence verb BE
     has to be in the same tense in which the active sentence is written. For example:

     They bake bread here. (ACTIVE SENTENCE) -- present simple

     Bread is baked here. (PASSIVE SENTENCE)-- active sentence is in present simple, so we
     need present simple of the verb BE, and the full verb be is regular, so we only add suffix –d.

     Treće zlatno pravilo pasiva je to da nam u pasivnoj rečenici glagol BE mora biti u istom vremenu
     u kojem se nalazi aktivna rečenica. Tako je u našem primjeru aktivna rečenica bila u present
     simpleu pa nam je stoga i glagol BE bio u tom istom vremenu. S obzirom na činjenicu da nam
     glagol BE ima sljedeće oblike u present simpleu: am/are/is, a kako je imenica bread u trećem licu
     jednine birali smo opciju is.

     Kako bi olakšali izbor pravog oblika glagola BE, poslužit ćemo se sljedećom tablicom:

                        TENSE                                            VERB BE
                     Present simple                                      am/are/is
                   Present continuous                                  am/are/is being
                      Past simple                                        was/were
                    Past continuous                                    was/were being


Npr.

                                We baked the bread.

Najprije odredimo subjekt (we), glagol (baked) i objekt (the bread). Sada znamo da nam subjekt
pasivne rečenice mora biti imenica the bread, nakon toga određujemo vrijeme u kojem se nalazi
rečenica. Kada smo utvrdili da je rečenica u Past simpleu, znamo da nam glagol be u pasivnoj rečenici
mora biti u tom istom vremenu. Pogledamo u tablicu te zaključujemo kako nam je potreban izraz was
jer nam je novi subjekt u trećem licu jednine. Glavni glagol u aktivnoj rečenici je glagol bake koji je
pravilan te mu samo dodajemo nastavak –d. Sada kada smo sve to utvrdili možemo načiniti pasivnu
rečenicu.

                                        The bread was baked.



It is also important to remember that if the agent is known in the active sentence, we have to mention
it in the passive sentence.

Alfred Hitchcock directed Psycho.

Psycho was directed by Alfred Hitchcock.

Workmen were repairing the traffic lights.

The traffic lights were being repaired by workmen.

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     PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED
Dakle, ako nam je u aktivnoj rečenici poznat vršitelj radnje, tada u pasivnoj rečenici dodajemo
vršitelja radnje koristeći prijedlog by.



EXERCISES:

     1. Make passive sentences. /Načini pasivne rečenice

     a)   They don’t make Volvos in Norway.________________________________
     b)   Chef didn’t cook the fish very well._________________________________
     c)   Pilots were piloting the plane all morning._____________________________
     d)   John is playing chess.____________________________________________
     e)   Matthew drinks a new kind of juice. ________________________________
     f)   They play very important match. __________________________________
     g)   Mike builds a tree house. _________________________________________
     h)   Josh eats the sandwich.__________________________________________
     i)   An earthquake completely destroyed a new house_____________________
     j)   Americans speak English language. ________________________________
     k)   Samantha was riding a bike. _____________________________________
     l) Mark Warn built our house in 17th century.____________________________

ANWERS:

     a) Volvos aren’t made in Norway.

     b) The fish wasn’t well cooked by the chef.

     c) The plane was being piloted all morning by pilots.

     d) Chess is being played by John.

     e) A new kind of juice is drunk by Matthew.

     f) Very important match is played.

     g) A tree house is built.

     h) The sandwich is eaten by Josh.

     i) A new house was completely destroyed by an earthquake.

     j) English language is spoken by Americans.

     k) A bike was being ridden by Samantha.

     l) Our house was built in 17th century by Mark Warn.




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     PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED


       SHORT STORIES:

The Nightingale and the Rose
By Oscar Wilde

'She said that she would dance with me if I brought her red roses,' cried the young Student;
'but in all my garden there is no red rose.'
    From her nest in the holm-oak tree the Nightingale heard him, and she looked out through
the leaves, and wondered.
    'No red rose in all my garden!' he cried, and his beautiful eyes filled with tears. 'Ah, on
what little things does happiness depend! I have read all that the wise men have written, and
all the secrets of philosophy are mine, yet for want of a red rose is my life made wretched.'
    'Here at last is a true lover,' said the Nightingale. 'Night after night have I sung of him,
though I knew him not: night after night have I told his story to the stars, and now I see him.
His hair is dark as the hyacinth-blossom, and his lips are red as the rose of his desire; but
passion has made his lace like pale Ivory, and sorrow has set her seal upon his brow.'
    'The Prince gives a ball to-morrow night,' murmured the young Student, 'and my love will
be of the company. If I bring her a red rose she will dance with me till dawn. If I bring her a
red rose, I shall hold her in my arms, and she will lean her head upon my shoulder, and her
hand will be clasped in mine. But there is no red rose in my garden, so I shall sit lonely, and
she will pass me by. She will have no heed of me, and my heart will break.'
    'Here indeed is the true lover,' said the Nightingale. 'What I sing of he suffers: what is joy
to me, to him is pain. Surely Love is a wonderful thing. It is more precious than emeralds, and
dearer than fine opals. Pearls and pomegranates cannot buy it, nor is it set forth in the market-
place. it may not be purchased of the merchants, 'or can it be weighed out in the balance for
gold.'
    'The musicians will sit in their gallery,' said the young Student, 'and play upon their
stringed instruments, and my love will dance to the sound of the harp and the violin. She will
dance so lightly that her feet will not touch the floor, and the courtiers in their gay dresses will
throng round her. But with me she will not dance, for I have no red rose to give her;' and he
flung himself down on the grass, and buried his face in his hands, and wept.

                                               <2>

   'Why is he weeping?' asked a little Green Lizard, as he ran past him with his tail in the air.
   'Why, indeed?' said a Butterfly, who was fluttering about after a sunbeam.
   'Why, indeed?' whispered a Daisy to his neighbour, in a soft, low voice.
   'He is weeping for a red rose,' said the Nightingale.
   'For a red rose!' they cried; 'how very ridiculous!' and the little Lizard, who was something
of a cynic, laughed outright.
   But the Nightingale understood the secret of the Student's sorrow, and she sat silent in the
oak-tree, and thought about the mystery of Love.
   Suddenly she spread her brown wings for flight, and soared into the air. She passed
through the grove like a shadow, and like a shadow she sailed across the garden.
   In the centre of the grass-plot was standing a beautiful Rose-tree, and when she saw it, she
flew over to it, and lit upon a spray.
   'Give me a red rose,' she cried, 'and I will sing you my sweetest song.'

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     PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED
   But the Tree shook its head.
   'My roses are white,' it answered; 'as white as the foam of the sea, and whiter than the
snow upon the mountain. But go to my brother who grows round the old sun-dial, and perhaps
he will give you what you want.'
   So the Nightingale flew over to the Rose-tree that was growing round the old sun-dial.
   'Give me a red rose,' she cried, 'and I will sing you my sweetest song.'
   But the Tree shook its head.
   'My roses are yellow,' it answered; 'as yellow as the hair of the mermaiden who sits upon
an amber throne, and yellower than the daffodil that blooms in the meadow before the mower
comes with his scythe. But go to my brother who grows beneath the Student's window, and
perhaps he will give you what you want.'
   So the Nightingale flew over to the Rose-tree that was growing beneath the Student's
window.
   'Give me a red rose,' she cried, 'and I will sing you my sweetest song.'
   But the Tree shook its head.
   'My roses are red,' it answered, 'as red as the feet of the dove, and redder than the great
fans of coral that wave and wave in the ocean-cavern. But the winter has chilled my veins,
and the frost has nipped my buds, and the storm has broken my branches, and I shall have no
roses at all this year.'

                                               <3>

    'One red rose is all I want,' cried the Nightingale, 'only one red rose! Is there no way by
which I can get it?'
    'There is a way,' answered the Tree; 'but it is so terrible that I dare not tell it to you.'
    'Tell it to me,' said the Nightingale, 'I am not afraid.'
    'If you want a red rose,' said the Tree, 'you must build it out of music by moonlight, and
stain it with your own heart's-blood. You must sing to me with your breast against a thorn. All
night long you must sing to me, and the thorn must pierce your heart, and your life-blood
must flow into my veins, and become mine.'
    'Death is a great price to pay for a red rose,' cried the Nightingale, 'and Life is very dear to
all. It is pleasant to sit in the green wood, and to watch the Sun in his chariot of gold, and the
Moon in her chariot of pearl. Sweet is the scent of the hawthorn, and sweet are the bluebells
that hide in the valley, and the heather that blows on the hill. Yet Love is better than Life, and
what is the heart of a bird compared to the heart of a man?'
    So she spread her brown wings for flight, and soared into the air. She swept over the
garden like a shadow, and like a shadow she sailed through the grove.
    The young Student was still lying on the grass, where she had left him, and the tears were
not yet dry in his beautiful eyes.
    'Be happy,' cried the Nightingale, 'be happy; you shall have your red rose. I will build it out
of music by moonlight, and stain it with my own heart's-blood. All that I ask of you in return
is that you will be a true lover, for Love is wiser than Philosophy, though she is wise, and
mightier than Power, though he is mighty. Flame-coloured are his wings, and coloured like
flame is his body. His lips are sweet as honey, and his breath is like frankincense.'
    The Student looked up from the grass, and listened, but he could not understand what the
Nightingale was saying to him, for he only knew the things that are written down in books.

                                               <4>



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     PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED
    But the Oak-tree understood, and felt sad, for he was very fond of the little Nightingale
who had built her nest in his branches.
    'Sing me one last song,' he whispered; 'I shall feel very lonely when you are gone.'
    So the Nightingale sang to the Oak-tree, and her voice was like water bubbling from a
silver jar.
    When she had finished her song the Student got lip, and pulled a note-book and a lead-
pencil out of his pocket.
    'She has form,' he said to himself, as he walked away through the grove - 'that cannot be
denied to her; but has she got feeling? I am afraid not. In fact, she is like most artists; she is all
style, without any sincerity. She would not sacrifice herself for others. She thinks merely of
music, and everybody knows that the arts are selfish. Still, it must be admitted that she has
some beautiful notes in her voice. What a pity it is that they do not mean anything, or do any
practical good.' And he went into his room, and lay down on his little pallet-bed, and began to
think of his love; and, after a time, he fell asleep.
    And when the Moon shone in the heavens the Nightingale flew to the Rose-tree, and set
her breast against the thorn. All night long she sang with her breast against the thorn, and the
cold crystal Moon leaned down and listened. All night long she sang, and the thorn went
deeper and deeper into her breast, and her life-blood ebbed away from her.
    She sang first of the birth of love in the heart of a boy and a girl. And on the topmost spray
of the Rose-tree there blossomed a marvellous rose, petal following petal, as song followed
song. Yale was it, at first, as the mist that hangs over the river - pale as the feet of the
morning, and silver as the wings of the dawn. As the shadow of a rose in a mirror of silver, as
the shadow of a rose in a water-pool, so was the rose that blossomed on the topmost spray of
the Tree.
    But the Tree cried to the Nightingale to press closer against the thorn. 'Press closer, little
Nightingale,' cried the Tree, 'or the Day will come before the rose is finished.'

                                                <5>

    So the Nightingale pressed closer against the thorn, and louder and louder grew her song,
for she sang of the birth of passion in the soul of a man and a maid.
    And a delicate flush of pink came into the leaves of the rose, like the flush in the face of
the bridegroom when he kisses the lips of the bride. But the thorn had not yet reached her
heart, so the rose's heart remained white, for only a Nightingale's heart's-blood can crimson
the heart of a rose.
    And the Tree cried to the Nightingale to press closer against the thorn. 'Press closer, little
Nightingale,' cried the Tree, 'or the Day will come before the rose is finished.'
    So the Nightingale pressed closer against the thorn, and the thorn touched her heart, and a
fierce pang of pain shot through her. Bitter, bitter was the pain, and wilder and wilder grew
her song, for she sang of the Love that is perfected by Death, of the Love that dies not in the
tomb.
    And the marvellous rose became crimson, like the rose of the eastern sky. Crimson was the
girdle of petals, and crimson as a ruby was the heart.
    But the Nightingale's voice grew fainter, and her little wings began to beat, and a film
came over her eyes. Fainter and fainter grew her song, and she felt something choking her in
her throat.
    Then she gave one last burst of music. The white Moon heard it, and she forgot the dawn,
and lingered on in the sky. The red rose heard it, and it trembled all over with ecstasy, and
opened its petals to the cold morning air. Echo bore it to her purple cavern in the hills, and
woke the sleeping shepherds from their dreams. It floated through the reeds of the river, and

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     PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED
they carried its message to the sea.
   'Look, look!' cried the Tree, 'the rose is finished now;' but the Nightingale made no answer,
for she was lying dead in the long grass, with the thorn in her heart.
   And at noon the Student opened his window and looked out.
   'Why, what a wonderful piece of luck! he cried; 'here is a red rose! I have never seen any
rose like it in all my life. It is so beautiful that I am sure it has a long Latin name;' and he
leaned down and plucked it.

                                              <6>

    Then he put on his hat, and ran up to the Professor's house with the rose in his hand.
    The daughter of the Professor was sitting in the doorway winding blue silk on a reel, and
her little dog was lying at her feet.
    'You said that you would dance with me if I brought you a red rose,' cried the Student.
Here is the reddest rose in all the world. You will wear it to-night next your heart, and as we
dance together it will tell you how I love you.'
    But the girl frowned.
    'I am afraid it will not go with my dress,' she answered; 'and, besides, the Chamberlain's
nephew has sent me some real jewels, and everybody knows that jewels cost far more than
flowers.'
    'Well, upon my word, you are very ungrateful,' said the Student angrily; and he threw the
rose into the street, where it fell into the gutter, and a cart-wheel went over it.
    'Ungrateful!' said the girl. 'I tell you what, you are very rude; and, after all, who are you?
Only a Student. Why, I don't believe you have even got silver buckles to your shoes as the
Chamberlain's nephew has;' and she got up from her chair and went into the house.
    'What a silly thing Love is,' said the Student as he walked away. 'It is not half as useful as
Logic, for it does not prove anything, and it is always telling one of things that are not going
to happen, and making one believe things that are not true. In fact, it is quite unpractical, and,
as in this age to be practical is everything, I shall go back to Philosophy and study
Metaphysics.'
    So he returned to his room and pulled out a great dusty book, and began to read.



                                  The Little Match Girl

by Hans Christian Andersen
Most terribly cold it was; it snowed, and was nearly quite dark, and evening-- the last evening
of the year. In this cold and darkness there went along the street a poor little girl, bareheaded,
and with naked feet. When she left home she had slippers on, it is true; but what was the good
of that? They were very large slippers, which her mother had hitherto worn; so large were
they; and the poor little thing lost them as she scuffled away across the street, because of two
carriages that rolled by dreadfully fast.




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     PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED
One slipper was nowhere to be found; the other had been laid hold of by an urchin, and off he
ran with it; he thought it would do capitally for a cradle when he some day or other should
have children himself. So the little maiden walked on with her tiny naked feet, that were quite
red and blue from cold. She carried a quantity of matches in an old apron, and she held a
bundle of them in her hand. Nobody had bought anything of her the whole livelong day; no
one had given her a single farthing.

She crept along trembling with cold and hunger--a very picture of sorrow, the poor little
thing!

The flakes of snow covered her long fair hair, which fell in beautiful curls around her neck;
but of that, of course, she never once now thought. From all the windows the candles were
gleaming, and it smelt so deliciously of roast goose, for you know it was New Year`s Eve;
yes, of that she thought.

In a corner formed by two houses, of which one advanced more than the other, she seated
herself down and cowered together. Her little feet she had drawn close up to her, but she grew
colder and colder, and to go home she did not venture, for she had not sold any matches and
could not bring a farthing of money: from her father she would certainly get blows, and at
home it was cold too, for above her she had only the roof, through which the wind whistled,
even though the largest cracks were stopped up with straw and rags.

Her little hands were almost numbed with cold. Oh! a match might afford her a world of
comfort, if she only dared take a single one out of the bundle, draw it against the wall, and
warm her fingers by it. She drew one out. "Rischt!" how it blazed, how it burnt! It was a
warm, bright flame, like a candle, as she held her hands over it: it was a wonderful light. It
seemed really to the little maiden as though she were sitting before a large iron stove, with
burnished brass feet and a brass ornament at top. The fire burned with such blessed influence;
it warmed so delightfully. The little girl had already stretched out her feet to warm them too;
but--the small flame went out, the stove vanished: she had only the remains of the burnt-out
match in her hand.

She rubbed another against the wall: it burned brightly, and where the light fell on the wall,
there the wall became transparent like a veil, so that she could see into the room. On the table
was spread a snow-white tablecloth; upon it was a splendid porcelain service, and the roast
goose was steaming famously with its stuffing of apple and dried plums. And what was still
more capital to behold was, the goose hopped down from the dish, reeled about on the floor
with knife and fork in its breast, till it came up to the poor little girl; when--the match went
out and nothing but the thick, cold, damp wall was left behind. She lighted another match.
Now there she was sitting under the most magnificent Christmas tree: it was still larger, and
more decorated than the one which she had seen through the glass door in the rich merchant`s
house.

Thousands of lights were burning on the green branches, and gaily-colored pictures, such as
she had seen in the shop-windows, looked down upon her. The little maiden stretched out her
hands towards them when--the match went out. The lights of the Christmas tree rose higher
and higher, she saw them now as stars in heaven; one fell down and formed a long trail of fire.




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     PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED
"Someone is just dead!" said the little girl; for her old grandmother, the only person who had
loved her, and who was now no more, had told her, that when a star falls, a soul ascends to
God.

She drew another match against the wall: it was again light, and in the lustre there stood the
old grandmother, so bright and radiant, so mild, and with such an expression of love.

"Grandmother!" cried the little one. "Oh, take me with you! You go away when the match
burns out; you vanish like the warm stove, like the delicious roast goose, and like the
magnificent Christmas tree!" And she rubbed the whole bundle of matches quickly against the
wall, for she wanted to be quite sure of keeping her grandmother near her. And the matches
gave such a brilliant light that it was brighter than at noon-day: never formerly had the
grandmother been so beautiful and so tall. She took the little maiden, on her arm, and both
flew in brightness and in joy so high, so very high, and then above was neither cold, nor
hunger, nor anxiety--they were with God.

But in the corner, at the cold hour of dawn, sat the poor girl, with rosy cheeks and with a
smiling mouth, leaning against the wall--frozen to death on the last evening of the old year.
Stiff and stark sat the child there with her matches, of which one bundle had been burnt. "She
wanted to warm herself," people said. No one had the slightest suspicion of what beautiful
things she had seen; no one even dreamed of the splendor in which, with her grandmother she
had entered on the joys of a new year.

SOMETHING ABOUT ENGLISH CULTURE:



                      Why do the British drive on the left?
There are few theories. Some of them are quite logical; however, there are some which are
closer to the farce than to the real story. Here are some of them:

Theory no. 1

In Roman times the shield was carried with the left hand and the sword with the right. The
soldiers marched on the left, so they could protect their body with their shield and they were
able to fight with their right hand.

Theory no. 2

A horse is mounted from the left. You swing the right leg over the horse's back. To make it
easier for smaller people to mount the horse, special stones (mounting stones) were provided.
They were put on the left side of the roads.

Theory no. 3

I must point out that in days of old logic dictated that when people passed each other on the
road they should be in the best possible position to use their sword to protect themselves. As
most people are right handed they therefore keep to their left. This practice was formalised in
a Papal Edict by Pope Benedict around 1300AD who told all his pilgrims to keep to the left.

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     PREGLED GRAMATIKE ENGLESKOG JEZIKA ZA 2. RAZRED
Nothing much changed until 1773 when an increase in horse traffic forced the UK
Government to introduce the General Highways Act of 1773 which contained a keep left
recommendation. This became a law as part of the Highways Bill in 1835.

Theory no. 4

I must point out that Napoleon was left-handed, and so he used to draw his sword from right
to left. He imposed his soldiers to parade marching on the right. Therefore, all Napoleon's
conquests were changing the way carts and horses used to go. From left to right. The US after
the War of Independence changed too, and so did Canada due to the French influence.
Commonwealth countries and other ones such as Japan, didn't change the left-side obligatory
driving.




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