Local Economy by Levone

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									                                                            Harlow Baseline Study 2002
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Chapter 2: Employment

Summary of Key Statistics
   Over 36,000 people are employed in Harlow.
   Part-time employment has risen 2% in the last 10 years.
   Manufacturing employment has declined 5% in the last 10 years.
   72% of employment is in the service sector.
   98% of businesses are SME’s.
   2% of businesses employ over 250 and account for 52% of the workforce.
   7% of businesses are foreign-owned and account for 31% of the workforce.
   48% of the workforce commutes to Harlow.
   11% fewer jobs are held by Harlow residents than 10 years ago.
   Unemployment is relatively low at 2.8%.


Key Statistics

Employment
There are over 36,000 employees in Harlow. The ‘Harlow Employers Survey 2000’ accounts
for 33,425 employees. 52% of the workforce is male and 48% is female. 74% of
employment is full-time and 26% is part-time. Part-time employment has risen by 2% since
1991. 88% of males and 60% of females work full-time. Female employment has remained
relatively unchanged since 1991 but male employment has significantly changed. In 2000,
5% fewer men worked full-time and 5% more men worked part-time than in 1991.

Employment by Sector

Employment by Sector, 1995-2000

                                                              1995    1997    2000
A   Agriculture, hunting and forestry                           0.0     0.0     0.0
B   Fishing                                                     0.0     0.0     0.0
C   Mining and quarrying                                        0.0     0.0     0.0
D   Manufacturing                                              25.6    24.0    24.4
E   Electricity, gas and water supply                           0.1     0.5     1.9
F   Construction                                                1.3     1.2     1.5
G   Wholesale and retail trade                                 24.4    23.0    18.3
H   Hotels and restaurants                                      3.3     3.3     3.3
I   Transport, storage and communication                        4.0     4.0    10.8
J   Financial intermediation                                    5.3     4.3     0.8
K   Real estate, renting and business activity                 12.5    13.3    14.3
L   Public administration and defence                          13.8    13.9     4.4
M   Education                                                   3.3     3.0     6.4
N   Health and social work                                      4.1     7.4    11.2
O   Other community, social and personal service activities     2.3     2.1     2.7
P   Private households with employed persons                    0.0     0.0     0.0
Q   Extra-territorial organisations and bodies                  0.0     0.0     0.0

Source: Harlow Employers Survey 2000


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                                                            Harlow Baseline Study 2002
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Manufacturing employment has declined by 5% in the last 10 years and 1% in the last 5
years but has stayed relatively stable since 1997. Manufacturing remains a significant sector
in Harlow employing 24% of the workforce. However, the majority of employment is within
the service sector (72%). There has been significant growth in the Transport, Storage and
Communication and Health and Social Work sectors over the past 5 years, with numbers of
employees increasing by over 7%.

Employment by Business Size
98% of businesses are Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (employ 1-250) and together
they account for 48% of the workforce. 2% of businesses employ over 250 and together
they account for 52% of the workforce.

Employment by Foreign-Owned Business
Harlow is highly dependent on foreign-owned businesses for employment.               7% of
businesses are foreign-owned and together they employ 31% of the workforce.

Key Sectors
Key sectors in Harlow are Electronics, Precision Engineering, Printing and Publishing,
Transport and Communications and Financial and Business Services.

Research and Development
Harlow is a leading centre for research and development in the country, with companies
such as GlaxoSmithKline and Nortel Networks based in the town.

Commuting
48% of the workforce commutes to Harlow. In-commuting has risen by 11% since 1991.
54% of male and 40% of female employees commute to Harlow. 34% of residents
commute out of Harlow for work.

Resident Workforce
The proportion of jobs held by Harlow residents has fallen. 7% fewer male and 3% fewer
female employees reside in Harlow than in 1995. 28% of the resident workforce are
employed in Manufacturing and 24% in the Wholesale and Retail Trade. 59% of the
resident workforce are employed by SMEs (employ 1-250). The resident workforce is highly
dependent for jobs (41%) on a relatively small number of large businesses.

Social Economy
Co-operatives are a distinct group of businesses within Harlow. There are 19 active co-
operatives in Harlow, most are worker co-operatives but also include 5 credit unions, a
consumer co-operative and a housing co-operative.

There are 200 social and not-for-profit enterprises in Harlow, including community
enterprises, social firms and not-for-profit businesses, which provide free or subsidised
services.




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                                                            Harlow Baseline Study 2002
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Unemployment
Unemployment in Harlow is relatively low. There are currently 1,096 (February 2002)
people unemployed and claiming benefit in Harlow. This gives an unemployment rate of
2.8%.    Male unemployment is 3.7% and female unemployment is 1.7%. Male
unemployment is much more significant in Harlow. Unemployment is most prominent in
those aged 20-34 (45% of men and 36% of women in February 2002). Unemployment has
remained below the national rate throughout 2001 but above the rate for the East of
England.

Redundancies
The recent decline in the telecommunications industry has had an impact on jobs in Harlow.
Nortel Networks, Arrow Electronics and C-MAC, major local employers have all announced
redundancies as a result of the decline in this market.

Manufacturing employment is likely to decline as more of the traditional industries
restructure. In 2001, Horizon Biscuits announced the closure of their factory in Barrows
Road with the subsequent loss of over 200 jobs.


Key Issues

   Harlow is dependent on a small number of large, foreign-owned businesses for
    employment.
   There are high levels of in-commuting for employment. Fewer jobs are held by Harlow
    residents.
   Local people are dependent on manufacturing and retail for employment. Fewer
    residents are accessing the better paid local jobs.
   There is a skills mismatch between local skills and those required by businesses.
   There have been an increasing number of redundancies and businesses relocating
    outside of Harlow.
   There is a need to retain sectors which have hitherto been strong but are experiencing a
    downturn i.e. the electronics sector.




For more information contact:
Alaine Clarke, Regeneration Research Officer, Harlow Council (01279 446448).

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