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A job to die for

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									A job to die for

A job to die for
Katherine Marshall




I  n 1992, Canadians were stunned
   when 26 miners were buried
alive in the Westray Mine in Nova
                                           Data sources and limitations                   These missing counts are not likely to
                                                                                          affect the results of this paper since the
                                           Fatality data are supplied to Human
Scotia. Accidental death related to        Resources Development Canada by                analysis centres on fatality rates, and
work happens to relatively few Ca-         provincial Workers’ Compensation               adjustments were made to compensate
nadians, but commands attention            Boards and Commissions (WC); data on           for the excluded data; that is, when
because it happens unexpectedly to         the number of paid workers (used in the        1992 and 1993 national and regional
                                           calculation of rates) originate from Sta-      fatality rates were calculated, paid
otherwise healthy people. In addi-
                                           tistics Canada’s Labour Force Survey           worker counts for Newfoundland and
tion to accidents, death can result                                                       New Brunswick were excluded from the
from illness caused by exposure to         (LFS). (Statistics Canada received
                                           detailed fatal work injury data from WC        denominator to match the missing
environmental hazards in the                                                              counts in the numerator. (Similar exclu-
                                           for 1993 and 1994.) Fatalities are
workplace.                                 reported for workers aged 14 and over,         sions were made in 1993 to adjust for
                                           while paid worker data from the LFS            missing Quebec data.)
   Work-related death also stands
out because of its large financial         cover only those persons aged 15 and               The recording of fatalities is not uni-
                                           over. This discrepancy is negligible as        form across Canada: Quebec reports by
and personal cost. Apart from its
                                           work-related fatalities among 14 year-         year of compensation; Ontario by year
effect on family and friends, a            olds are extremely rare.
death at work can reduce produc-                                                          of death; and all other provinces by year
                                               The fatal work injury counts are a         of accident. Fatalities caused by expo-
tivity because of temporary shut-
                                           census of all reported* WC cases and are       sure are the most likely to be affected
downs, loss of morale and the                                                             by these variations, because some expo-
training of replacement workers.           therefore not affected by sampling vari-
                                           ability errors. However, the data con-         sure deaths are gradual and will there-
   This article traces job-related         cern only workers covered by WC,               fore have different accident and death
                                           mainly paid workers. Since 1995, the           dates. For example, if a person died of
deaths over three 6-year periods
                                           Workers’ Compensation Acts in Canada           asbestos poisoning in 1992 but compen-
(1976 to 1981, 1982 to 1987 and                                                           sation was awarded in 1993, Ontario
1988 to 1993), and examines dif-           provide compulsory coverage for most
                                           workers in most industries, ranging            would report the fatality in 1992, Que-
ferences in fatality counts and rates                                                     bec in 1993 and the remaining provinces
                                           from 70% to 100% depending on the
by industry, region, occupation,           jurisdiction (AWCBC, 1995). Persons            in the year (estimated) the poisoning
age, sex, and cause of death. It con-      most likely not covered by WC are the          began. However, the estimated number
cludes with data on the financial          self-employed, unpaid family workers           of exposure cases with dates that fall
cost associated with these deaths          and workers in professional offices,           outside the study periods are suffi-
(see Data sources and limitations          although all may, and some do, apply           ciently small as not to affect national
and Definitions).                          for coverage. Therefore, WC fatality           results.
                                           counts are in fact an under-representa-            Finally, the data were aggregated
Many deaths occur in                       tion of the total number of work fatali-       over three 6-year periods (1976-1981,
                                           ties in Canada. In particular, work            1982-1987, 1988-1993) because of the
manufacturing                              deaths prior to 1995 may be seriously          limited number of observations available
From 1976 to 1993, almost 17,000           under-counted in the agriculture indus-        in any one year.
                                           try, where WC coverage has been tradi-
Canadians were fatally injured in                                                         * Nationally, over 90% of reported
                                           tionally excluded. However, the trend
the course of, or as a result of, their    to expand compulsory coverage now              cases are accepted for compensation by
employment (Table 1) 1 – an aver-          includes workers in agriculture, who,          Workers’ Compensation Boards and
age of more than two deaths a day.         since 1995, have had compulsory cov-           Commissions. The remaining cases may
Four industries – manufacturing;           erage in most jurisdictions.                   not be compensated for a number of rea-
construction; transportation and                                                          sons; for example, the job is not covered
                                              Newfoundland and New Brunswick              by the legislation, or the illness is not
storage; and mining, quarrying and
                                           have not provided fatality reports since       covered or deemed work-related.
oil wells – accounted for 63% of all       1991, nor has Quebec since 1992.
fatalities (over 10,000 deaths). In
each of the three periods examined,       the highest number of work-related                 From 1988 to 1993 (the most
                                          deaths were traced to manufactur-               recent period examined), 863
Katherine Marshall is with the Labour     ing (one in 6); but, as in many other           people died while working in
and Household Surveys Analysis
Division. She can be reached at (613)     industries, fatality counts have                manufacturing or as a result of hav-
951-6890.                                 dropped over time.                              ing once been employed there.


26 / Summer 1996 PERSPECTIVES                                                          Statistics Canada - Catalogue no. 75-001-XPE
                                                                                                                             A job to die for




 Definitions
 Work-related fatality: Any fatal in-          group (for example, an industry, occu-              The ratio is multiplied by 100,000,
 jury, disease or illness resulting from       pation or age range) who died from a             which allows the rate to be expressed
 a work-related incident that has been         fatal injury, disease or illness resulting       in whole numbers, and thus represents
 accepted for compensation by a                from their employment, in a specific             the number of deaths per 100,000
 Workers’ Compensation Board or                period, divided by the sum of the                paid workers.
 Commission. An accepted case                  annual average paid worker counts for
 means the death was connected with,           that group during that period. (In some              An employment-based fatality
 or directly related to, the performance       provinces, the year of accident or claim         rate, such as the one used in this pa-
 of the worker’s current or past job.          acceptance determines the time frame             per, measures the fatality risk for
                                               assigned. See Data sources and limita-           those employed at the time the LFS
    A death may occur at a worker’s            tions.) As an example, the national              was carried out. However, the annual
 usual place of work (for example, a           fatality rate in the construction industry       average number of paid workers does
 mine) or anywhere else duties are             from 1988 to 1993 is calculated as fol-          not reflect the movement of workers
 performed (an outdoor hydro line for          lows:                                            in and out of the workforce, nor does
 instance). The death may be instanta-                                                          it account for the volume of work per-
 neous (caused by a fall, for example)                     (N / W) x 100,000                    formed (for example, part-time or
 or may happen much later (years               where                                            part-year employment), which may
 after exposure to carcinogens at              N = the total number of work-related             differ for various groups. A number
 work).                                            fatalities in construction from              of factors may affect fatality rates:
                                                   1988 to 1993 (from WC Boards                 worker experience, number of hours
 Fatality rate: Although a fatality count                                                       worked, physical and other demands
 is important, a more telling indicator            and Commissions)
                                                                                                of the job, occupational environment,
 of risk is the fatality rate, which ex-       W = the sum of the annual average                condition of equipment, human error,
 presses the number of work-related                counts of paid workers in con-               legislation, and presence and effec-
 deaths per 100,000 paid workers.                  struction from 1988 to 1993                  tiveness of health and safety regula-
 More specifically, the rate represents            (from the LFS).                              tions.
 the number of people in a particular




 Table 1
 Fatalities and fatality rates by industry, 1976 to 1993
                                                           Fatalities                                     Fatality rates *
                                        1976-93      1976-81    1982-87     1988-93 **      1976-93   1976-81     1982-87       1988-93 **

 All industries                             16,668     6,260       5,437      4,971               9        11            9             7
            †
 Agriculture                                   295        84         113         98             10          9          11             10
 Fishing and trapping                          363       120         128        115            145        182         155            113
 Logging and forestry                        1,022       405         338        279             90         97          89             82
 Mining, quarrying and oil wells             2,228       836         748        644             70         79          69             63
 Manufacturing                               2,942     1,094         985        863              8          9           8              8
 Construction                                2,750     1,047         874        829             27         32          28             23
 Transportation and storage                  2,520     1,092         744        684             29         36          26             25
 Communication and other utilities             343       128         112        103              5          6           5              4
 Wholesale trade                               891       317         339        235             10         11          11              7
 Retail trade                                  395       158         127        110              2          2           2              1
 Finance, insurance and real estate            132        47          41         44              1          1           1              1
 Government services                           986       356         360        270              7          8           7              5
 Other services ††                           1,404       448         408        548              2          3           2              2
 Industry not stated                           397       128         120        149              ..         ..          ..             ..
 Sources: Workers’ Compensation Boards and Commissions, and Labour Force Survey
 * Work-related deaths per 100,000 paid workers (see Definitions).
 ** Fatality counts are missing for Newfoundland and New Brunswick in 1992 and 1993, and for Quebec in 1993; paid worker counts for
    these provinces and years were excluded from the denominators in fatality-rate calculations.
 †
    Agricultural workers have traditionally been excluded from Workers’ Compensation coverage, so the fatality counts and rates shown
    are an under-representation (see Data sources and limitations).
 ††
    Includes business services; educational services; health and social services; accommodation, food and beverage services; and
    other services, such as amusement and recreational services, personal and household services, and membership organizations.




Statistics Canada - Catalogue no. 75-001-XPE                                                          Summer 1996 PERSPECTIVES / 27
A job to die for




However, because of this indus-          added the dangers of handling haz-          lower-than-average absence rates
try’s high number of paid workers,2      ardous materials or heavy machin-           (Akyeampong, 1995).
its fatality rate was relatively low     ery. Such work inevitably places
(8 per 100,000). In contrast, many       people at greater risk of injury or         Rates vary by region
other industries were responsible        death.
for fewer deaths but had much                                                        The most recent six-year period
higher fatality rates, because of        while rates in most service indus-          (1988 to 1993) shows that British
their relatively small workforces.       tries have always been low                  Columbia had the highest death
                                         The safest industries are in the            rate at 15 per 100,000 paid work-
Although fatality rates have             service sector.4 With one exception,        ers, followed by the Atlantic prov-
been falling ...                         fatality rates were below 12 per            inces with 8, the Prairies and
                                         100,000 paid workers in all three           Quebec both with 7, and Ontario
Over the 18 years covered by this                                                    with 6. Although all regions saw a
                                         periods studied. For example, in re-
study, there was a substantial re-       tail trade and in finance, insurance        steady decline over the study’s
duction in the national fatality rate:                                               time frame, the Prairie provinces
                                         and real estate, the death rates were
from 11 per 100,000 paid workers                                                     and British Columbia experienced
                                         only one per 100,000 between
in the 1976 to 1981 period, to 7 per     1988 and 1993. An exception was             the most dramatic improvements:
100,000 between 1988 and 1993                                                        from 14 to 7 deaths per 100,000,
                                         the transportation and storage in-
(Table 1). In industries with ini-                                                   and from 20 to 15, respectively
                                         dustry, which registered a rate of 25
tially low fatality rates, figures re-   during this period; nevertheless,           (Chart).
mained relatively unchanged over
                                         this figure was an improvement                 As previously noted, fatality
the three periods; in industries with
                                         over death rates seen in earlier pe-        rates vary by industry, which
high rates between 1976 and 1981,        riods. Another study, which looked
death rates steadily decreased. For                                                  accounts in part for regional differ-
                                         at absences from work due to ill-           ences. In the 1988 to 1993 period,
example, the fishing and trapping
                                         ness or disability, also found that         one in 7 paid workers in British
industry fatality rate improved          the service sector, particularly
from 182 in the first period to 113                                                  Columbia, as well as in the Prairies
                                         trade and the finance, insurance            and the Atlantic provinces, were
in the last.
                                         and real estate industries, had             employed in fishing and trapping;
jobs in primary industries are
still risky ...
But in spite of these gains, fatality      Chart
rates remained high in most                Work-related fatality rates have been falling in all regions.
primary industries: fishing and
trapping (as mentioned above);            Fatality rate *
logging and forestry (82 per
                                          20
100,000 paid workers between
1988 and 1993); and mining, quar-
                                          16
rying and oil wells (63). The rela-
tively low fatality counts and rates
for agriculture are an under-repre-       12
sentation because until recently
this industry has been excluded            8
from compulsory Workers’ Com-
pensation coverage (see Data               4
sources and limitations). American
and regional Canadian studies in-          0
dicate that agricultural work is in            British Columbia     Prairies     Ontario       Quebec          Atlantic
fact riskier than average. 3
                                                            1976-1981          1982-1987           1988-1993 **
   Work in the primary industries
usually requires physical exertion        Sources: Workers’ Compensation Boards and Commissions, and Labour Force
                                                  Survey
and dexterity; in addition, many
                                          *  Work-related deaths per 100,000 paid workers (see Definitions).
employees must work outside in all        ** Fatality counts are missing for Newfoundland and New Brunswick in 1992 and
kinds of weather, as well as in rug-         1993, and for Quebec in 1993; paid worker counts for these provinces and
ged terrain, on water or under-              years were excluded from the denominators in fatality-rate calculations.
ground. To these difficulties are



28 / Summer 1996 PERSPECTIVES                                                     Statistics Canada - Catalogue no. 75-001-XPE
                                                                                                                       A job to die for




logging and forestry; mining, quar-
rying and oil wells; construction;             Table 2
and transportation and storage –               The 10 most dangerous jobs, 1988-1993
the five most dangerous industries.
                                                                                                     Fatalities        Fatality rates *
In comparison, one in 10 employ-
ees in both Quebec and Ontario
worked in these industries.                    All occupations                                           4,971                     7
                                               Top 10 occupations combined **                            1,354                    58
   Workers in British Columbia
were the most likely to be em-                 Mining and quarrying: cutting, handling, loading            212                   281
ployed in high-risk industries (16%            Construction: insulating                                     65                   246
of all paid workers in this prov-              Mining and quarrying: labouring                              56                   139
                                               Air pilots, navigators and flight engineers                  77                   137
ince). They also experienced                   Timber cutting                                              108                   123
higher-than-average fatality rates             Log hoisting, sorting and moving                             64                   116
in most of them. For example, from             Net, trap and line fishing                                   67                   110
1988 to 1993 the province posted               Truck drivers                                               496                    38
                                               Construction: labouring                                     122                    35
the highest fatality rates of all the          Construction: pipefitting and plumbing                       87                    31
regions involved in logging and
forestry (131 per 100,000 paid                 Sources: Workers’ Compensation Boards and Commissions, and Labour Force Survey
workers, compared with a low of 28             * Work-related deaths per 100,000 paid workers (see Definitions).
                                               ** Based on the 1980 Standard Occupational Classification, coded to the 4-digit level;
in Ontario), construction (37 com-                each occupation listed had at least 50 deaths between 1988 and 1993.
pared with 8 in Quebec), and trans-
portation and storage (46 compared
with 15 in the Atlantic provinces).
British Columbia’s rugged terrain              Fatality rate is highest for                  100,000 for men aged 65 and over.
probably makes logging, road con-              older men                                     The aging process, which reduces
struction and highway driving more                                                           agility, stamina and overall health,
                                               Most workers whose deaths were                is one factor that puts older men at
dangerous than in other regions.               registered in the 1988 to 1993 pe-            greater risk of injury or death, par-
                                               riod were men (96%); this propor-             ticularly if workers are in the more
Occupations in mining are                      tion varied little by age group.              physically demanding blue-collar
the most dangerous                             Presumably, more men than women               jobs. In addition, many older peo-
In order to determine which occu-              die from job-related causes be-               ple, who have long since retired,
                                               cause of their over-representation            die from exposure to environmen-
pations are the most dangerous it is
                                               in the higher-risk industries and             tal hazards encountered earlier in
important to focus on fatality rates,
rather than counts. For example,               occupations. Women are more                   their working lives.
                                               likely to work in the “safer” serv-
between 1988 and 1993 a relatively
                                               ice industries.                               Causes of death
low number of deaths (64) were as-
sociated with log hoisting, sorting               The largest number of work                 One in five work-related fatalities
and moving, but because relatively             deaths (929) was among people
                                                                                             accepted by Workers’ Compensa-
few people worked in this job, it              aged 25 to 34, accounting for 19%
had a high fatality rate of 116 per                                                          tion Boards and Commissions for
                                               of all deaths between 1988 and                the 1988 to 1993 period were
100,000. Similarly, truck driving              1993. However, the fatality rate of
                                                                                             caused by exposure to harmful sub-
accounted for 10% (496) of all fa-             this age group was low, hovering
talities (4,971) in the 1988 to 1993                                                         stances, including poisons, chemi-
                                               just above zero for women and                 cals, allergens, carcinogens and
period, but had a death rate of only           reaching 8 per 100,000 paid work-
                                                                                             radiation. Almost as many involved
38 per 100,000 paid workers, plac-             ers for men (Table 3).
ing it eighth among the 10 occupa-                                                           transportation vehicles, mostly
                                                 Among women, fatality rates                 trucks and cars (65%), but this
tions with the highest fatality rates
                                               remained below 5 per 100,000 re-              category also covers aircraft and
(Table 2).
                                               gardless of age. The picture was              watercraft. Workers also died from
   Two occupations had strikingly              quite different for men, however.             being struck or caught by objects,
high fatality rates in this period:            Their rates initially rose slowly with        and from falls, overexertion, fire
mining and quarrying (cutting,                 age – from 6 per 100,000 for 15 to            and explosion, electrocution and
handling and loading) and con-                 24 year-olds, to 12 for 45 to 54              violence5 (Table 4).
struction (insulating) had rates of            year-olds, and to 28 for 55 to 64
                                                                                                The two leading causes of death
281 and 246 per 100,000 paid                   year-olds – then jumped to 203 per
workers, respectively.                                                                       affect certain age groups differ-


Statistics Canada - Catalogue no. 75-001-XPE                                                       Summer 1996 PERSPECTIVES / 29
A job to die for




                                                                                                   which to be employed. In terms of
Table 3                                                                                            specific high-risk occupations,
Fatalities and fatality rates by age and sex, 1988-1993                                            miners who cut, handled and
                                                                                                   loaded material had the highest fa-
                                     Fatalities *                      Fatality rates **
                                                                                                   tality rate (281 per 100,000). High-
                                 Men           Women                  Men          Women           risk jobs tend to be held by men,
                                                                                                   who accounted for 96% of all work-
Total                           4,788                 181               13                 1       related deaths.
15-24   †
                                  371                  24               6                   -         Occupational deaths are tragic
25-34                             888                  40               8                   -      and expensive to compensate. The
35-44                             800                  42               9                  1       monitoring and surveillance of
45-54                             733                  27              12                  1
55-64                             898                  21              28                  1       such fatalities can shed light on the
65+                               887                  11             203 ††               4       effectiveness of safety policies and
Age not stated                    211                  16               ..                 ..      programs over time, and help pin-
Sources: Workers’ Compensation Boards and Commissions, and Labour Force Survey
                                                                                                   point work environments that may
* Excludes two cases where sex was not reported.                                                   require further preventive inter-
** Work-related deaths per 100,000 paid workers (see Definitions).                                 vention. Certainly, it is encourag-
†
   Fatalities are reported for workers 14 years and over.                                          ing that Canada’s fatality rates
††
   This high rate reflects the large number of retirees who died from earlier exposure to          have progressively improved since
   harmful substances.
                                                                                                   the mid-1970s.

ently. Exposure-related death,                  Summary
which can happen gradually, ac-                                                                      Acknowledgement
counted for 55% of all work fatali-             From 1988 to 1993 the manufactur-
ties among persons aged 65 and                  ing industry experienced the high-                   The author wishes to thank John
                                                est number of work-related                           Hemingway, Occupational Safety
over and 13% among persons un-
                                                fatalities among paid workers                        and Health Branch, Human Re-
der 65. In contrast, transportation                                                                  sources Development Canada, for
accidents were the leading cause of             (863); nevertheless, this industry
                                                had one of the lowest death rates (8                 his time and effort in providing data
death among those under 65 years                                                                     and documentation used in this
(26%), but accounted for only 3%                per 100,000). At 113 deaths per
                                                                                                     article.
of deaths for persons 65 and over.              100,000, the fishing and trapping
                                                industry was the most dangerous in
                                                                                                                                         o
Fatality costs are deadly
The cost of a fatality, in terms of
survivors’ benefits, is huge. In                    Table 4
1993, $5.6 billion was awarded for                  Causes of work fatalities, 1988-1993
881,512 injury and fatality claims                                                                   Number                             %
for all provinces combined.
Although fatalities accounted for
                                                    All fatalities                                     4,971                           100
only 735 (or 0.1%) of these claims,
they cost $361 million in benefits                  Exposure to harmful substance *                      982                            20
(6.4% of the total). As a result,                   Involving transportation vehicle                     933                            19
                                                    Struck by object                                     891                            18
the cost per fatality averaged                      Fall from elevation                                  425                             9
$492,000; in comparison, the                        Bodily exertion and heart attack                     311                             6
cost per injury averaged $6,000.                    Caught in, on, between object(s)                     255                             5
Beyond the costs assumed by                         Struck against                                       194                             4
Workers’ Compensation, there may                    Fire and explosion                                   139                             3
                                                    Contact with electric current                        138                             3
have been increased insurance                       Violence                                              93                             2
premiums for the employer as                        Fall from same level                                  78                             2
well as safety violation fines. Of                  Other **                                             532                            11
course, the emotional cost to the                   Sources: Workers’ Compensation Boards and Commissions
victims’ families and friends is                    * Half of all exposure-related deaths (497) happened to people aged 65 and over.
incalculable.                                       ** Includes past injuries and cases not elsewhere classified.




30 / Summer 1996 PERSPECTIVES                                                                   Statistics Canada - Catalogue no. 75-001-XPE
                                                                                                                               A job to die for




                                                  n References                                     Newfoundland and Labrador. Workers’ Com-
                                                                                                   pensation Commission. Nineteen Hundred
n Notes                                           Akyeampong, E.B. “Missing work.” Perspec-        and Ninety Three Annual Report. St. John’s,
                                                  tives on Labour and Income (Statistics Canada,   1994.
1 The figures in this study are for the           Catalogue no. 75-001-XPE) 7, no.1 (Spring
provinces only. The Yukon and Northwest           1995): 12-16.
Territories are excluded because the Labour                                                        Nova Scotia. Workers’ Compensation Board.
Force Survey does not provide their paid                                                           1993 Annual Report. Halifax, 1994.
                                                  Alberta. Workers’ Compensation Board.
worker counts, which are required in the          Annual Report 1993. Edmonton, 1994.
calculation of fatality rates.                                                                     Ontario. Workers’ Compensation Board. 1993
                                                                                                   Annual Report. Toronto, 1994.
                                                  Association of Workers’ Compensation
2 Between 1988 and 1993, 17% of all paid          Boards of Canada (AWCBC). Workers’ Com-
workers were employed in manufacturing.                                                            Prince Edward Island. Workers’ Compensa-
                                                  pensation Industry Classifications, Assess-      tion Board. Forty-fifth Annual Report for
                                                  ment Rates, and Experience Rating Programs       the Year Ended December 31, 1993.
3 The 1993 Census of Fatal Occupational           in Canada. Edmonton: AWCBC, 1995.
Injuries in the United States showed a fatality                                                    Charlottetown, 1994.
rate of 34 per 100,000 agricultural workers       Brison, R.J. and W. Pickett. “Fatal farm inju-
(Toscano and Windau, 1994), and a Canadian                                                         Quebec. Commission de la santé et de la
                                                  ries in Ontario, 1984 through 1992.” Cana-       sécurité du travail. Report of Activities 1993.
study of fatal farm injuries in Ontario yielded   dian Journal of Public Health 86, no.4 (July-
a rate of 56 per 100,000 farms from 1984 to                                                        Québec, 1994.
                                                  August 1995): 246-248.
1992 (Brison and Pickett, 1995).
                                                                                                   Saskatchewan Workers' Compensation Board.
                                                  British Columbia. Workers’ Compensation          1993 Annual Report: Statistical Supplement.
4 The service sector includes transporta-         Board. Annual Report 1993: Part 2 - Statis-
tion and storage; communication and other                                                          Regina, 1994.
                                                  tics ’93. Victoria, 1994.
utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; fi-
nance, insurance and real estate; government                                                       Statistics Canada. Standard Occupational
                                                  Grayson, J.P. “Perceptions of workplace haz-     Classification, 1980. Catalogue no.
services; and other services.                     ards.” Perspectives on Labour and Income         12-565-XPE. Ottawa, 1981.
                                                  (Statistics Canada, Catalogue no.
5 Canadian and American work-related fa-          75-001-XPE) 6, no.1 (Spring 1994): 41-47.
tality data follow similar patterns, with one                                                      Toscano, G. and J. Windau. “The changing
exception. In Canada, violence in the                                                              character of fatal work injuries.” Monthly
                                                  Manitoba. Workers’ Compensation Board.           Labor Review 117, no.10 (October 1994):
workplace has remained stable and rare (2%);      Annual Report 1993. Winnipeg, 1994.
in the United States, violence (predominantly                                                      17-28.
shootings) was the second leading cause of        New Brunswick. Workers’ Compensation
death at work in 1993 (following highway          Board. Seventy-fifth Annual Report of the
fatalities), accounting for 21% of work-re-       Workers’ Compensation Board. Saint John,
lated fatalities (Toscano and Windau, 1994).      1994.




Statistics Canada - Catalogue no. 75-001-XPE                                                             Summer 1996 PERSPECTIVES / 31

								
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