Ch. 8 Questions 1. The division of the Muslim religion grew because some believed Ali was the legitimate religious leader after Muhammad. 2. What are the names of the two sects of the Muslim community? Sunni and Shiite 3. The Sasanid Empire was centered in the area that is present-day Iran. 4. Mecca is important because it is a caravan city and pilgrimage site of the Ka’ba 5. Muhammad conceived Islam after experiencing revelations. 6. Muslim means one who makes submission. 7. Islam means surrender to the will of God. 8. Muhammad’s teachings seem to agree with what two other religions? Christianity and Judaism. 9. The unified community accepting Islam and believing that Muhammad was the messenger of God was called the Umma. 10. After Muhammad’s death, who was chosen to be the caliph? Abu Bakr 11. Muslim is based on the five pillars. 12. Muhammad’s revelations from the angel are compiled into a book called the Quran. 13. Muslims who believe that the first three caliphs were rightly selected are the Sunnis. 14. Decline in the Ummayad dynasty was due to growing unrest among the no- Arab Muslims who demanded access to political power. 15. Why was the Abbasid rule considered the “golden age”? It created a refined and cosmopolitan culture in Baghdad. 16. Despite conversions to Islam, Abbasid power declined because the empire became too big to control. 17. The caliphs acquired a standing army of Turkish mercenaries called Mamluks. 18. Ummayad Spain developed a distinct Islamic culture because of the blending of Roman, Germanic, Arab, Jewish, and Berber traditions. 19. The ulama were religious scholars. 20. During the Seljuk’s rule during the first crusade the leaders did not get involved in internal religious fighting, irrigation and canal systems fell into despair, and cities shrank and lost population (ALL OF THE ABOVE) 21. What is the hadith? A collection of Muhammad’s words and deeds. Ch. 9 Questions 1. Schisms, the foremost threat to the Catholic Church, were a formal split within a religious community (possibly formal decisions or differences in doctrine). 2. Which empire continued pattern of Roman rule to differ from western counterparts? Byzantine 3. Among Byzantine cultural achievements is their architectural tradition and Cyrillic writing. 4. Europe’s transformation at the decline of Rome included increasing political fragmentation, population depended on local strongmen, roman traditions were replaced by German traditions, and legal framework disappeared (ALL OF THE ABOVE) 5. After the fall of Rome in the fifth century, the Western Roman Empire fragmented into a handful of Germanic kingdoms. 6. Who built kingdoms in Iceland, Greenland, and Finland? The Vikings. 7. The primary centers for agricultural production were self sufficient farming estates known as manors. 8. Serfs were agricultural workers who belonged to the manor and were obligated to the lords. 9. As time went on, armored knighthood was limited to those with revenue from land. 10. The term investiture controversy refers to the struggle for control of ecclesiastical appointments. 11. Which of the following were not generally among the responsibilities of monasteries and convents? Scientific experimentation and inquiry. 12. Vladimir I chose Orthodox Christianity because Islam forbade alcohol. 13. Which of the following is not responsible for the success of many cities? (I did not have an answer for this one) 14. During the revival of Western Europe, the population nearly doubled because of technological advances such as the new plow and efficient draft harnesses for pulling wagons. 15. In Kievan Russia, power derives from trade. 16. All the following were true about the Crusades EXCEPT. The crusades were successful. 17. By the end of the 12th century, the Byzantine Empire had lost a great deal of territory to Muslim invaders from the Arabian Peninsula. 18. A fief is land granted to soldiers in return for a sworn oath to provide military service. 19. The most important impact of monasticism was its contribution of communal living and prayer. 20. What was first introduced to Europe after the Crusades? Philosophical and scientific original works by Arabs and Iranians. Ch. 10 Questions 1. Which empire united China? Sui 2. During the centuries of disunity, what religion began to exert influence? Buddhism 3. The Tang Empire is considered cosmopolitan because it mixed styles, goods, and cultures from everywhere in Asia. 4. Why was Chang’an important? It was the center of Tang communications and trade. 5. The most serious rivals of the Tang were the Uighurs and Tibet. 6. When did the decline of the Tang occur? When the political decay and military decline undermined social order. 7. Who did the Tang blame most for growing instability in their Empire? Buddhists 8. What did the Chinese transportation innovations include? The Song improvement of the compass. 9. Which were important innovations of the Song? Stern-mounted rudder, high- quality steel, and gunpowder. 10. By instituting the civil service exams, the Song did what? Recruited the most talented men for government service. 11. Which of the following did not occur in China due to the development of movable type and the availability of printed material? It helped spread subversive ideas and caused a number of rebellions, just as printing would later in the 16th century in the West. 12. During the Song period, women experienced subordination and social restriction epitomized by what? Foot binding 13. Which of the following Chinese technologies were not among these burrowed by the Koreans to make Buddhists texts? Moveable type 14. To facilitate communication and trade between North and South China, the Sui built what? The Grand Canal 15. The tributary system was a practice which the countries acknowledged the supremacy of the Chinese Emperor. 16. What did the Chinese maritime innovations include? The compass and large ocean-going ships. 17. Of the many things that central Asia and the Islamic introduced to China which of the following was not among them? Gunpowder 18. What did the Uigurs excel as? Merchants and scribes 19. After the decline of the Tang Empire, the states that emerged were the Liao, Song, and Tibet. 20. Historians state that the Song technological innovations allowed the Song to do what? Come as close to having and industrial revolution. Ch. 11 Questions (taken from exam) Ch. 12 Questions 1. An advantage of Mongol rule was that it produced the spread of ideas and movement of people in Eurasia. 2. What metal was crucially important to Central Asian nomads? Iron 3. The first Mongol conquests under Genghis Khan were in China. 4. Why did the Mongols refrain from attacking Central Europe in 1241? Death of the Great Khan 5. Narratives such as Marco Polo’s created a European ambition to find easier routes to Asia. 6. In 1295, the Il-khan ruler Ghazan converted to which religion? Islam 7. Which city became Russia’s dominant political center under the Mongols? Moscow 8. Mongol rule of Russia was overthrown by Ivan III. 9. Mongol armies often consisted of a multinational force with Mongol leaders. 10. In 1453, the Ottomans conquered which important Christian city? Constantinople 11. Much to the distress of the Confucians, the Mongols elevated the status of the merchants. 12. In 1368, the Yuan Empire was overthrown and replaced by the Ming Empire. 13. The Emperor Yongle restored commercial links with the Middle East by exploring maritime connections and encouraging the voyages of Zhen He. 14. Why didn’t Ming China develop seafaring for commercial and military gain? The Mongol threat from the North took priority over seafaring. 15. The Ming produced one of the most prized commercial products of Eurasia, porcelain. 16. Although the Yi Kingdom publicly rejected the Mongols, they adopted Mongol administrative practices and institutions. 17. What military techniques or innovation made the Yi military a formidable defensive force? Cannon with gunpowder-driven arrow launchers. 18. What prevented the Mongols from invading Japan? A storm prevented them from establishing a base. 19. How did the threat of Mongol invasion affect Japan? The Japanese military governments spent a lot of time building coastal defenses, hoping to consolidate the warrior class. 20. Kamikaze means wind of the gods. Ch.13 Questions 1. The tropics were warm all year-round. The center of the tropical zone is marked by the equator. 2. The rainy and dry seasons in the Indian Ocean reflect the influence of monsoons. 3. To accommodate the uneven distribution of rainfall, South Indian farmers constructed elaborate irrigation canals. 4. Empires of Mail in West Africa and Delhi in Southern Asia both utilized Islamic administration. 5. Mansa Kankan Musa made a famous pilgrimage that served to demonstrate the enormous wealth of his country. 6. In addition to fulfilling his religious obligation, Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage resulted in construction of new mosques and Quaranic schools. 7. The Turkish invaders successfully invaded India due to the division of India into small states. 8. Sultan Iltutmish passed his empire to Raziya, his daughter. 9. The characteristic ship of the Arabian Sea was the dhow. 10. The largest, most advanced ship in the Indian Ocean was the Chinese junk. 11. The different regional networks of the Indian Ocean trade were tied together by commercial interests. 12. By 1250 the most important trading city of Swahili coast was Kilwa. 13. As trade increased in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Strait of Malacca became the center of a political rivalry between Majaphit and Chinese Pirates. 14. Because of the trade through the Strait of Malacca, Malacca became an important port and became a meeting place for traders from around the European world. 15. In India, Islamic invasion practically destroyed the last strongholds of Buddhism. 16. The Delhi Sultans controlled their empire in India by terror and high taxes. 17. Although the Delhi Sultanate had its problems, it did provide a centralized political authority to India. 18. The economic and political power of Great Zimbabwe was based on long distance trade in gold, copper, and salt. 19. The city of Aden in Arabia was an excellent location for growing grain and a convenient stopover for traders from India. 20. The prosperity of the Asian and African kingdoms from 1200 to 1500 was accompanied by the growth of slavery. Chapter 14 1. The period from 1200 to 1500 is better known as Europe’s –late Middle Ages. 2. Western Europeans of the later Middle Ages were called –Latins. 3. In the Latin West during the later Middle Ages approximately -9/10 were rural. 4. In return for the use of their lord’s land, serfs –had to give the lord a share of the harvest and perform services. 5. The three-field system was –an agricultural method. 6. Windmills and watermills –had long been common in the Islamic world. 7. The continued growth of trade and manufacturing after 1200 was due to –the growth of urban areas in the Latin West. 8. A guild was –an association of craft specialists from the same trade. 9. What architectural wonder first made its appearance in France on or about the year 1140 C.E.? Gothic Cathedrals 10. Which of the following is not a distinctive feature of the Gothic Cathedral? Domes. 11. The Renaissance began in –Northern Italy 12. In the universities of the Latin West all courses were taught in –Latin. 13. The poem Canterbury Tales was –written by Geoffery Chauncer. 14. The greatest influence of the humanists was in –the reform of secondary education. 15. Which of the following fostered asrtistic growth in the Renaissance? The patronage of the wealthy merchants and prelates. 16. Which of the following statements about the Magna Carta is not true? It gave new rights to peasants. 17. Joan of Arc –led the French to victory in a decisive battle during the Hundred Years War. 18. The average life expectancy for a European of this period was -30-35 years. 19. In the 13th century, what caused Italian Eastern Mediterranean trade to be strengthened? A Venetian inspired assault on Constantinople. 20. Which of the following is not true of trading cities in Europe during the Middle Ages? They were unable to produce products to compete with Asian products. Chapter 15 Questions (taken from exam) 1. What evidence supports the belief that eastern Pacific islands were settled as a result of planned expeditions by Polynesian mariners? All of these 2. How did the rise of medieval Islam give trade in the Indian Ocean an important boost? All of these 3. The Ming Empire attempted to create new Indian Ocean contacts by sending out seven imperial fleets between 1405 and 1433. 4. The Chinese treasure ships of Zheng He carried silks, metals, and other valuable goals as gifts for distant rulers. 5. Why did the Ming court suspend the Voyages of Zhen He? The government believed that little could be gained by exploring. 6. The greatest mariners of the Atlantic in the early Middle Ages were the Vikings. 7. In addition to sailing up the Pacific coast, early Amerindians from South America also colonized the West Indies. 8. What 2 nations began a maritime revolution that profoundly altered the course of world history? Portugal and Spain 9. Why didn’t the Indian states take a lead in exploring the Atlantic? The ships of the Mediterranean were ill suited to the Atlantic and the trading states of Venice and Genoa preferred a system of alliances with the Muslims. 10. Which of the following is a reason for Iberian overseas exploration? None of these. 11. Prince Henry of Portugal was known as Henry the Navigator because he devoted his life to promoting exploration. 12. The advantage of the caravel was that it was All of these. 13. The first Portuguese explorer to reach the southern tip of Africa and view the Indian Ocean was Bartholomew Diaz. 14. Christopher Columbus was from Genoa. 15. Columbus expected to reach the West Indies. False 16. Columbus carried a letter from Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand to the Chinese Empire. True. 17. The powerful African kingdom of Renib of West Africa limited their contact with the Portuguese by declining offers to receive missionaries. True. 18. The first Portuguese who landed in India were greeted with panic and fear. False. 19. The Portuguese focus in the eastern Indian Ocean was on Hong Kong. False 20. The result of Portuguese domination of Indian Ocean trade routes was All of these. 21. The difference between the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire was the Spanish was a territorial empire and the Portuguese was a trading empire. 22. Conquistador means conqueror. 23. Spanish capture of the Aztec capital was assisted by disease. Chapter 16 Questions 1. The economic prosperity of the papacy allowed the popes to –build magnificent new cathedrals, such as St. Peters Basilica in Rome. 2. Martin Luther insisted that the only way to salvation was –faith in Jesus Christ. 3. The movement that began with the rejection of the Pope’s authority was the – Protestant Reformation. 4. John Calvin preached that salvation was granted by –predestination. 5. Calvinism went further than Lutheranism in –simplifying religious rituals. 6. Ignatius of Loyola founded the –Society of Jesus. 7. The challenge to the church and its supporters was intense and emotional, resulting in –bitter wars of religion. 8. The Scientific Revolution demonstrated that the workings of the universe could be explained by natural causes. True 9. The astronomer who first placed the sun at the center of the universe was Nicholas Copernicus. True 10. The scientist that asserted that mathematical laws governed the universe was Galileo. False 11. Many religious and intellectual leaders viewed the new science with suspicion, as shown by the condemnation of Galileo. True 12. Bourgeoisie means clergy. False 13. As the iron industry expanded, the consumption of fuel caused –deforestation. 14. Unlike other places in the world, marriage patterns in early modern Europe reflected –a freer choice of one’s marriage partner instead of an arranged marriage. 15. The Holy Roman Empire was ruled by the –Habsburgs. 16. In 1555, by the Peace of Augsburg, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V allowed German Princes to choose –Catholicism or Lutheranism. 17. To ensure that his subjects did not resist royal authority, King Phillip II of Spain – used the Spanish Inquisition to suppress opposition. 18. King Henry VIII of England severed his bond to the Catholic Church when –the pope refused to grant him papal annulment to his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. 19. At the end of the English Civil War, the monarch was executed and replaced by – Oliver Cromwell. 20. The Glorious Revolution and the English Civil War both started when –the monarch refused to share power with Parliament. 21. The wars and devotion of the European early Modern era resulted in better European armies, weapons, and maneuvers. 22. In the 17th century, what newly unified state was the world’s greatest trading nation? Netherlands. Chapter 17 1. The term Columbian Exchange refers to the transfer of peoples, animals, plants, and diseases between the Old and New Worlds. 2. What was the most deadly epidemic in the Americas? Smallpox 3. By the end of the 16th century, what country occupied most of the Brazilian coast? Portugal 4. In colonial society, Amerindian’s religious beliefs survived beneath the surface of imposed Christianity. 5. The council of the Indies was created in Spain in 1524 to put royal power in place over the population. 6. The highest ranking Spanish officials enjoyed power because Spain was far away. 7. The Viceroyalty of New Spain in 1535 encompassed Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. 8. The most important agent for transmitting European culture was the Catholic Church. 9. The economic development of the colonies in Mexico and Peru was dominated by silver mining and sugar plantations. 10. In Brazil, the Amerindian slaves were superseded by African slaves. 11. American-born Spanish whites were called creoles. 12. Castas of Latin America consisted of mostizos and mulattos. 13. How did the English and French American colonies differ from Spanish and Portuguese colonies? English and French developed their colonies through private corporations. 14. In Virginia, the government consisted of the governor, council, representatives, and the House of Burgesses. 15. The largest slave revolt took place in 1739 in South Carolina and was called the Stono Rebellion. 16. Two protestant groups that colonized New England were the Puritans and the Pilgrims. 17. The Middle Atlantic region was first settled by the Dutch. 18. The French settlement in America resembled Spanish and Portuguese how? They both extracted resources and converted the people to Christianity. 19. In French Canada, the Jesuit efforts to covert natives to Christianity led to the founding of schools, hospitals, and churches. 20. The English Navigation Acts sought to limit colonial trading and production competition. Chapter 18 1. The expansion of sugar plantations in the West Indies required –a sharp increase in the African slave trade 2. The cultivation and production of sugar can best be described as –requiring farming as well as factory production materials 3. By-products of sugar manufacture were –molasses and rum. 4. Environmental damage to sugar plantations was caused by –soil exhaustion and deforestation. 5. As a result of the European colonization, the Arawale and Carib –became nearly extinct from abuse and disease. 6. In the 18th century, West Indian plantations were controlled by a plantocracy –a small number of rich men who owned the land and slaves. 7. Men outnumbered women on Caribbean plantations because –twice as many men were imported. 8. Plantation slaves were motivated to work hard –to escape punishment. 9. Most slaves died of –disease. 10. The greatest stock market of the 17th and 18th centuries was the –Amsterdam Stock Exchange. 11. To reduce the risks of over seas trading, companies –bought insurance. 12. Mercantilism is –a government policy that protects trade and demands the accumulation of gold and silver. 13. The clockwise network of trade in the Atlantic was the –Atlantic Circuit. 14. Why was mortality on Atlantic slave ships so high? All of these. 15. Africans trading slaves with Europeans most often referred to receive in return –guns and textiles. 16. Most slaves taken from Africa were –prisoners of war. 17. In the 18th century, what was the major source of slaves in the interior of the Bight of Biafra? Kidnapping. 18. Generally, the Atlantic African slave trade was based on a partnership between – European and African elites. 19. Islamic law prohibited the enslavement of –Muslims. 20. Both Muslims and Europeans obtained slaves from sub-Saharan Africa but –the Islamic trade was much smaller. Chapter 19 Questions 1. The longest lasting post-Mongol Empire was the –Ottoman Empire. 2. In 1453, the Ottoman armies attacked Constantinople and brought the end to – Byzantine Rule 3. The sultan who presided over a golden age and the greatest assault on Christian Europe was –Sulieman the Magnificent 4. A new 14th century Ottoman military resource was Christian prisoners of war called – janissaries. 5. The askeri class in the Ottoman Empire was the –military class. 6. What became the majority religion in the Balkans under the Ottoman Empire? Islam 7. The chief source of Ottoman inflation in the 16th century was –an influx of silver from the Americas. 8. What new product traded from the Arabian port of Mocha became the rage in the 15th century? Coffee 9. Why did Ottoman historians call the period between 1718 and 1730 the Tulip Period? There was a craze for high priced tulip bulbs. 10. The Ottoman’s chief rival in Iran was the -Safavid Empire. 11. One difference between the Ottoman and Iranian states was that the Iranian state was based on –Shi’ism. 12. Iran became most closely associated with the manufacture of what item? Silk 13. The weak link in the Iranian military was its –lack of a navy. 14. The Mughal Empire is distinguished from the Ottomans and Safavids mostly because it was –a Hindu land ruled by Muslims. 15. In part, the Mughal Empire declined because of –the rise of regional powers and princely states. 16. Why did the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires decline simultaneously? The inability to adjust to the changes in military technology and the world economy. 17. What European country conquered the East African port cities? Portugal 18. The found of the Mughal Empire was –Babur. Chapter 20 1. When Japan’s political unity disintegrated in the 12th century, the country was controlled by warlords called daimyo. 2. The Japanese called their warriors Samurai. 3. After the period of civil wars in Japan, Japanese leaders resigned, thus allowing a true democracy to form. 4. Eventually, the Japanese government closed Japan to European trade and Christian influence. 5. What was the fate of the Samurai of the forty-seven Ronin incident? They were allowed to commit ritual suicide. 6. Which empire replaced the Ming Empire of China? Qing Empire 7. What European organization was a transmitter of science and technology to China? Jesuits 8. Who was Matteo Ricci? A Jesuit missionary who introduced European technology to China. 9. To gain converts, the Jesuits made what compromise? They tolerated Confucian ancestor worship. 10. Russian rulers were called tsars. 11. Russian expansion created a diverse society, including groups like the Cossacks. 12. How did the growth of a centralized Russian Empire affect the peasants? Peasants became serfs, people tied to the land. 13. According to the Russian census of 1795, over half of the population was serfs. 14. The greatest Romanov tsar was Peter the Great. 15. The new city that was to be Russia’s “window to the west” is St. Petersburg. 16. Although European enthusiasm for Chinese trade was high, the Chinese were slow to embrace European trade. 17. The British Macartney Mission was an attempt to persuade China to revise its trade system. 18. The princes of Muscovy organized a movement of conquest and expansion against the Golden Horde. 19. The motivation for Russian expansion to the east was availability of fur pelts. 20. One result of the “Great Northern War” was Russian access to the Baltic Sea. Chapter 20 Questions Taken From the Unit Test (Chapter 20 was the group chapter) 36. When Japan’s political unity disintegrated in the 12th century, the country was controlled by –warlords called daimyo. 37. The Japanese called their warriors –Samurai. 38. One of the consequences of Japanese aggression was –that weakened Chinese armies were defeated by the Manchu. 39. After the period of civil wars ended in Japan, -Japanese leaders resigned, thus allowing a true democracy to form. 40. European contact with Japan resulted in opportunities and problems such as –all of these. 41. Japanese response to the Society of Jesus or Jesuits was –mixed while some were opposed to it, others were attracted. 42. Eventually the Japanese government –closed Japan to European trade and Christian influence. 43. Which empire replaced the Ming Empire of China? Qing Empire. 44. Merchants from which country were the first to arrive in East Asia? Portugal. 45. What European organization was a transmitter of science and technology to China? Society of Jesus or Jesuits. 46. The Qing Emperor’s desire for security of the northern border led to –an intense struggle with Russia. 47. To gain converts, the Jesuits made what compromises? They tolerated Confucian ancestor worship. 48. The greatest Romanov tsar was –Peter the Great. 49. Why did Peter the Great attempt to westernize Russia? To strengthen the Russian state and its autocracy. 50. The new city that was to be Russia’s “window to the west” is –St. Petersburg. Chapter 21 1. The Enlightenment was the intellectual movement in which –the methods and questions of the Scientific Revolution were applied to human society. 2. Monarchs such as Catherine the Great of Russia and Fredrick the Great of Prussia – supported many Enlightenment thinkers. 3. The Stamp Act of 1765 required that colonists pay a tax on –nearly all printed material. 4. Which 1770 event radicalized public opinion throughout the American colonies? The Boston Massacre. 5. Common Sense, the pamphlet that stirred up anti-British sentiment on the eve of the American Revolution was written by –Thomas Paine. 6. At Yorktown, the British General Cornwallis –surrendered to General Washington. 7. The Constitutional Convention of 1787 is called the Second American Revolution because –the delegates pushed aside the announced purpose and in secret wrote a new Constitution. 8. In the Constitution, salves were counted as 3/5 of a person –to give southern states more representatives. 9. Which of the following statements is true of the French Revolution? It did not create an enduring form of representative democracy. 10. As a result of the French Revolution, King Louis XVI was –beheaded. 11. In 1787, King Louis XVI called a meeting of the Estates General the French national legislature, because –the French elite would not consent to new taxes. 12. Which French Estate declared itself to be the National Assembly? Third Estate. 13. As economic depression, hunger and high bread prices combined in 1789, the Parisian crowd –attacked the Bastille. 14. Some incidents during the Reign of Terror included –a new calendar without Sundays. 15. Napoleon became Europe’s first popular dictator because he –promised order to an exhausted society. 16. Napoleon won the support of the peasantry and the middle class by –rewriting French Law asserting equality in law and protection of property. 17. Despite the dominance of the French military, the British defeated Napoleon’s army in 1805 at –Trafalgar. 18. Napoleon’s invasion of _________ led to his decline. Russia. 19. After his escape from Elba, Napoleon was defeated at –The Battle of Waterloo. 20. Who was Francois Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverature? The Leader of a slave revolt in Saint Domingue. 21. The central objective of the Congress of Vienna was –to restore the French monarchy and France’s 1792 borders. 22. In 1930, Greece won its independence from the –Ottoman Empire. Chapter 22 1. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, the population grew because of –reliable food supplies and resistance to disease. 2. The Agricultural Revolution was a change in farming methods and crops that resulted in –rich farmers enclosing their lands and poor farmers becoming landless. 3. New forms of energy were important for industrialization such as –the steam engine and electricity. 4. What does it meant to use a division of labor in manufacturing? Dividing work into specialized and repetitive tasks. 5. Among the new inventions developed to wave cotton was/were -the spinning jenny and the water frame. 6. According to the chapter what are the two advantages of mechanization? Lower prices and increased productivity. 7. An example of the enormous quantities of iron produced and novel applications of it was the huge greenhouse called –the Crystal Palace. 8. The most revolutionary invention of the Industrial Revolution was James Watt’s – steam engine. 9. What invention revolutionized communication during the Industrial Revolution? The electric telegraph. 10. The most dramatic environmental change caused by the Industrial Revolution was – Growth of urban population. 11. The most obvious change in rural life during the revolution was –the appearance of new roads, canals, and railroads 12. Industrial work had an enormous impact on the family because –work was now removed from the home and family members were separated all day. 13. Much of the industrial workforce was composed of child labor. Children workers – worked 14-16 hours a day and were beaten to stay awake. 14. Although the Industrial Revolution is generally viewed as a period of progress, economic growth, and prosperity it was –not steady, swinging between hard times and recovery. 15. The Industrial Revolution’s real beneficiaries were the –middle class. 16. What does Adam Smith propose in The Wealth of Nations? The government should not interfere in business. 17. When Britain’s spoke of “dismal science” they referred to –economics. 18. Charles Fourier and other opponents of capitalism advocated –the wisdom of the mercantile system. 19. The Factor Act of 1833 –prohibited textile mills from employing workers under the age of nine. 20. How did industrialization change China’s relationship with the west? European steam powered gunboats humiliated China’s military. Chapter 24 1. The Zulu kingdom arose primarily from –internal conflicts over grazing and farmlands. 2. The most powerful and most feared fighters in Africa were the –Zulu. 3. The Zulu succeeded in creating a new –national identity. 4. Muhammad Ali’s creation of modern Egypt was shaped by the shock of –Napoleon’s occupation of Egypt. 5. Egyptian modernization was paid for by –encouraging peasants to grow cotton for export. 6. Despite the fact that Egypt’s modernization made it the strongest state in the Islamic world –Egypt fell into debt with Europe. 7. By the 1840s Ethiopian leaders made ________ a top priority. The purchase of European weapons and local production of weapons. 8. Who was David Livingstone? A Scottish missionary and explorer. 9. Ironically, the British were the world’s greatest slave traders and later –became the most aggressive suppressors of slave trade. 10. The most successful export from West Africa after abolition was –palm oil. 11. The spread of Western cultural influence in West Africa was due in large part to – mission churches and schools in Sierra Leone and Liberia. 12. Eastern African states are referred to as secondary empires because –not directly controlled by Europeans but were supplied with European weapons. 13. Although the East India Company was founded in 1600, the British gradually colonized India by –defeating the French and picking about the decaying Mughal Empire. 14. Sepoys were Indian troops who –were hired and trained to protect European companies’ warehouses. 15. The East India Company’s right to rule India gained legitimacy after the –victory at Bengal in 1765. 16. The Sepoy Rebellion in 1857 was sparked by –the use of a new rifle cartridge. 17. The first reformer to advocate Pan-Indian nationalism was –Rammohon Roy. 18. Cape Colony was initially important to the British because it –was a supply station for the lengthy India route. 19. The migration of Afrikaners from British-ruled Cape Colony for fertile land in the north is called the –Great Trek. 20. The former British North American colonies and Australia were similar in that – British colonists displaced indigenous people in both places. 21. The first British settlers in Australia were –exiled convicts. 22. After British slave emancipation in 1834, new plantation workers came from –all of these. 23. Plantation workers served contracts of indentured service that usually lasted -5-7 years. Chapter 25 1. The War for Greek Independence resulted in the defeat of the Ottomans by the combined Russian, British, and French fleets. 2. After the war for Greek Independence, Mahmud II created a new artillery unit and bombed the Janissaries. 3. The Tanzimat proclamations called for public trials and equal protection under the law. 4. The preferred language of the reformed educational system was French. 5. An indication of the reforms in the Ottoman military and society was change to Euro style dress. 6. During the Crimean War, Russia exploited the weakness of the Ottoman Empire. 7. The significance of the Crimean War was that it marked the transition to modern warfare with the use of breech-loading rifles. 8. The Young Ottomans were influenced by Ottoman nationalism and modernist views of Islam. 9. The Russian government view industrialism with limited interest, preferring to import industrial goods. 10. The intellectual flowering that took place under Tsar Alexander II included the writings of Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky. 11. The Qing were complacent about the European threat in part based on the assumption that the British were remote and uninterested in trade. 12. The British frustration by the enormous trade defecit with China led to British export of Opium to China. 13. When the Qing banned the importation of opium, the British sent naval and marine forces to China. 14. The Opium War exposed the fact that the Qing land forces, the Bannermen, were obsolete. 15. Chinese resentment toward Europeans and Americans mostly stemmed from the growing numbers and increasing privileges of Europeans and Americans. 16. The founder of the Taiping (Great Peace) movement, Hong Xiquan, was inspired by Christianity. 17. The Taiping Rebellion was the world’s bloodiest civil war. 18. The construction of a railroad in Russia relied on foreign experts. 19. What is Pan-Slavinism? The doctrine that advocated the unity of all Slavic peoples through military means. 20. The British military advantage in the Opium War was new gunboats. Chapter 26 1. How was ocean shipping transformed by the mid-nineteenth century? All of these. 2. Englishman Henry Bessemer is best known for his advances in producing steel. 3. The chemical dye industry hurt tropical nations such as India because those nations grew the most indigo. 4. The development of nitroglycerin was important for explosives. 5. Despite the prosperity in the West due to the growth of world trade, economies periodically experienced booms followed by depressions in the business cycle. 6. By 1900, the nation that controlled the majority of the world’s trade and finance was Great Britain. 7. Late 19th century Victorian morality dictated that men and women belonged in “separate spheres”. 8. Families were considered middle-class only if they employed a full-time servant. 9. New household technologies meant that standards of cleanliness become higher. 10. What ideology questioned the sanctity of private property? Socialism. 11. The 19th century movement that defended workers against their employers was the labor union movement. 12. Bismarcks’ plan to unite most German-speaking people into a single state was centered on using industry and nationalism. 13. The British 19th century attitude toward Europe has been called a policy of “splendid isolation.” 14. Why did nationalism fail to unify Russia and Austria-Hungary? Their empires included many ethnic and language groups. 15. In Tokugawa Japan, the political power rested in the hands of the military leader of shogun. 16. The biggest weakness of the Tokugawa Shogunate was an inability to resist invasion, therefore Japan closed its borders to foreigners. 17. Who demanded that Japan open its ports for refueling and trade? Matthew Perry. 18. The Meije transformed the government and incorporated European practices in government, education, industry, and culture. 19. Japan’s plan for imperialism as defined by Yamagota Aritomo was to control a Sphere of Influence to include Manchuria, Korea, and part of China. 20. The Boxer Uprising was a series of riots encouraged by Chinese officials against foreign presence. Chapter 27 1. Opened in 1869, the Suez Canal triggered –a wave of European dominance over Asia and Africa. 2. Historians use the term New Imperialism to refer to the West’s –use of industrial technology to impose its will on the non-industrial world. 3. Besides conquering large amounts of territory, the New Imperialism was most significant for –creating a global economy of suppliers and consumers. 4. Among the cultural motives was the desire to –all of these. 5. The power of Western technology convinced many Euro-Americans that –western ideas, customs, and culture were superior to non-Western lifestyles. 6. The most harmful aspect of the Western sense of superiority was/were –the racist ideas that deemed non-Europeans inferior. 7. The better the European weapons became, the more the ________ widened. Firepower gap. 8. The system of administering and exploiting the colonies for the benefit of the home country is –considered colonialism. 9. Colonies that were called protectorates –retained their traditional governments. 10. Since the colonies were governed with small numbers of European officials, they relied upon –the cooperation of indigenous elites. 11. With King Lepold’s money Henry Morton Stanley –opened and occupied the Congo Basin. 12. The British wanted to expand to Southern Africa because of –discoveries of gold and diamonds. 13. The British invasion of South Africa was drive by the ambitions of –Cecil Rhodes. 14. The most successful resistance against Europeans took place in –Ethiopia. 15. The leader of the Filipino movement for independence was –Emilio Aguinaldo. 16. The United States annexed Hawaii –for strategic reasons. 17. To better exploit the economic potential of Latin America –extensive railroad systems were built. 18. The Monroe Doctrine was an attempt by the United States to –defend the entire Western Hemisphere from outside invasion. 19. What was the result of the Spanish-American War? All of these. 20. In order to build the Panama Canal, the United States –supported a Panamanian rebellion against Colombia. Chapter 28 1. Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip igniting –World War I. 2. Nationalism in Europe led Europeans to view war as –a justifiable way to avenge past injustices. 3. The early 20th century system of alliances pitted the British, French, and Russians against –Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary. 4. The plan to mobilize millions of European troops was based on –railroad timetables. 5. Most European nations thought the war that stated in 1914 could –be won by the fastest moving army and the boldest general. 6. A unique aspect of the Western Front was –the three hundred mile long line of armies from Switzerland to the North Sea. 7. A new and potent defensive weapon in World War I was –the machine gun. 8. The war at sea in the years 1914-1918 –pitted the British fleet against the German submarine. 9. The country that benefited most from World War I was –the United States. 10. The Ottoman Turks signed a secret alliance with –Germany, hoping to gain Russian territory. 11. The Zionist movement primarily desired to –create a Jewish homeland in Palestine. 12. The group that suffered most within the Ottoman Empire during World War I was the –Armenians. 13. Who was the leader of the Zionist movement? Theodore Herzl. 14. The Russian army during the war –was very large but poorly supplied and led. 15. Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the –Bolsheviks. 16. The United States finally entered the war –because of German unrestricted submarine warfare. 17. Woodrow Wilson’s idea of self determination was –European nations to reflect shared ethnicity and language. 18. How did the Communists win the civil war in Russia after World War I? The military leadership. 19. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republic was formed by –joining Russia and the Soviet Union. 20. When Lenin died in 1924, the struggle for power of the Soviet Union resulted in the – leadership of Josef Stalin. 21. The German crisis of 1923 was marked by –Germany recklessly printing money, causing inflation. 22. Japan had –very few natural resources and little arable land. Chapter 29 1. Joseph Stalin’s goal was to –form the USSR into an industrial nation. 2. The Soviet Union paid for the first Five-Year Plan by –squeezing the peasants. 3. The reaction to collectivization of the better-off peasants or kulaks was to –burn their crops and kill their livestock. 4. The stock market crash of 1929 turned into –the deepest, most widespread depression in history. 5. The slogan repeated in fascist Italy was –“Ill Duce (the leader) is always right.”? 6. What did Adolf Hitler write while in jail in the 1920’s? Mein Kampf. 7. Hitler’s master race reserved their most intense hatred for –Jews. 8. Despite the fact that Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles –neither France nor Britain tried to stop him. 9. The Manchurian incident in 1931 –led to the Japanese takeover of Manchuko. 10. Mao Zedong’s variety of Communism was a radical departure from the traditional ideology because it –relied on the peasantry. 11. The German Blitzkrieg meant literally –lightning war. 12. On December 7, 1941 –Japanese planes bombed the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor. 13. The key to victory in the Pacific Ocean was –aircraft carriers. 14. Which of the following scientific and technological innovations was not spurred by World War II? Tanks. 15. The Holocaust is estimated to have killed __________ Jews. 6 million. 16. An example of Stalinist terror in the 1930’s was the –secret police arresting people accused of party disloyalty. 17. Which two countries were particularly hard hit by the Depression? Japan and Germany. 18. Hitler’s goal for Germany was –all of these. 19. Hitler’s popularity came in large from the German people’s belief that –economic well-being outweighed a loss of liberty. 20. Mao Zedong’s 1939 escape from the Guomindang to Shaanxi was called the – Long March. 21. How did the Nazi takeover of Germany affect Stalin’s 2nd 5-year plan? Stalin intended to produce consumer goods but decided to produce arms instead. 22. The Result of the Smoot-Howley tariff in 1930 was decreased exports and crippled world trade. 23. Italy took advantage of domestic weakness in 1935 when Mussolini invaded Ethiopia. 24. Many Japanese nationalists thought the answer to the depression was to have Japanese colonies. 25. The prime motivation for the Japanese invasion of Southeast Asia was its abundant oil and rubber production. 26. The final defeat of Japan took longer than victory over Germany in large part because the U.S. had concentrated its efforts on Germany. Unit 6 Exam Questions 1. Over 8 million kulaks were arrested, some were executed, and the rest starved to death in gulags. 2. Despite the Stalinist terror, Soviet women entered jobs and careers previously closed to them. 3. Nationalists during the Depression yearned for autarchy, which is defined as self- sufficiency and economic independence from the world economy. 4. Why were people attracted to the messages of radical politicians after World War I? They were embittered as a result of World War I and unemployment, and they were bewildered by modernity. 5. Italy’s fasci di combattimento initially comprised mainly unemployed veterans and violent youth. 6. Which of the following was not one of the actions taken by Benito Mussolini? He took over the press. 7. The slogan repeated in fascist Italy was “Il Duce (the leader) is always right.” 8. Which of the following does not account for the British and French policy of appeasement? Their desire to end imperialism. 9. Which of the following was not among Mao Zedong’s policies toward women? He put women in leadership positions. 10. The German attack at Stalingrad was important because it was the key to the Soviet oil supply. 11. The Communist Chinese forces defeated the Guomindang largely through the greed and ineptness of the Guomindang. 12. The phrase “iron curtain” was coined by Winston Churchill. 13. The Cold War was the state of political tension and military rivalry between the United States and the USSR. 14. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was a military alliance consisting of the United States and Western European countries. 15. The World Bank was created all of these. 16. The Marshall Plan provided more than 20 billion dollars in economic aid to friendly European countries. 17. The success of the European Economic Community, or Common Market, is evident through increased wages, employment, and social welfare benefits for the European society. 18. In order to resist Soviet pressure, the Truman Doctrine offered military aid to Greece and Turkey. 19. Restrictions on U.S. military operations during the Vietnam War were designed to keep the war from escalating. 20. When the United States discovered the Soviet Union had deployed nuclear missiles in Cuba in 1962, it sparked the Cuban Missile Crisis. 21. The Helsinki Accords all of these. 22. What event was the catalyst for the space race? The Soviet Sputnik satellite launch. 23. Nations became independent at the end of WWII primarily because of the rise of independence movements. 24. Which of the following is not one way in which India and Pakistan differed? Pakistan was a democracy, while India was not. 25. In 1947 India and Pakistan went to war over the northwestern state of Kashmir. 26. Which of the following cannot be said of the French-Algerian War? It ended with Algeria becoming officially a part of France. 27. Proxy wars were conflicts between competing factions in which rival superpowers provided support. 28. The “Brazilian Solution” refers to the combination of dictatorship, repression, and government promotion of industrialization. 29. The “Contras” were counterrevolutionaries financed by the Reagan administration to oppose the Sandinistas. 30. Which of the following cannot be said about the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini? He opened the electoral process to all Iranians. 31. Which of the following was not something the U.S. hoped to gain by covertly selling arms to Iran in the early 1980s? They were not trying to benefit from it. 32. Which of the following is not one of the “Asian Tigers”? Malaysia. 33. Under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, China both a and b. 34. As a response to the protests that culminated in Tiananmen Square, the Chinese government used force. 35. The policy of restructuring the Soviet Union as authorized by Mikhail Gorbachev was known as perestroika. 36. The result of the hard line Communist coup against Gorbachev was that all of these. 37. The cause of the Persian Gulf War was Saddam Hussein’s all of these. 38. Which of the following is generally not associated with the low birthrates of older industrial nations? Environmental pollution. 39. The hijackers on September 11, 2001 targeted buildings that symbolized American government, military, and trade. 40. Which region(s) have made significant gains in extending democracy to people? Eastern Europe and Latin America. 41. After the death of Deng Xiaoping China has allowed greater freedom but not democracy. 42. Democracy in Africa had “mixed results;” however, in 1994 South Africa elected Nelson Mandela and democracy was used to resolve conflicts. 43. The war in Bosnia in 1992 began when fighting erupted between Muslims, Catholics, and Orthodox groups in Yugoslavia. 44. In 1994, the leaders of Rwanda committed genocide by inciting Hutu people to massacre the Tutsi. 45. The movement to restrict nuclear proliferation made progress in the 1960’s and 1970’s, but all of these. 46. How are chemical and biological weapons different from nuclear weapons? They are easily produced and hidden. 47. What is the goal of terrorism? To provoke harsh reprisals that would gain public sympathy. 48. What did Usama bin Laden do after being expelled from Saudi Arabia? He moved operations to Sudan and then Afghanistan. 49. Muslim frustration stems from the failure of modernization to improve their status and income. 50. THIS QUESTION IS WRONG, AND DEGRAW SAID IT WOULDN’T BE ON THE TEST, SO FUCK IT!