ImprovIng THE EnErgy EffIcIEncy of THE raIlway sysTEm Innovative Integrated Energy Efficiency Solutions for Railway Rolling Stock, Rail Infrastructure and Train Operation Why Railenergy? Energy consumption for passenger and freight transport has exploded together with transport demand in the last few decades – worldwide as well as in Europe – putting heavy pressure on fossil fuel resources as well as increasing the emission of industrial greenhouse gasses. Railways are energy efficient by nature when compared to other modes of motorised transport mainly due to reduced rolling and air resistance combined with a controlled driving pattern. In order to remain economically competitive and act socially responsible towards the environment, railways must increase there energy efficiency – not least to enjoy continued strong political support. Three main reasons for the railway sector to act now are: 1. Rising energy costs The European railway networks are spending billions of Euros annually on energy and the energy costs have increased significantly over the last few years (more than 10% per year). The continued increase in oil prices to a level of $ 100 per barrel underlines the necessity for improved energy efficiency, also because electricity prices are highly influenced by the prices on coal, crude oil and gas. 2. Climate protection Climate change has become a strategic cornerstone for the railways. Railways are fortunate to run 80% on electricity in Europe but it is not possible for all industrial electricity consumers to switch to renewable energy sources at once. Therefore improved energy efficiency is vital when railways want to achieve their individual CO2 targets. 3. Energy security Energy security is gaining importance. More and more countries want to be independent of foreign energy supplies. Also for the railways, reducing the energy demand will reduce this risk. In addition, with improved energy efficiency the railways in some cases could be able to accommodate more traffic growth before reaching the technical limits of the electric infrastructure e.g. maximum power feed etc. Railenergy objectives The overall objective of Railenergy is to cut the energy consumption in the railway system thus contributing to the reduction of life cycle costs of railway operation and the CO2 emissions. The project target is to achieve a 6% reduction of the specific energy consumption of the rail system by 2020. This will be done by addressing the energy efficiency of the integrated railway system and to investigate and validate solutions ranging from the introduction of innovative traction technologies, components and layouts to the development of rolling stock, operation and infrastructure management strategies. Expected Railenergy outputs & results Railenergy serves as a platform for an integrated development of new methodologies, techniques and technologies. Within this system framework approach the expected outputs of the Railenergy project are: • A system-based concept for modelling energy consumption • A common and standardised methodology to determine energy consumption • An integrated simulation tool for energy consumption and LCC • An integrated railway energy efficiency management approach & decision support tool • Strategic energy efficiency targets for rolling stock, infrastructure and traffic management • Good practices for Railway Operators and Infrastructure Managers • Strategies for incentives, pricing, and policies Railenergy system approach The inter-relationship of railway sub-systems is highly complex, especially with regard to assessing their consumption of energy. There is a need to better know which measures – technical and operational – would be more beneficial. Therefore, a fully integrated approach is the only way to achieve true energy savings. The special feature of the Railenergy project is the holistic approach to energy efficiency. Neither technical nor operational measure is better than its global contribution to the system efficiency. This underlines the strong cooperation required between the main stakeholders within the sector when planning, designing, procuring and operating the railway system. SP2 data work flow Input Processing Results Infrastructure selection Railenergy Decision Support Tool for Investment decisions: Cost benefit • Database guide & scenario calculator assessment Strategic level Infrastructure (Energy and CO2 saving) selection ‘What if’ • LCC tool (cost benefit assessment) scenario Technology - Energy price & Rail market scenarios selection Return on • Railenergy knowledge base investment Framework conditions • Strategic Assessment & Economic Evaluation KpI Demo Railenergy global model: Operational level High Speed • Based on existing commercial multi-train simulators Demo • Demonstration scenarios from real operation Demo scene Mixed traffic performance Demo • System simulation of new technical solutions Regional - Operational evaluation Subsystem - System validation performance pI Technical SP3-6 Component level Trackside Components Traction Topologies performance Evaluation Positioning Railenergy in the European research context The Railenergy project is first and foremost an integrated project, providing a joint platform of understanding amongst the main industrial stakeholders. The project success is dependant on interaction with other major projects that influences the energy consumption or the generic design of the railway system. Projects that Railenergy is coordinating formal or informal with: • Modtrain, FP6 project, (www.modtrain.com), modular train concepts for European standardisation and cross acceptance of rolling stock and interoperable infrastructure systems • Modurban, FP6 project, (www.modurban.org) - modenergy package • Railway energy billing, UIC project (www.uic.asso.fr search under projects) • Trainer, EU project “TRAining programmes to INcrease Energy-efficiency by Railways” (www.iee-trainer.eu) • Several railway company projects on energy efficiency or energy economy. Contact person: UNIFE, project Co-ordinator, Igor Alonso-Portillo, firstname.lastname@example.org D’Appolonia, project Director, Flavio Marangon, email@example.com UIC, Enno Wiebe, firstname.lastname@example.org Partners SP1 NRG Needs Subproject relevance for Railenergy One of the main aims of SP1 NRG Needs is to contribute to measures but are also influenced by the framework a common language and understanding of railway related conditions and especially the interaction of the different energy efficiency (EE) issues. stakeholder groups. For a full exploitation of the potentials an integrated approach has to be pursued. This key finding The main tasks of the SP and results are an analysis of coming from the stakeholder analyses of SP1 is visualized the framework conditions and the influencing factors on in the following picture: energy efficiency within the European railway system, the evaluation of current status and future prospects of energy use and energy efficiency of European railways as well as recommendations and lanes of actions for improving energy efficiency. Operational Potential The NRG Needs takes into account that energy efficiency potentials derive not only from technical and operational Technological Potential Strategy approaches to Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Integration energy efficiency potential Operational Potential Technological Potential Stakeholder Action Operational Operational Potential Potential Technological Techno- Potential logical Stakeholder Stakeholder Potential Action Action 2007 2020 2030 Regarding the picture above: – The “Business-as-Usual” strategy is characterised focus on improving technological and operational mainly by independent implementation of technical performance and thus allow for the exploitation of a and operational efficiency measures and EE projects larger efficiency potential until 2020 (6%). in some forerunners companies in the European railway sector. In this manner, the average energy – The long term strategy “Sector-wide Integration” efficiency improves until 2020 but the efficiency gains is distinguished by a harmonised and sector-wide are small and large potentials remain unexploited. approach to energy efficiency where strategies and actions of all relevant stakeholders including RU, IM, – The “Coordinated Efficiency Efforts” strategy can be SI as well as EU, national and regional regulative described by a common approach of the three main bodies and energy suppliers are coordinated and stakeholders, namely the Railway Undertakings integrated allowing for the optimum exploitation of (RU), Infrastructure Managers (IM) and the efficiency potentials on the system level until 2030 System Integrators (SI). Their coordinated efforts (15%+). Main objectives • Evaluation of the current status of energy the energy efficiency performance of railway systems consumption and utilisation in the European railway and providing a basis for international comparison. systems • Creation of a Railenergy Performance Baseline based • Compilation of three scenarios of energy consumption on a broad collection of examples from measurement and utilisation in the railway system in 2020 and simulation data describing the energy efficiency • Analysis of the energy needs and issues coming from of today’s rolling stock and infrastructure the experience of different railway stakeholders and • Definition of Demonstration Scenes and Use Cases, to players. be used in later stages of the project to demonstrate • Definition of a set of Key Performance Indicators and evaluate project results (KPIs) characterizing the energy consumption and Methods To receive up-to-date information and data on current suppliers, infrastructure companies, public bodies (e.g. energy consumption, energy efficiency efforts and relevant transport procurement institutions and organisations) framework conditions, railway energy data were collected were conducted. The results of policy and stakeholder on the basis of a detailed data questionnaire and a series analysis and the scenarios are based on desk research, of interviews and focus groups with railway undertaking interviews and discussions in workshops. companies, railway system integrators, component Achieved Outputs & Results (Spring 2008) • Two scenarios for 2020 and one scenario for 2030 - KPI 3 (kJ/Pkm or tkm) : Production, load factor, describing the mid- an long-term effects of different CO2 emissions strategic approaches to energy efficiency within the - KPI 4 (kWh/pkm or tkm) : Production, load factor European railway sector. - KPI 5 (% of total cons.) : Effort for hotel • Detailed data on the current status of energy functions, Management! consumption of UIC members - KPI 6 (% of total cons.) : Realised • A collection of country profiles describing the current recuperation,Optimisation status of railway operation, energy use and policies/ - KPI 7 (%) : Grid performance/losses, measures for energy efficiency on a national level. Management • An analysis of energy needs and issues relevant for railways • Definition of three demonstration scenes and the • A stakeholder analysis focusing at drivers and respective use cases focusing on typical routes, barriers for the implementation of energy efficiency rolling stock and classes of operation with due measures and resulting in first draft lanes of action attention on cross-border European traffic corridors. for the different stakeholder groups. Demo scenes will be used to analyse and demonstrate the effects of the Railenergy technologies on the • A harmonised set of KPIs covering the operation energy efficiency of railway operation on the system of railway rolling stock as well as the operation of level. railway networks. - KPI 1 (kWh/gross tkm) : Technical • Definition of Railenergy Performance baseline performance, tractive effort - KPI 2 (kWh/seat km) : Technical performance & design R&D partners Alstom (France), Bombardier Transportation (Germany, Sweden), D’Appolonia (Italy), FAV – Forschungs- und Anwendungsverbund Verkehrssystemtechnik Berlin / TSB (Germany), IST-UTL – Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon Technical University (Portugal), IZT – Institute for Futures Studies and Technology Assessment (Germany), Siemens AG (Germany), TFK – Transportforksningsgruppen i Borlange AB (Sweden) and UIC – International Union of Railways (France) Contact person: SP leader Dr. Roland Nolte, IZT, email@example.com. SP2 NRG Efficiency Management Subproject relevance for Railenergy SP2 NRG Efficiency Management aims to provide the Railenergy global model methodology and the Railenergy concrete framework and methodology for the system decision support tool – both elements will support decisions approach to railway energy efficiency management. on railway related energy investment decisions. The subproject’s main tasks are the elaboration of the Main SP objectives • To establish a common modelling framework (the • To develop an integrated energy strategy support Railenergy Global Model) of the energy balance and module for management decisions based on supporting simulation tools for modelling energy developed business KPIs (e.g. life cycle costs) consumption to understand and improve railway • System validation and operational evaluation of the energy efficiency, including harmonised and agreed technology pillars results metrics to be applied for the common modelling framework • To calculate and elaborate final evaluation of the proposed solutions in order to check the Railenergy • To propose a common and standardised methodology target compliance and corresponding life cycle cost to predict and measure traction energy consumption figures in the development and procurement phases of new rolling stock • Based on the economic evaluation of Railenergy results, to propose alternative political and economic • To design and develop two innovative tools for framework conditions supporting rail energy optimising train operation: energy efficient time efficiency tabling and Eco-Driving NRG Efficiency Management in a nutshell Railenergy is built around the system approach to The outcome of the simulations is measured in Key determine the energy losses and consumption on the Performance Indicators (KPI’s) which constitute the railway system level rather than on component level. The main transfer of information between the operational and rationale behind is to foster the right motivation among strategic decision making level. railways and manufacturers to develop and demand the most energy efficient solutions. The figure below shows the interaction between the technical, operational and strategic level. Methods One of the key elements in the project and SP2 is the SP2 encompasses a variety of work packages and methods Railenergy Global Model methodology, which will assess that each plays their specific role in the overall railway the energy flow as well as the potential outcome of the and energy system approach (see on the previous page). improvements in the configuration of technical solutions within the rolling stock and the trackside facilities as well as for selected operational measures like energy efficient driving. Expected Outputs & Results The objectives of the NRG Efficiency Management are to • Harmonised system requirement specifications for develop: energy efficient driving • Global Simulation methodology of the energy flow in • Decision Support Tool for strategic management and a complete railway system investments decision • Definition of standardised rail service profiles • System simulations of use cases with the Railenergy (test cycles) for pre-determination of the energy technologies including their strategic and economic consumption when developing and procuring of new impact rolling stock • Harmonised system requirement specifications for the energy efficient planning of time tables R&D partners Alstom (France), Bombardier Transportation (Germany, Sweden), Siemens AG (Germany), Ansaldo Breda (Italy), D’Appolonia (Italy), FAV – Forschungs- und Anwendungsverbund Verkehrssystemtechnik Berlin / TSB (Germany), IST-UTL – Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon Technical University (Portugal), IZT – Institute for Futures Studies and Technology Assessment (Germany), TFK – Transportforksningsgruppen i Borlange AB (Sweden), BV – Banverket (Sweden), Eurolum (France), Emkamatik (Switzerland), Enotrac (UK), KTH (Sweden), Transrail (Sweden), RFI – Italian Railway Infastructure manager, UIC – International Union of Railways (France). Contact person: SP leader Mr. Mads Bergendorff, UIC (Macroplan), firstname.lastname@example.org. SP3 NRG Trackside Subproject relevance for Railenergy This subproject focuses on the efficiency of the fixed • existing systems (no modification of the train feeding installations for electric traction systems. The electric voltage) infrastructure provides, through the contact lines, • innovative systems (new architectures including substation and high voltage network the needed energy modification of the feeding train voltage). to move the trains along the track. Thus, this subproject focuses on the research of a set of solutions to reduce losses and improve energy balance in the supply for: Main objectives The different aspect of this SP is the fact that it covers • Improving and optimising the present AC or different aspect of railways infrastructure: singular device DC power supply systems by analysing of new to improve specific efficiency of an area of the track components, techniques and system design feeding, and the complete design and new architectures such as reversible substations, real time energy of the whole feeding systems to have a completely new management, and feeding architectures. approach to the saving energy challenge. • Definition of new architectures (AC and DC), Accordingly to the scope of subproject, the following optimisation of contact lines and power supply objectives have been identified: components oriented at reducing energy consumption for new traction systems on • Detailed analysis and quantification of the present trackside. energy efficiency, losses, and energy saving potentials, developing and analysing mathematical models as well measurement data. Methods The activities of this SP3 are mainly developed through Another field of investigation focuses on the creation, modelling and simulation in the time domain (using design and development of innovative systems to feed the general purpose simulation programs) focusing on single train with new architectures, including the modification components and overall system. of the feeding train voltage (higher voltage decreases the losses). For that aim, basic evaluations of the energy Using specific software, SP3 analyses solutions efficiency of existing and improved systems have been for optimising energy and losses to recover almost carried out by extensive and detailed modelling in completely the braking energy coming from the traction frequency and time domain of static feeding layouts. units by a particular controlled substations in a large Complementary frequency domain based multi-train bandwidth; improve line capacities adopting particular simulations complete the scene, taking into account feeding systems as such as 2x1.5kV DC, autotransformer realistic traffic situations both for theoretical cases with asymmetric AC system leaving the same pantograph comparable transport capacity per feeding section as well voltage; improve control and diagnostic of energy flows as for realistic spacing of substations. in relation with railway operation with Real time energy management system DC reference system: mathematical Results of load flow analysis: the software gives the modelling of the train (moving load) running opportunity to identify the parts with most losses in order to reduce them. x= train position and L= line length Expected outputs & results • Analysis and modelling of energy flows inside the • Specification, architecture, energy saving targets track side distribution systems and results with a and results on a 2x1.5kV DC power supply system. multi-train simulator tool. • Specification of innovative architecture for AC • Evaluation and specification of components and traction system: supply connections and substation system modifications improving energy efficiency of configurations. existing power supply systems. • Innovative architecture for AC traction system: • Specification, architecture, energy saving targets supply connections and ESS configurations. and results on a DC reversible substation power • Change proposal to the European and Worldwide supply system. standards on railways voltages and feeding • Real time energy management module specification systems. for AC/DC transport systems in correlation with WP2.3. DC 1: DC System 3 kV (Conventional OCL) DC 1: DC System 3 kV (SICAT HD+) Train Energy and Losses in Electrification Train Energy and Losses in Electrification (20 km distance between SS) (20 km distance between SS) 15,87% Transmission 10,57% Transmission losses losses 12,07% Train 12,86% Train conversion losses conversion losses 71,24% 75,74% Traction energy 0,82% Conversion Traction energy 0,83% Conversion and energy for auxiliaries losses of substations and energy for auxiliaries losses of substations DC System 4 kV (Conventional OCL) 7,87% Transmission Train Energy and Losses in Electrification losses (20 km distance between SS) 13,35% Train conversion losses 78,49% Traction energy 0,87% Conversion and energy for auxiliaries losses of substations R&D partners SIEMENS Aktiengesellschaft (Germany), ALSTOM Transport SA (France) , VUZ (Czech Republic), UIC (International), RFI, NITEL Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario Trasporti e Logistica (Italy) Contact persons: SP leaders Mr. Claudio Spalvieri, RFI, email@example.com. Mr. Luca Trinca, RFI, firstname.lastname@example.org SP4 NRG Components Subproject relevance for Railenergy The subproject NRG Components is focussed on the The three innovative components that are investigated in onboard efficiency improvement by implementation of SP4 Components are: several innovative components. The improvement can be • On-board energy storage technology and systems realized by considering the recovery of braking and re-used for railways waste heat energy, as well as the optimized management of the power flow during vehicle operation. Return energy • Waste Heat Utilization of Diesel Motor and Converter can be a substantial part of the overall consumption for Energy for Air Conditioning of Passenger & Driver’s railway operation, thus this subproject has a natural and Cabs relevant role. • Eco Metering, Driving and Driver Machine Interface (DMI) Main objectives According to the scope of the subproject, four main • Formulate and optimise a concept for waste-heat re- objectives can be identified: use in passenger carrying Multiple Units, including • Look at the energy efficiency benefits of electrical the evaluation of energy savings and potential brake energy recovery and new battery-fed operating cost reductions at train level, also sustainable systems investigating implementation effort required and side benefits • Verify benefits (e.g. environmental, economic), targets in fuel and emission savings, evaluate system • Develop a user friendly interaction with the driver benefits (CO2 reduction, fuel savings, etc.) and check (DMI) for an existing Drive Style Manager for both safety issues of such on-board energy storage Multiple Units and Locomotives technology for railway applications Methods A more efficient on board generation and distribution • studying, in an integrated way, the operating represents a significant contribution to the overall conditions with this equipment energy efficiency of a transport system. The subproject • discovering and testing new architectures will be focused on evaluating the options for railway vehicles equipped with electric or diesel-electric drives, • applying new control and on evaluating the potential of “On Board Innovative Components”. The optimisation of the energy consumption is achieved not only through the application of these new hardware technologies, but also by: Expected Outputs & Results • Models of energy flow with special regard to energy • Formulation of a prototype for waste-heat re-use aspects of the new innovative components and • Concept formulation for a prototype of the DMI for interfaces eco-driving including functional diagram and detailed • Innovative On-board energy storage technology and specifications for the various subsystems system for railways • Selection of test vehicle and suitable storage technology R&D partners Tenitalia S.p.A. (Italy) , Alstom Transport SA (France) , AnsaldoBreda S.p.A. (Italy), Banverket (Sweden), Corys T.E.S.S. (France), Saft S.A. (France), Bombardier Transportation GmbH (Germany), Siemens (Germany) Contact person: SP leader Christian Lauszat, Bombardier Transportation, email@example.com. SP5 NRG Traction Subproject relevance for Railenergy NRG Traction is focussed on the efficiency improvement • Medium frequency transformer of the traction unit including the transformers. As the • Permanent magnet motor/generator traction energy is one of the most important for the entire energy consumption for railway operation, this subproject • Superconducting transformer has a natural and relevant role. The three innovative components that are investigated in SP5 Traction are: Main objectives According to the scope of the SP, four main objectives can An example of the work ongoing at the moment is the be identified: design of a new innovative Traction Transformer Systems, • Analysis and modelling of energy flow inside the which can replace conventional transformers in future energy generation and distribution system with distributed-power multi-system high-speed passenger special regard to energy aspects of the new trains. This is the type of trains where the use is found to innovative components and interfaces between be most interesting commercially. them. • Medium-frequency energy distribution • Innovative energy efficient and mass reduced diesel electric propulsion systems • Superconducting transformers and inductances for railway traction application Medium-frequency multiple and single transformer concepts Methods A more efficient on board generation and distribution • studying, in an integrated way, the operating represents a significant contribution to the overall energy conditions with this equipment efficiency of a transport system. The subproject will be • discovering and testing new architectures focused on the major components, related to generation • applying new control and distribution: innovative generator, traction motor and main transformer solutions. The optimisation of the energy consumption is achieved not only through the application of these new hardware technologies, but also by: Expected Outputs & Results The subproject NRG Traction is working on the following • Medium frequency transformers based on available expected outputs: and emerging power semiconductors. • Models of energy flow inside the energy generation • Permanent magnet excited generator and traction and distribution system with special regard to energy motors aspects of the new innovative components and • Optimised hybrid (diesel electric) system interfaces • Innovative cooling circuit for new superconducting wire transformers R&D partners NITEL Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario Trasporti e Logistica (Italy), SIEMENS Aktiengesellschaft (Germany), ALSTOM Transport SA (France), ANSALDOBREDA S.p.A. (Italy), BOMBARDIER Transportation GmbH (Germany) Contact person: SP leader Dr. Uwe Henning, Siemens, firstname.lastname@example.org. SP6 NRG Topologies Subproject relevance for Railenergy The subproject NRG Topologies is focussed on the energy than having many optimal subsystems that do not work efficiency improvements related to optimised technical efficient together due to either their interdependence or layouts inside the train. It is vital for a high quality train their control as one onboard system. that all systems are integrated in an optimal way, rather Main objectives According to the scope of the subproject, four main • Control Algorithms for Traction Systems objectives can be identified: • Auxiliary Power System Topologies • Analysis and modelling of energy flow inside the • Innovative Converter Cooling Systems energy generation and distribution system with special regard to energy aspects of the new innovative topologies and control algorithms and interfaces between them. Methods A more efficient on board generation and distribution • Studying, in an integrated way, the operating represents a significant contribution to the overall energy conditions with this equipment efficiency of a transport system. The subproject will be • Discovering and testing new architectures focused on the major control algorithms and topologies, related to converter cooling, auxiliary system and traction • Applying new control control. The optimisation of the energy consumption is Expected benefits are: achieved not only through the application of these new hardware and software technologies, but also by: Figure 1: Loco model power/energy layer Line supply Line interface Traction Traction Wheel, gear Train driver port PL (Trafo or filter) PT converter PE (Induction) PM box and port PA Motor bogie P CC Auxiliary converter P CM Traction Traction P TC converter Motor cooling PCCS PCMS Cooling system PTS system Train supply port Expected Outputs & Results The subproject NRG Topologies is working on the following expected outputs: • Customisation and application of models for integration purposes (into the overall modelling framework developed within the SP Integrated NRG Efficiency Management) • Simulation module of the optimised control for on- board traction • Simulation module and prototype of auxiliary power supply to optimise efficiency on intermediate operating points • Simulation module of a centralized and optimised cooling system for traction and auxiliary converters Figure 2: Loco centralized cooling system with recover of waste energy R&D partners NITEL Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario Trasporti e Logistica (Italy), SIEMENS Aktiengesellschaft (Germany), ALSTOM Transport SA (France), ANSALDOBREDA S.p.A. (Italy), BOMBARDIER Transportation GmbH (Germany), FAIVELEY Transport (Italy), SCIROIDEA (Italy) Contact person: SP leader Mr. Luigi Accardo, Ansaldobreda, email@example.com.
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