Opportunity for Transformer Energy Savings in Data Center PDUs

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					for the




          Opportunity for Transformer
                Energy Savings
             in Data Center PDU’s



                           Prepared By:
                           Peter Ouellette
                           Northern California Regional Manager

                           Prepared for:
                           Silicon Valley Leadership Group

                           Presented:
                           June 26, 2008
                           Data Center Energy Summit


    www.powersmiths.com
                            Opportunity for Transformer Energy Savings in Data Center PDUs
                                                                Case Study - June 26, 2008




Executive Summary

As part of a transformer efficiency study for data centers, Mr. William Tschudi at Lawrence
Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, suggested contacting Mr. Ray Pfeifer with the Silicon
Valley Leadership Group to identify Data Centers that would be interested in participating. A
Yahoo facility and the US Postal Service Data Center were selected.

Measurements found that PDUs using transformers with a DOE CSL3 class efficiency had 60-
70% lower operating cost than the variety of other PDUs measured.

Aggregated savings at one facility with 30 PDUs were estimated at over $250,000 per year with
associated reduction of 760 tons of CO2 annually.

Transformers can make a significant contribution to lowering operating costs and meeting an
organization’s environmental goals.

Observations: US Postal Data Center: Powersmiths “High Efficiency”
Energy Stations:

The Postal Service facility provided additional contribution since they are in the process of
changing out existing “status quo” PDU’s to High Efficiency units that include DOE Candidate
Standard Level-3 (CSL-3) transformers. The DOE established Candidate Standard Level-3 to be
the efficiency level at which transformers deliver the lowest life cycle cost.

U.S. Post Office Data Center; 160,000 sq. ft., - 33,000 sq. ft. dedicated to computer room
raised floor.

Connected Load (PG&E) 3030-kVA, 985-kVA Original UPS, 250-kVA New UPS, 200-kVA of
computer load connected to unprotected utility power

    Data from six (6) newly installed Energy Stations (internal transformers meet or exceed DOE
    CSL-3 efficiency), at the US Postal Service was recorded manually. Similarities in
    performance are very consistent; Operating losses range from 0.310kW to 0.625kW.
    Average operating efficiency for the “high efficiency” Energy Stations is 98.4%.    PDU (%)
    loading range 15%- 30%.
    Performance as expected, consistently lower losses (higher efficiency).


Observations: US Postal Data Center, Exiting PDU’s:
    Three (3) existing PDU’s were surveyed; these included two Liebert PDU’s and one CPC
    PDU. The CPC is original equipment, estimated vintage late 70’s early 80’s.
    Operating losses for the three existing PDU’s: CPC #134-1 = 0.619kW, Liebert #148-2 =
    2.094kW, Liebert #148-4 = 2.593kW, Total 5.306 kW.
    Based on the data gathered, the annual combined losses for these three (3) PDU’s are
    roughly 65,618 kWh, costing approximately $13,320.00 per year, calculated at $0.13 utility
    rates.
    Electricity waste from these three (3) transformers alone is contributing to approximately 48
    tons of additional CO2 emissions annually.
    PDU % loading: Average 28%, CPC 17%, Liebert 148-2 26%, Liebert 148-4 42%.


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                             Opportunity for Transformer Energy Savings in Data Center PDUs
                                                                 Case Study - June 26, 2008




Observations: YAHOO! Data Center, Existing PDU’s:
   Three (3) existing PDU’s were surveyed, all Liebert 300-kVA.
   Operating losses: PDU #3-2 - 2.527kW, PDU # 5-3 - 6.096kW, PDU # 6-4 2.065kW, Total
   10.688kW.
   Based on the data gathered, the annual combined losses for these three (3) PDU’s are
   roughly 100,156 kWh costing approximately $26,832.00 per year, calculated at $0.12 utility
   rates.
   Electricity waste from these three PDU’s alone is contributing to approximately 74 tons of
   additional CO2 emissions annually.
   PDU % loading: Average 45%; PDU 3-2 64%, PDU # 5-3 25%, PDU # 6-4 45%.


General Recommendations

Based on the data measured and current industry best practices we can make the following
recommendations to Silicon Valley Leadership Group:

       Going forward SVLG Members should consider design specifications that include
       transformers that meet or exceed Dept. of Energy Candidate Standard Level 3 Efficiency,
       (CSL-3) for electronic loads.
       CSL-3 efficiency transformers have been demonstrated to reduce losses (electricity
       waste) by 50-70% over current practice.
       Facilities can lower electrical consumption and the attendant GHG emissions with the
       installation of CSL-3 efficiency transformers or PDU’s.
       On a life cycle basis CSL-3 technology pays for itself many times over through operating
       cost.
       While the load profile is not rich in harmonics, it is still nonlinear requiring that
       transformers be UL listed with the associated load K-Rating.




Measurement Information

The following pages provide PDU performance statistics, energy saving calculations and
environmental contribution.




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                                                                          Opportunity for Transformer Energy Savings in Data Center PDUs
                                                                                                               Case Study - June 26, 2008




US Postal Service Data Center, San Mateo, CA Powersmiths Energy Station Statistics

  Powersmiths
  Energy          Model #     KVA     Ia      Ib      Ic      %Avg.     Van    Vbn     Vcn     Power     I THD     V THD     % Eff.    Losses
  Station                     Size    Avg.    Avg.    Avg.    Load      Avg.   Avg.    Avg.    Factor    % AVG     % AVG               (Kilo-
  Location #                                                                                                                           Watts)

  1A-11           TT2656-     225     122      95      99     16.9%     209    209     209     0.964     12.3%     3.2%      98.5%      0.600
                  22245

  1A-10           TT2656-     225     110     113     111     17.8%     209    209     209     0.973     12.5%     3.0%      98.5%      0.603
                  22244

  1G-13           TT2656-     150      78      93      77     19.9%     208    208     207     0.955     13.0%     3.2%      98.5%      0.443
                  22248

  1G-12           TT2656-     150      72      88      81     19.3%     208    208     207     0.954     14.0%     3.1%      98.5%      0.476
                  22246

  1G-4            TT2656-     150      52      67      69     15.0%     209    208     208     0.944     16.0%     3.3%      98.1%      0.419
                  22247

  1G-3            TT2656-     150      61      54      45     12.8%     208    208     208     0.948     16.1%     3.2%      98.3%      0.310
                  22249

  1G-13           TT2656-     150      123     147     123    31.0%     208    208     207                                   98.5%      0.600
                  22248

  1G-12           TT2656-     150      112     141     128    30.0%     208    208     207                                   98.5%      0.625
                  22246

1G-13 & 1G-12 New data recorded on 3/5/08. On a subsequent visit to the US Postal Data Center the lead electrician mentioned additional load had
been added to previously surveyed Energy Stations. New loading data was recorded for comparison purposes to original measurements.




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                                                                   Opportunity for Transformer Energy Savings in Data Center PDUs
                                                                                                        Case Study - June 26, 2008




US Postal Service Data Center - Performance of Existing PDU’s
Random sample of PDUs slated to be replaced by Powersmiths High Efficiency Energy Station

    USPS Data
    Center       Model   KVA    Ia     Ib     Ic     %Avg.   Van      Vbn    Vcn    Power    I THD    V THD    % Eff.   Losses
    Existing     #       Size   Avg.   Avg.   Avg.   Load    Avg.     Avg.   Avg.   Factor   % Avg.   % Avg.            (Kilo-
    PDU                                                                                                                 Watts)
    Location #

    PDU 148-4    PPA-    125    128    133    177    42.0%   207      206    208    0.91     16.3%    3.2%     95.8%    2.094
    Liebert      125C

    PDU 148-2    PPA-    125     97     71    106    26.3%   208      208    208    0.81     21.9%    3.1%     91.1%    2.593
    Liebert      125C

    PDU 134-1     ?      150     49     59    66     16.8%   208      208    207    0.94     14.2%    2.8%     97.0%    0.619
    CPC




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                                                                            Opportunity for Transformer Energy Savings in Data Center PDUs
                                                                                                                 Case Study - June 26, 2008




Projected Energy, Cost and Environmental Savings – US Postal Service, San Mateo
Thirty-six PDU’s are currently in place at the US Postal Service Data Center. With collected data from three PDU’s being used as an average, the table
below lists Projected Savings and the Environmental contributions that could be realized if Lowest Life Cycle Cost (DOE CSL-3 Class Efficiency) were
incorporated facility-wide. Energy cost base, $0.13 per kWh.


                    US Postal Service, San Mateo,CA
                    Aggregated Project Savings with Powersmiths

                    Peak kW reduction                                               45.6 kW
                    Annual kWh reduction                                        787418.4 kWh
                    Reduction in Air Conditioning Load                              13.2 tons

                    Cost Analysis
                    Energy Cost Escalation (above inflation)                       3.0%
                    Existing Energy Rate (kWh)                                     $0.13
                                                                      Annual                 Life Cycle Operating Cost & Savings
                                                                   Operating Cost               20 years               32 years
                    Existing Transformer(s)                          $159,840                 $ 5,773,968           $ 10,171,668
                    Powersmiths Transformer(s)                       $ 52,104                 $ 1,882,080           $ 4,293,420
                    Savings with Powersmiths                         $107,736                 $ 3,891,888           $ 8,878,248



                    Summary of Environmental Benefits


                        Annual Reduction in Greenhouse Gases (per EPA)                             Equivalent Units

                                                     480           tons of CO2                       90    Acres trees planted
                                                   1,570           tons of Coal                      60    Car Emissions
                                                   3,800           kgs of SO2                        70    homes heated
                                                   1,630           kgs of NOx




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                                                                  Opportunity for Transformer Energy Savings in Data Center PDUs
                                                                                                       Case Study - June 26, 2008




YAHOO! Data Center, Santa Clara, CA - Performance Statistics of PDUs selected at random



  Yahoo D/C   Model #   KVA    Ia     Ib     Ic     %Avg.   Van      Vbn    Vcn    Power    I THD    V THD    % Eff.   Losses
  Liebert               Size   Avg.   Avg.   Avg.   Load    Avg.     Avg.   Avg.   Factor   % Avg.   % Avg.            (Kilo-
  Samples                                                                                                              Watts)

  PDU 6-4     821862-   300    397    360    362    44.8%   207      208    208    0.96     11.6%    3.2%     98.4%    2.065
              071

  PDU 5-3     821862-   300    225    185    211    25.1%   210      209    210    0.95     13.4%    3.2%     92.1%    6.096
              067

  PDU3-2      821862-   300    530    546    528    64.2%   207      207    207    0.95     13.9%    4.0%     98.6%    2.527
              049




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                                                                                Opportunity for Transformer Energy Savings in Data Center PDUs
                                                                                                                     Case Study - June 26, 2008




Projected Energy, Cost and Environmental Savings - YAHOO! Data Center, Santa Clara, CA -

Thirty PDU’s are currently in place at the YAHOO! Data Center. With collected data from three PDU’s being used as an average, the table below lists
Projected Savings and the Environmental contributions that could be realized if Lowest Life Cycle Cost, (DOE CSL-3 Class Efficiency,) were
incorporated facility-wide. Energy cost base $0.12 per kWh.


                     YAHOO! Data Center, Santa Clara, CA
                     Aggregated Project Savings with Powersmiths

                     Peak kW reduction                                               59kW
                     Annual kWh reduction                                     1,026,026kWh
                     Reduction in Air Conditioning Load                              17tons

                     Cost Analysis (calc)
                     Energy Cost Escalation (above inflation)                            3.0%
                     Existing Energy Rate (kWh)                                          $0.12
                                                                            Annual                Life Cycle Operating Cost & Savings
                                                                         Operating Cost               20 years            32 years
                     Existing Transformer                                    $249,640                $ 9,017,710               $20,571,370
                     Powersmiths Transformer                                 $119,510                $ 4,317,100                $9,848,250
                     Savings with Powersmiths                                $130,130                $ 4,700,610               $10,723,120


                     Summary of Environmental Benefits


                            Annual Reduction in Greenhouse Gases (per EPA)                                    Equivalent Units
                                                   760      tons of CO2                                          140 Acres trees planted
                                                 2,450      tons of Coal                                         100 Car Emissions
                                                 5,940      kgs of SO2                                           100 homes heated
                                                 2,560      kgs of NOx

                       ** Actual overall savings will be 5-10% higher when the overhead losses incurred by UPS’s, generators
                          and other distribution equipment, as they have not been included in these calculations.




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