10-Targosz-Treviso Central Europe Trafo (1 by kxq14559

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									Central European Perspective
3rd international workshop on distribution
            transformer efficiency
- Country schemes to promote efficiency
         of distribution transformers




                                             1
Electrical energy in Central Europe
                                                  Electricity consumption
                            140,0
                            120,0                                                           1995
                            100,0                                                           1996
                             80,0                                                           1997
                             60,0
                                                                                            1998
                             40,0
                                                                                            1999
                             20,0
                                                                                            2000
                       0,0
                    TWh             Bulgaria    Czech Hungary    Poland Romania Slovakia
                                               Republic


                                               Central Europe T&D losses

                            30,00%
                                                                                       Czech
                            25,00%
           % T & D losses




                                                                                       Poland
                            20,00%
                            15,00%                                                     Romania

                            10,00%                                                     Slovakia

                             5,00%                                                     Bulgaria
                             0,00%                                                     Hungary
                                        1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000



                                                                                                   2
Comparison of load losses
                   Lo ad lo s s e s in CE v e rs . HD C-C' clas s

  0,3

 0,25                                                                       P L1
                                                                            P L2
  0,2
                                                                            P L3
 0,15                                                                       Cz1
                                                                            Cz2
  0,1
                                                                            Sk
 0,05                                                                       Bg EE
                                                                            Bg2
   0                                                                        Ro s td
        50   100    160        250       400        630       1000   1600
                                                                            Ro EE
-0,05

 -0,1




                                                                                      3
Comparison of no load losses
                   No lo ad lo s s e s in CE v e rs . HD C-C'

 0,7

 0,6
                                                                          P L1

 0,5                                                                      P L2
                                                                          P L3
 0,4                                                                      Cz1
                                                                          Cz2
 0,3
                                                                          Sk
 0,2                                                                      Bg EE
                                                                          Bg2
 0,1                                                                      Ro s td

  0                                                                       Ro EE
       50   100   160       250        400        630       1000   1600
-0,1




                                                                                    4
  Central European Countries overwiev
   Country                                   Profile
Bulgaria     Transformer fleet ~ 60 000         Rate of replacement ~ 3%
             Transformer losses ~ 0,40 TWh Replacement mechnism: age >
             No minimum efficiency standard expansion > repair costs > energy
                                            efficiency

Czech        Transformer fleet ~ 70 000            Rate of replacement ~ 2%
Republic     Transformer losses ~ 0,55 TWh Replacement mechnism: expansion >
             Efficiency related standard (soft) energy efficiency


Hungary      Transformer fleet ~ 48 000         Rate of replacement = 5 - 8%
             Transformer losses ~ 0,35 TWh Replacement mechnism: 10-25 years age
             No minimum efficiency standard if repair costs > 10 – 50% new price or all
                                            > 30 years failed = replacement


                                                                                          5
  Central European Countries overwiev (2)
   Country                                 Profile
Poland       Transformer fleet ~ 235 000     Rate of replacement < 4%
             Transformer losses ~ 1,25 TWhReplacement mechnism: repair costs >
                                          expansion > TOC
             No minimum efficiency standard


Romania      Transformer fleet ~ 85 000      Rate of replacement = 2,5-3%
             Transformer losses ~ 0,80 TWhReplacement mechnism:
                                          repair costs
             Very low minimum efficciency
             standard

Slovakia     Transformer fleet ~ 40 000          Rate of replacement ~ 3%
             Transformer losses ~ 0,25 TWh Replacement mechnism: different
             Efficiency related standard (soft)approaches



                                                                                 6
Central Europe – aggregated



  • Consumption 2000: 314,4 TWh (~ 50% transformed by distribution transformers)
  • Transformer losses ~ 3,6 TWh
  • Consumption 2020: (+50-70%) ~ 500 TWh
  • The average efficiency today 97,6%*
  • The average efficiency at C-C’ 98,7%**

  • Total energy saving potential ~ 3 TWh
      Distribution         % contribution *   % contribution **
      transformer rating     to losses          to savings
      Low                       20                 15
           250 kVA
      Medium                    50                 50
           400 kVA
      High                      30                 35
           630 kVA
                                                                                   7
Central Europe - Regional perspective



           +                       -
•EU accession            •Privatizations (fast
(adaptation              acquisition payback)
infrastructural funds)   •Low energy prices
•Growing TOC             •No mandatory
awareness                standard
                         •Regulator policy
                                                 8
Central European scheme to promote
efficiency of distribution transformers

• Use other energy efficiency relevant country
  opportunities:
      • Renewables
      • Kyoto emissions reduction
      • EU transition infrastructural support
• Mandatory minimum energy efficiency standard as
  possibly the best -regional? – approach (but is it
  realistic?)
• System of incentives (high complexity issue)


                                                       9
Central European scheme to promote
efficiency of distribution transformers
Communication promotional campaigns – country
  /regional
           • Demonstration and replication
           • Traditional promotion
Increase knowledge level
   about actual TOC e.g.                 1,04

                                         1,02
Influence of energy efficient               1

transformers and growth of load          0,98
on the level of energy losses in     w5q 0,96
distribution networks.                   0,94                                                 1,03
w5q - overall distribution losses        0,92                                          1,02
u - % of EE transformers                  0,9                                   1,01
                                                                                                q

q - change in load factor                0,88                               1
                                                0   25    50     75   100
                                                         u [%]
                                                                                                     10

								
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