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PSY 1010 Chapter #9 Lifespan Development Dr. Steve Barney Developmental psychology -The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities from conception to death. Seeks to answer such questions as: How much of our development is influenced by our genetics (nature) or by our environment (nurture)? How do we develop? In discrete stages or cycles, or is the developmental process more continuous? When do our more stable traits and tendencies develop? Are they permanent or can they be modified significantly as time goes on? When is development considered "abnormal" and how can those whose development is altered be helped? How does life begin? Ovum- egg cell of the mother containing all of her genetic material Sperm- cell containing all genetic material of the father Fertilization- when an ova is penetrate by a sperm cell, the nuclei of these two cells merge, joining the genetic material of the mother and that of the father. Sperm are introduced to the ova through sexual intercourse-or artificial means (Baby Elizabeth in the late 1970's). 200 million sperm are typically ejaculated and systematically erode the protective barrier of the ova. When one sperm enters the ova, membranal changes occur, making the cell impenetrable to other sperm cells. Once the sperm enters, it is drawn toward the nucleus of the ova so that merging can occur as soon as possible. Each sperm and each ova have 23 chromosomes (built from DNA which are built from genes). At fertilization, these chromosomes merge forming 23 pairs. Zygote-Gernimal Period the first 2 weeks of cell division (fewer than half of zygotes survive 2 weeks). Cell division leads to specialization of function (the cells begin to take on different forms depending on their function). Attachment to the uterine wall occurs at the end of this stage. The Zygote's outer part becomes the placenta which provides an interface with the mother's blood stream for nutrients and oxygen exchange. Embryo- the developing human organism from 3 weeks to 2 months after conception. Cells further differentiate. Sex- information is hidden in the 23rd chromosome pair until 6-8 weeks. The mother always contributes an X chromosome, and the father contributes either an X or a Y chromosome. Turner's Syndrome-a female disorder in which there is no second X chromosome (XO). These girls are often short, immature, and have webbed necks, eyelid folds, and receding chins. They are sterile, because the lack of the second X chromosome stops ovarian development. Secondary sex characteristic often need to be stimulated with supplementary estrogen.. Intellectual functioning is often normal or above normal. Kleinfelters Syndrome- Some males have an extra X chromosome (XXY). They are often tall and have long arms and legs. There may be some breast development during puberty, a high pitched voice, and little beard growth. They are sterile, and usually have some cognitive impairment. Double Y Syndrome- A male with an extra Y (XYY) chromosome. They tend to be tall and of lesser intelligence. A lot of petty criminals have XYY (disproportionate number of prisoners have XYY). Fragile X Syndrome- a part of the X chromosome becomes thin and may even be missing. This traits can be passed and intensified in future generations. One third of Females with Fragile X show cognitive impairment, the vast majority of males are retarded (moderately or severely) Question??? Is there any way to detect these problems before the child is born? Amniocentesis Chorionic Cillus Sampling Question??? What kinds of ethical issues does this technology bring up? Fetus- Finally the organism resembles a human (at about 9 weeks to birth). By 6 months, the internal organs are fully developed and most of them work normally (the lungs are usually the last organ to achieve full functioning). Teratogens- any harmful substances that occur during any stage of pregnancy and are able to penetrate the placental barrier. Many cause problems in normal development and may be associated with birth defects. -Tobacco -Alcohol Fetal Alcohol Syndrome -Physical Malformities (small head, wide eyes, lack of upper lip fold, etc.) -Mental Deficiencies (mental retardation) -Viruses -Toxins -Poor Nutrition Birth-Usually between 38 and 40 weeks of gestation (pregnancy) Question??? What happens to the mother after birth? Post Partum Depression 50-80% of women undergo a temporary disturbance in mood 24-48 hours after birth. A small minority suffer a clinical depression Newborn- Rooting- Sucking- Stepping- Grasp- Babinsky- Startle/Moro- Motor Development- Usually assessed in terms of Milestones achieved at a typical age. Most motor development is measured against Norm Charts which spell out the percentage of infants who are able to do certain tasks at a certain maturational level. 1 month -holds chin up 2 months -holds chest up 4 months -sits up with support 7 months -sits alone 9 months -stands holding furniture 10 months -crawls 11 months -walks lead by hand and stands alone 12 months - walks alone 12 months -speech begins with single words Social Development Self Awareness- Social Referencing- Critical Periods and Attachment – Imprinting Separation Anxiety (crying and signs of fear). Attachment Mary Ainsworth (a developmental psychologist) differentiates securely attached infants from insecurely attached infants by observing how they reacted after their mother returned from an absence (Secure shows anxiety and makes efforts to be near her vs. insecure avoids her and is ambivalent or seeks to be near her and refuses to make any contact with her). The type of attachment an infant has can be long lasting (resiliency, curiosity, problem solving ability, social competence have been associated with secure attachment). Question??? So does day care affect this attachment? High quality daycare (small number of children per caregiver, small overall group size, caregiver training in child development, and stability of the experience) has no effect on infant attachment. Question???? If social influences have some bearing on a child's development...what about spanking/corporal punishment? Gender Roles- Social Learning Theory Gender Schema Theory Cognitive Development -cognition is the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Schemas- are the core of Piagetian theory. Assimilation -the process by which like information is processed and stored in one schema Accommodation- the process by which experience brings evidence of differences and a new schema is required for similar-but different data. Jean Piaget- Stages of cognitive development 1-Sensorimotor (Birth-2 years) has 6 substages -Reflex Activity (0-1 month) - (1-4 months) Actions that bring pleasure are repeated (centered around own body, thumb sucking is pleasurable) -(4-8 months) Interesting things outside the body are repeated (squeezing a squeak toy makes a sound) First differentiation of the self-vs-non self -(8-12 months) Ability to coordinate two or more actions to achieve objectives (hide a toy under a pillow, child will lift pillow and grasp toy-two unrelated activities blended to a unified purpose) - (12-18 months) Experimentation with objects to invent new ways to produce results (a child may step on or sit on a squeeze toy to see if it will produce similar results as squeezing). Emergence of true curiosity -(18-24 months) development of mental symbols or images. Mental problem solving without trial and error. 2-Preoperational (2-7 years of age) -Preconceptual Period Appearance of symbolic thought (the ability to make a word or a thought stand for something else) Words come to represent things and imaginative play emerges Egocentrism is central theme -Intuitive Period (4-7 years) Less egocentrism More proficient in their use of symbols (reading) Thinking centers on most salient characteristic Conservation-child will see only one characteristic (tall column=more liquid) 3-Concrete Operational (7-11 years, when conservation emerges) Able to construct an accurate mental operation of a complex series of actions (mental mapping, mathematical problems, etc.) 4-Formal Operations (12+ years) Flexible and critical thought (rational, abstract, and systematic thinking) Piaget- Development happens and the environment is a passive participant in the developmental process. Most of the motivation comes from within the child. Vygotsky- Development occurs primarily through the enriched environment and life experiences. Parenting plays a major role in the cognitive development of the child. Elkind -Believes that development is a combination of the two processes working together. Lifespan development Eric Erikson-Life stages- Birth to One Year Trust vs. Mistrust Children are completely dependent on others If they are not cared for, children may learn that the world is a cruel and cold place that is not to be trusted. The mother or primary caregiver is the key social agent Successful outcome is Hope 1-3 years Autonomy Versus shame and doubt Children must learn to be autonomous (feed, dress, and look after themselves) Parents encourage autonomy by encouraging their children to try new things. Support when new things fail is critical. Parents who ridicule or punish accidents or failures; or who overprotect can produce shame or self doubt Successful outcome is Will Power 3-6 years Initiative versus Guilt Children attempt to act grown-up and will try to accept responsibilities beyond their capacity to handle. \ Activity changes from simple self control to the ability to take the initiative. How parents encourage or discourage this initiative determines resolution of this stage. preventing play, ridiculing questions, not allowing exploration of limits could lead to feelings of guilt. Family is the key social agent Successful outcome is purpose (the courage to envisage and pursue valued goals uninhibited by the fear of punishment 6-12 years Industry versus Inferiority School age children compare themselves against their schoolmates and peers Begin to learn skills valued by society as a whole that may or may not be similar to familial values. Winning praise for school projects, interpersonal successes, other actions, produce a sense of success Failure to acquire these attributes lead to feelings of inferiority Key social agents are peers Successful outcome is competence (important tasks can be accomplished by using intelligence and dexterity. 12-20 years Identity versus Role Confusion Who am I? Establishment of basic social and/or occupational roles Society is key social agent Successful outcome is fidelity (the ability to sustain loyalties freely pledged in spite of the inevitable contradictions of value systems 20-40 years Intimacy versus Isolation Form strong friendships and to achieve a sense of love and companionship with another person Feelings of loneliness or isolation result when such a relationship is not found Key social agents are lovers, spouses, close friends, etc. Successful outcome marked by Love (overcome the separate needs of two individuals and enjoy mutual devotion 40-65 years Generativity versus Stagnation Face tasks of becoming productive in work, raising families, and looking after the needs of young people. Those who cannot achieve these tasks, become stagnant, unhappy, dissatisfied, and self-centered. An interest in guiding the next generation is prime motivating force Successful outcome characterized by Care (widening concern for what has been generated by love, necessity, or accident which overcomes the ambivalence adhering to irreversible obligation Social agents are spouse, children, cultural norms Old Age Ego Integrity versus Despair Review of life -either meaningful, productive, and happy; or as a major disappointment full of unfulfilled promises and unrealized goals. For those whose life is incomplete, despair and depression combined with bitterness is apparent. Successful outcome is characterized by Wisdom One of the largest growing Population segments are older individuals. With expanding lifespans and population increases in the past 50-60 years, there are more people who are living longer. There are many changes in older individuals that happen as a result of Aging Physical Changes -Sensory abilities decline -vision -hearing -muscle tone -skin thickness and elasticity -Health can decline -more susceptible to contagious diseases -Bones thin and become more brittle -Cardiac problems and blood pressure are more apparent -Cognitive functioning declines in general -Memorization declines -Fluid Intelligence (speedy abstractions) declines Social Changes -Life satisfaction remains relatively high (correlates with health) -Sometimes forced to retire (loss of social circles) -Time to engage in new social activities (70's night..."Shut the door..you're lettin in a draft") Mortality -as age increases, one's propensity to deal with one's own mortality becomes more apparent.
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