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Chapter 9 Student Lecture Outline

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Chapter 9 Student Lecture Outline Powered By Docstoc
					                                PSY 1010
                                Chapter #9
                          Lifespan Development
                             Dr. Steve Barney

Developmental psychology -The study of progressive changes in behavior
and abilities from conception to death.

      Seeks to answer such questions as:

      How much of our development is influenced by our genetics (nature)
           or by our environment (nurture)?
      How do we develop? In discrete stages or cycles, or is the
           developmental process more continuous?
      When do our more stable traits and tendencies develop? Are they
           permanent or can they be modified significantly as time goes
           on?
      When is development considered "abnormal" and how can those
           whose development is altered be helped?


How does life begin?

      Ovum- egg cell of the mother containing all of her genetic material
      Sperm- cell containing all genetic material of the father
      Fertilization- when an ova is penetrate by a sperm cell, the nuclei of
             these two cells merge, joining the genetic material of the
             mother and that of the father. Sperm are introduced to the ova
             through sexual intercourse-or artificial means (Baby Elizabeth
             in the late 1970's). 200 million sperm are typically ejaculated
             and systematically erode the protective barrier of the ova.
             When one sperm enters the ova, membranal changes occur,
             making the cell impenetrable to other sperm cells. Once the
             sperm enters, it is drawn toward the nucleus of the ova so that
             merging can occur as soon as possible.

      Each sperm and each ova have 23 chromosomes (built from DNA
            which are built from genes). At fertilization, these
            chromosomes merge forming 23 pairs.
Zygote-Gernimal Period the first 2 weeks of cell division (fewer
     than half of zygotes survive 2 weeks). Cell division leads to
     specialization of function (the cells begin to take on different
     forms depending on their function). Attachment to the uterine
     wall occurs at the end of this stage. The Zygote's outer part
     becomes the placenta which provides an interface with the
     mother's blood stream for nutrients and oxygen exchange.

Embryo- the developing human organism from 3 weeks to 2 months
    after conception. Cells further differentiate.

Sex- information is hidden in the 23rd chromosome pair until
      6-8 weeks. The mother always contributes an X chromosome,
      and the father contributes either an X or a Y chromosome.

      Turner's Syndrome-a female disorder in which there is
           no second X chromosome (XO). These girls are
           often short, immature, and have webbed necks,
           eyelid folds, and receding chins. They are sterile,
           because the lack of the second X chromosome stops
           ovarian development. Secondary sex characteristic
           often need to be stimulated with supplementary
           estrogen.. Intellectual functioning is often normal or
           above normal.

      Kleinfelters Syndrome- Some males have an extra X
            chromosome (XXY). They are often tall and have
            long arms and legs. There may be some breast
            development during puberty, a high pitched voice,
            and little beard growth. They are sterile, and usually
            have some cognitive impairment.

      Double Y Syndrome- A male with an extra Y (XYY)
           chromosome. They tend to be tall and of lesser
           intelligence. A lot of petty criminals have XYY
           (disproportionate number of prisoners have XYY).

      Fragile X Syndrome- a part of the X chromosome
            becomes thin and may even be missing. This traits
            can be passed and intensified in future generations.
                  One third of Females with Fragile X show cognitive
                  impairment, the vast majority of males are retarded
                  (moderately or severely)

Question??? Is there any way to detect these problems before the child is
born?

      Amniocentesis

      Chorionic Cillus Sampling


Question??? What kinds of ethical issues does this technology bring up?

      Fetus- Finally the organism resembles a human (at about 9 weeks to
            birth). By 6 months, the internal organs are fully developed and
            most of them work normally (the lungs are usually the last
            organ to achieve full functioning).

      Teratogens- any harmful substances that occur during any stage of
           pregnancy and are able to penetrate the placental barrier.
           Many cause problems in normal development and may be
           associated with birth defects.
                               -Tobacco
                               -Alcohol
                                     Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
                                     -Physical Malformities (small head,
                                            wide eyes, lack of upper lip
                                            fold, etc.)
                                            -Mental Deficiencies (mental
                                                   retardation)
                               -Viruses
                               -Toxins
                               -Poor Nutrition


      Birth-Usually between 38 and 40 weeks of gestation (pregnancy)

Question??? What happens to the mother after birth?
                  Post Partum Depression 50-80% of women undergo a
                  temporary disturbance in mood 24-48 hours after birth.
                  A small minority suffer a clinical depression

      Newborn-
          Rooting-
          Sucking-
          Stepping-
          Grasp-
          Babinsky-
          Startle/Moro-



Motor Development- Usually assessed in terms of Milestones achieved at
     a typical age. Most motor development is measured against Norm
     Charts which spell out the percentage of infants who are able to do
     certain tasks at a certain maturational level.

                  1 month -holds chin up
                  2 months -holds chest up
                  4 months -sits up with support
                  7 months -sits alone
                  9 months -stands holding furniture
                  10 months -crawls
                  11 months -walks lead by hand and stands alone
                  12 months - walks alone
                  12 months -speech begins with single words


Social Development

      Self Awareness-

      Social Referencing-


      Critical Periods and Attachment –
            Imprinting
            Separation Anxiety (crying and signs of
            fear).

Attachment Mary Ainsworth (a developmental psychologist)
          differentiates securely attached infants from
          insecurely attached infants by observing how
          they reacted after their mother returned from an
          absence (Secure shows anxiety and makes efforts
          to be near her vs. insecure avoids her and is
          ambivalent or seeks to be near her and refuses to
          make any contact with her).

            The type of attachment an infant has can be long
            lasting (resiliency, curiosity, problem solving ability,
            social competence have been associated with secure
            attachment).

Question??? So does day care affect this attachment?
     High quality daycare (small number of children per caregiver, small
     overall group size, caregiver training in child development, and
     stability of the experience) has no effect on infant attachment.


Question???? If social influences have some bearing on a child's
development...what about spanking/corporal punishment?


Gender Roles-

            Social Learning Theory


            Gender Schema Theory



Cognitive Development -cognition is the mental activities associated
           with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
      Schemas- are the core of Piagetian theory.

            Assimilation -the process by which like information is
                 processed and stored in one schema

            Accommodation- the process by which experience brings
                 evidence of differences and a new schema is required for
                 similar-but different data.

Jean Piaget-
      Stages of cognitive development

      1-Sensorimotor (Birth-2 years) has 6 substages
           -Reflex Activity (0-1 month)
           - (1-4 months) Actions that bring pleasure are repeated
                  (centered around own body, thumb sucking is
                  pleasurable)
           -(4-8 months) Interesting things outside the body are repeated
                  (squeezing a squeak toy makes a sound) First
                  differentiation of the self-vs-non self
           -(8-12 months) Ability to coordinate two or more actions to
                  achieve objectives (hide a toy under a pillow, child will
                  lift pillow and grasp toy-two unrelated activities blended
                  to a unified purpose)
           - (12-18 months) Experimentation with objects to invent new
                  ways to produce results (a child may step on or sit on a
                  squeeze toy to see if it will produce similar results as
                  squeezing). Emergence of true curiosity
           -(18-24 months) development of mental symbols or images.
                  Mental problem solving without trial and error.

      2-Preoperational (2-7 years of age)
            -Preconceptual Period
                  Appearance of symbolic thought (the ability to make a
                  word or a thought stand for something else) Words come
                  to represent things and imaginative play emerges
                  Egocentrism is central theme

            -Intuitive Period (4-7 years)
                   Less egocentrism
                   More proficient in their use of symbols (reading)
                   Thinking centers on most salient characteristic
                   Conservation-child will see only one characteristic
                         (tall column=more liquid)

      3-Concrete Operational (7-11 years, when conservation emerges)
           Able to construct an accurate mental operation of a complex
           series of actions (mental mapping, mathematical problems, etc.)

      4-Formal Operations (12+ years)
           Flexible and critical thought (rational, abstract, and
           systematic thinking)

Piaget- Development happens and the environment is a passive participant
      in the developmental process. Most of the motivation comes from
      within the child.
Vygotsky- Development occurs primarily through the enriched
      environment and life experiences. Parenting plays a major role in
      the cognitive development of the child.
Elkind -Believes that development is a combination of the two processes
      working together.


Lifespan development

      Eric Erikson-Life stages-


      Birth to One Year
             Trust vs. Mistrust
                   Children are completely dependent on others
                   If they are not cared for, children may learn that the
                          world is a cruel and cold place that is not to be
                          trusted.
                          The mother or primary caregiver is the key social
                          agent

                   Successful outcome is Hope

      1-3 years
      Autonomy Versus shame and doubt
           Children must learn to be autonomous (feed, dress, and
                 look after themselves)
           Parents encourage autonomy by encouraging their
                 children to try new things.
                 Support when new things fail is critical.
           Parents who ridicule or punish accidents or
                 failures; or who overprotect can produce shame or
                 self doubt

             Successful outcome is Will Power

3-6 years
      Initiative versus Guilt
              Children attempt to act grown-up and will try to accept
                    responsibilities beyond their capacity to handle. \
              Activity changes from simple self control to the ability to
                    take the initiative.
              How parents encourage or discourage this initiative
                    determines resolution of this stage. preventing
                    play, ridiculing questions, not allowing
                    exploration of limits could lead to feelings of
                    guilt.

             Family is the key social agent

             Successful outcome is purpose (the courage to envisage
                  and pursue valued goals uninhibited by the fear of
                  punishment

6-12 years
      Industry versus Inferiority
            School age children compare themselves against their
                   schoolmates and peers
            Begin to learn skills valued by society as a whole that
                   may or may not be similar to familial values.
            Winning praise for school projects, interpersonal
                   successes, other actions, produce a sense of
                   success
            Failure to acquire these attributes lead to feelings of
                   inferiority

            Key social agents are peers

            Successful outcome is competence (important tasks can
                 be accomplished by using intelligence and
                 dexterity.

12-20 years
      Identity versus Role Confusion
             Who am I?
             Establishment of basic social and/or occupational roles

            Society is key social agent

            Successful outcome is fidelity (the ability to sustain
                 loyalties freely pledged in spite of the inevitable
                 contradictions of value systems

20-40 years
      Intimacy versus Isolation
            Form strong friendships and to achieve a sense of love
                  and companionship with another person
            Feelings of loneliness or isolation result when such a
                  relationship is not found

            Key social agents are lovers, spouses, close friends, etc.

            Successful outcome marked by Love (overcome the
                 separate needs of two individuals and enjoy
                 mutual devotion

40-65 years
      Generativity versus Stagnation
            Face tasks of becoming productive in work, raising
                  families, and looking after the needs of young
                  people.
            Those who cannot achieve these tasks, become stagnant,
                  unhappy, dissatisfied, and self-centered.
            An interest in guiding the next generation is prime
                   motivating force

            Successful outcome characterized by Care (widening
                 concern for what has been generated by love,
                 necessity, or accident which overcomes the
                 ambivalence adhering to irreversible obligation

            Social agents are spouse, children, cultural norms

Old Age
     Ego Integrity versus Despair
           Review of life -either meaningful, productive, and
                  happy; or as a major disappointment full of
                  unfulfilled promises and unrealized goals.
           For those whose life is incomplete, despair and
                  depression combined with bitterness is apparent.

            Successful outcome is characterized by Wisdom

One of the largest growing Population segments are older
     individuals. With expanding lifespans and population
     increases in the past 50-60 years, there are more people who
     are living longer.

There are many changes in older individuals that happen as a result of
            Aging

      Physical Changes
            -Sensory abilities decline
                  -vision
                  -hearing
                  -muscle tone
                  -skin thickness and elasticity
            -Health can decline
                  -more susceptible to contagious diseases
                  -Bones thin and become more brittle
                  -Cardiac problems and blood pressure are more
                         apparent
            -Cognitive functioning declines in general
                  -Memorization declines
             -Fluid Intelligence (speedy abstractions) declines

Social Changes
      -Life satisfaction remains relatively high (correlates with
             health)
      -Sometimes forced to retire (loss of social circles)
      -Time to engage in new social activities (70's
             night..."Shut the door..you're lettin in a draft")

Mortality
     -as age increases, one's propensity to deal with one's own
           mortality becomes more apparent.

				
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