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EBARA CORPORATION
Head Office:
   11-1, Haneda Asashi-cho
   Ohta-ku, Tokyo 144-8510, Japan
   Phone: 81-3-3743-6111
   Fax: 81-3-3745-3356
   Visit our website at http:// www.ebara.co.jp

EBARA ENGINEERING
SINGAPORE PTE.LTD
    No. 1 Tuas Link 2, SINGAPORE 638550
    Phone: 65-6862-3536
    Fax: 65-6861-0589




                                                       01-019-E01
                                                  23491 JF-I(AA)KL
    Ebara products and technologies make your society
    better in many ways.
                                          Social section                                                                                     Life section

    Products and technologies at work in cities, towns, and                                                   Products and technologies at work and in everyday
                        countryside.                                                                                               living.
    1   Hydroelectric                2   Water purification         3   Water sources          8
        generation plants        4       plants            6
                                                                         9   Wind power generation        A   Cooling towers       24        B   Ventilation fans       25
                                                                             plants             20

                                                                                                                                                             C     Flat-screen TVs     26

                                                                                                                                                                        D    PCs               28




                                                                                                                                                               F    Water supply/drainage
                                                                                                                                                                    pumps             32



                                                               10   Solar power generation
                                                                    plants              22
    4   Tunnels             10            5  Rainwater drainage             6   Facilities for
                                             facilities     12                  agricultural water   14
                                                                                                                               E    Cooling systems     30                  Glossary        34, 35
                                     7   Sewage treatment               8   Waste disposal
                                         plants         16                  facilities     18
2                                                                                                                                                                                                    3
    Social section 1: Hydroelectric generation plants
    "How is electricity generated from water?"

    Hydroelectric generation produces electricity by applying the power of    Hydroelectric generation produces electrical energy by harnessing the
    water stored in dams, which are built by closing off rivers in mountain   power of water moving through levels of elevation to turn water turbines,
    areas. This is suitable for Japan, with its mountains and rain. How do    and this system has been recognized as a clean energy system with no use
    such systems generate electricity?                                        of fossil fuel*1. Currently, hydroelectric generation, at sites ranging from
                                                                              large generation plants in dams to small facilities in rivers, accounts for
                                                                              about 1/10 of all power generated in Japan. Ebara water turbines are at
                                                                              work in those places.




                                                                                                                                                        Francis water turbine



                                                                                <Hydroelectric generation>
                                                                                Water turbine types                               Small-scale hydroelectric generation
                                                                                Francis water turbines (photo above);             Small-scale hydroelectric generation utilizing
                                                                                Francis, Propeller (Kaplan, Tubular) and Pelton   rivers, streams and agricultural channels is also
                                                                                turbine types are suitable for hydroelectric      attracting attention, as well as large-scale
                                                                                generation, according to conditions of volume     hydroelectric generation using dams.
                                                                                and head of water.




4                                                                                                                                                                                     5
    Social section 2: Water purification plants
    "How does river water become drinking water ?"

    Water service is essential to everyday living. We take it for granted that    Tap water comes from a water purification plant, where river water and
    clean water is always available at a mere turn of the tap. How is tap water   ground water are pumped up. Then, that water is purified at treatment
    made and supplied?                                                            facilities into safe, clean drinking water. More advanced treatment makes
                                                                                  the water more palatable. Finally, the tap water is supplied to tapping
                                                                                  points. Ebara's various water treatment technologies and products,
                                                                                  including pumps, are used throughout the entire process from intake, to
                                                                                  treatment, to supply of water.




                                                                                                                                                                         Advanced water
                                                                                                                                                                         purification
                                                                                                                                                                         treatment facilities

                                                                                  Water supply overview

                                                                                   Water               Pre-              Coagulation
                                                                                                                                             Filtration        Sterilization        Supply
                                                                                  sources           treatment           sedimentation
                                                                                                                                             facilities          facilities          water
                                                                                                     facilities            facilities




                                                                                                     Drainage/             Sludge            Resources
                                                                                                   concentration        dehydration
                                                                                                     facilities           facilities
                                                                                                                                            Industrial waste


                                                                                    <Water purification plants and water supply>
                                                                                    Water purification plant equipment and devices         Advanced water purification treatment system
                                                                                    A wide range of equipment, including pumps             This water purification treatment system
                                                                                    for intake/supply, agitation mixers, membrane          combines bio-treatment, ozone treatment and
                                                                                    filtration devices, activated carbon filters, sludge   activated carbon treatment to eliminate
                                                                                    dehydration devices, drying devices, and the           trihalomethane precursors*2, chromas, and
                                                                                    central monitoring/control system that controls        ammoniac nitrogen, which conventional water
                                                                                    the devices above.                                     purification treatment technology cannot do.




6                                                                                                                                                                                               7
    Social section 3: Water sources (Purification of water environment)
    "What if lake water becomes polluted?"

    Japan used to be full of beautiful water and nature, but economic     The aqueous environment of seas, rivers, and lakes provide us with food
    development depleted fresh water and degraded the environment. What   and hydration. However, this environment is suffering contamination as
    is being done to protect the environment and its water resources?     life proliferates beyond nature's capacity to restore itself, industry spews
                                                                          waste into waters, and water flows stagnate. Ebara's development of
                                                                          water purification, circulation, anti-pollution and other technologies are
                                                                          going far to strengthen protection of precious water resources.




                                                                                                                    Water power compressor for water purification


                                                                             <Water environment purification>
                                                                             Odaiba sea area purification                       River basin water recycling technology
                                                                             Odaiba Kaihin Koen (Odaiba Seaside Park) in        For more efficient use of water resources in
                                                                             Tokyo attracts tourists from throughout Japan.     consideration of the overall river basin
                                                                             Consequently, its water quality is worsening, so   environment, this technology is used to protect
                                                                             Ebara is working with the metropolitan govern-     water sources upstream of the river, purify mid-
                                                                             ment on purification experiments in order to       stream water for agricultural use, and treat
                                                                             help seaside recreation there exert less           drainage water downstream for use as
                                                                             environmental impact.                              moderate quality water*3.



8                                                                                                                                                                                  9
     Social section 4: Tunnels
     "How are tunnels ventilated?"

     Many long tunnels in Japan run through the mountains or under the sea.    Driving a car in a tunnel causes accumulation of harmful substances such
     Heavy traffic goes through the tunnels, polluting the air in them. What   as smoke from exhaust gas and carbon dioxide. It is difficult to ventilate
     kind of technology can improve this situation?                            tunnels naturally, so fans are used to do the job. The cylinder-shaped
                                                                               machine on a tunnel ceiling is called a "jet-fan". Also, a long tunnel like
                                                                               that of the Tokyo Bay Aqua Line (Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway) has
                                                                               ventilating towers employing large fans. Ebara fans of such types work to
                                                                               ventilate air and maintain safe driving environments.




                                                                                                                                             Jet-fan for tunnel ventilation




                                                                                 <Tunnel ventilation>
                                                                                 Role of tunnel ventilation facilities           Types of tunnel ventilation facilities
                                                                                 Ensuring a safe environment for drivers and     The jet-fan type (photo above) is the tunnel
                                                                                 passengers in long tunnels across Japan         ventilation facility most widely used. Some of
                                                                                 requires ample ventilation, using fans strong   these are as large as nearly 4 meters in
                                                                                 enough to discharge fumes from driving and in   diameter and operate hidden from the view of
                                                                                 case of fire.                                   tunnel users.



10                                                                                                                                                                                11
     Social section 5: Rainwater drainage facilities
     "What are pumps for on rainy days?"

     Rainy season, typhoon season and other times of heavy rain raise     Narrow streams, channels, side ditches, and drain pipes may overflow
     concerns about flooding. Rainwater pumps in various locations work   unless rainwater is diverted to rivers or the sea. Various pumps are used
     reliably on such occasions. What are these pumps for?                for such purposes to drain rainwater forcibly away to rivers and sea,
                                                                          thereby preventing flooding and damage. After heavy rain, pumps work
                                                                          out of view of most people to prevent channels, side ditches and roads
                                                                          from flooding with water. When it rains, Ebara's pumps work hard
                                                                          behind the scenes to protect lives from disruptions that floods can cause.




                                                                                                                  Rainwater pump (Horizontal mixed-flow pump)

                                                                            <Rainwater drainage>
                                                                            Large-scale underground watercourse              river water levels rise due to typhoons, etc. in
                                                                            (Shutoken Gaikaku Hosuiro/Metropolitan area      the area, rainwater enters the watercourse from
                                                                            groundwater drainage canal)                      four leveling pegs and drains into the Edo River
                                                                            For quicker drainage than a conventional open    through a drainage station.
                                                                            channel system is capable of, Shutoken Gaikaku
                                                                            Hosuiro, a large underground watercourse         Ebara's enormous pump
                                                                            about 6.3km long and 10m wide, was completed     Ebara produces four of the world's largest
                                                                            in June 2006, running approx. 50m beneath        pumps, capable of discharging 50m3/sec. and
                                                                            Route 16, from Obuchi, Kasukabe City, Saitama    10,300kW of engine power for the Shutoken
                                                                            Pref. to Showa municipal drainage station. If    Gaikaku Hosuiro.




12                                                                                                                                                                              13
     Social section 6: Facilities for agricultural water
     "How can water flow to rice fields far from rive rs?"

     Water is essential to agriculture. Rice farming, upon which Asian diets are   Not all rice paddies and fields have enough access to water, so pumps go
     based, particularly requires a lot of water. What has been done to supply     a long way toward distributing water from rivers and wells to faraway
     enough water consistently throughout various areas?                           fields. During soil puddling season, when the fields are filled with water,
                                                                                   pumps are often required to operate 24 hours a day. Ebara's pumps
                                                                                   reliably deliver the behind-the-scenes support needed to grow rice,
                                                                                   vegetables and fruits.




                                                                                                                                         Multistage centrifugal pump




                                                                                     <Agricultural water pumps>
                                                                                     Agricultural water pumps                           Agricultural drainage pumps
                                                                                     For supplying water to fields, centrifugal pumps   Agricultural drainage pumps are placed in
                                                                                     are mainly used. For pumping water from wells,     drainage pump stations near rivers and irriga-
                                                                                     submersible pumps are used.                        tion canals to protect fields from typhoons and
                                                                                     Ebara pumps support farming in Japan and           floods. Centrifugal, mixed-flow, axial-flow
                                                                                     throughout the world.                              pumps for large flow and low head, and vari-
                                                                                                                                        able vane axial flow pumps draining effectively
                                                                                                                                        for a wide range of water levels are available.
                                                                                                                                        Ebara produced a large low head centrifugal
                                                                                                                                        pump as far back as 1924, for reclamation work
                                                                                                                                        on the Ida River in Fukushima prefecture.


14                                                                                                                                                                                        15
     Social section 7: Sewage treatment plants
     "Where does used, dirty water go?"

     Every day, tremendous volumes of water used for cooking, washing,      Ebara technology is put to versatile use for sewage treatment. Sewage
     bathing, showering and toilets go to sewage treatment plants through   water is sent to treatment plants, processed to meet water quality
     sewage lines. What technology is used to clean the water?              standards and released to rivers and seas. Some of these plants treat the
                                                                            water by processing it into intermediate
                                                                            water for reuse, or use heat pumps*4 for
                                                                            district-level air conditioning by exploiting
                                                                            the differences in temperature between
                                                                            sewage water and outside air. Also, sludge
                                                                            developed in the process of sewage
                                                                            treatment is recycled*5 for use as energy.

                                                                            Sewage treatment facilities overview                                             Sewage treatment plant
                                                                                                                    Water treatment system


                                                                                                                            Water
                                                                                                    Grit chamber                             Disinfection             Water
                                                                                 Sewage                                   treatment
                                                                                                      facilities                               facilities             release
                                                                                                                           facilities


                                                                                                 Sludge
                                                                                                                   Sludge treatment system


                                                                                                                                                                    Resources
                                                                                                       Sludge
                                                                                                                          Dehydration         Recycling
                                                                                                    concentration
                                                                                                                           facilities          facilities
                                                                                                      facilities
                                                                                                                                                                   Industrial waste



                                                                               <Sewage water treatment>
                                                                               Equipment and devices used in sewage treat-       District air conditioning system
                                                                               ment facilities                                   The temperature of sewage does not change
                                                                               For treating water at sewage plants, Ebara        much throughout the year (around 10ºC), so it
                                                                               produces devices for grit chambers; biological    can be used as a coolant in summer when
                                                                               phosphorus removal processing; ultraviolet        outside temperature is high, and as a heat
                                                                               disinfection; sludge treatment equipment such     source in winter when outside temperature is
                                                                               as concentration-type quality control tanks;      low. Ebara heat pumps optimize this capability.
                                                                               centrifugal concentration/dehydration; and
                                                                               mechanical equipment for fluidized-bed
                                                                               incinerators, sewage pumps, rainwater pumps
                                                                               and aeration blowers.

16                                                                                                                                                                                    17
     Social section 8: Waste disposal facilities
     "Is waste simply burned?"

     Generally, on average, a person disposes of about 1kg of waste per day.      First, waste from residences and offices is gathered for removal to waste
     However, almost all waste from residences and offices to be incinerated is   disposal facilities, where it is thrown into incinerators containing devices
     not merely burned. What process does this involve?                           designed to reduce incinerated ash volume, extract metals for recycling,
                                                                                  and produce gas emissions free of dioxin*6. The waste is not just burned; it
                                                                                  is used to generate recyclable waste and eco-cement*7. Ebara's
                                                                                  technologies are used throughout this process.




                                                                                                                              Waste disposal facilities using fluidized
                                                                                                                              bed gasification and ash melting system.

                                                                                     <Waste disposal facilities>
                                                                                     Types of incineration system                     completely. Recovers energy, metals and other
                                                                                     Incineration systems do more than just burn      valuable resources from waste.
                                                                                     waste. Here are some examples.                   <Fluidized-bed gasification and ash melting sys-
                                                                                     <Stoker-type incineration system> Treats         tem> Gasifies all kinds of waste, and uses the
                                                                                     wastes ranging from household waste to high-     generated energy to render heavy metals harm-
                                                                                     calorie waste. Combines systems compatible       less by making liquid slag of ash. High
                                                                                     with high-efficiency power generation and        temperature combustion process completely
                                                                                     efficient use of ash.                            decomposes dioxin. Recovered slag can be
                                                                                     <Fluidized-bed incineration system> Cleanly      reused for roadbed material and sidewalk
                                                                                     treats all kinds of waste, including             blocks.
                                                                                     excreta/sewage sludge, paper, plastic, refuse,
                                                                                     glass, metals and old tires. Burns at
                                                                                     temperatures high enough to decompose dioxin


18                                                                                                                                                                                       19
     Social section 9: Wind power generation plants
     "How can wind be converted into electricity?"

     Wind power generation is coming to the forefront of public               Like hydroelectric generation, wind power generation attracts attention
     consciousness, as it is the most widespread clean energy source in the   because it harnesses a clean, natural source of energy*8, unlike fossil fuels.
     world. What kind of system is this?                                      Many huge windmills ranging in height from dozens of meters to
                                                                              hundreds of meters are situated in windy locations such as coastline,
                                                                              mountain, and hill districts, and generate electricity via wind-turbine
                                                                              rotation. A pioneer in this field, Ebara paves the way toward more
                                                                              widespread use of wind power generation technology.




                                                                                                                        Wind farm with a lineup of wind-power generators


                                                                                 <Wind power generation>
                                                                                 Wind turbines and wind conditions                 Current wind power generation status
                                                                                 Wind condition research aims to establish the     Wind power generation is most prevalent in
                                                                                 best locations for wind turbine installation by   Europe, particularly Germany, followed by the
                                                                                 determining the frequency, strength and dura-     United States, then India. The world's wind
                                                                                 tion of wind in each location being considered.   power generation totals about 50 million kW. Of
                                                                                                                                   Japan's portion of that production of about one
                                                                                                                                   million kW, Ebara contributes about 110
                                                                                                                                   thousand kW.


20                                                                                                                                                                                   21
     Social section 10: Solar power generation plants
     "How does solar power generate electricity?"

     The sun nurtures life in abundance. The sun's energy is virtually     Solar power generation involves direct conversion of light into electricity
     limitless, making solar energy generation the ultimate power supply   by solar battery using semiconductors such as silicon. Solar power is
     system. How, then, is solar power used as energy?                     clean energy, so it helps to conserve resources such as fossil fuels, and
                                                                           limits CO2 emission. Furthermore, a solar power generation system can be
                                                                           placed on a rooftop or wall of a house or other building, and is easy to
                                                                           maintain. Ebara offers optimal systems, according to installation location
                                                                           and use: our originally developed power conditioners.




                                                                                                                                                     Solar battery panel


                                                                             <Solar power generation>
                                                                             Solar power generation mechanism                     Solar power generation applications
                                                                             A solar battery made of special silicon uses         Solar power generation is flexibly used to
                                                                             sunlight to generate DC electricity. The collected   develop solar power lighting systems connected
                                                                             electricity is converted to AC electricity by a      to general power systems, emergency power
                                                                             power conditioner, for use in facilities and         sources (rechargeable battery backup) and
                                                                             households. Excess electricity can be sold to        independent power sources for fountains and
                                                                             electric power companies.                            irrigation.



22                                                                                                                                                                                 23
     Life section A: Cooling towers                                              Life section B: Ventilation fans
     "How does a building's air conditioning                                     "How does air ventilate through buildings
     cooling water cool down?"                                                   with unopened windows?"
     Have you seen a cooling tower on a building rooftop? It cools down          Buildings and underground malls are always comfortably air-conditioned
     cooling water used in the building's air conditioning system. What is the   throughout the year, especially considering that building heights are
     purpose of a cooling tower in an obscure location and how does it make      increasing and few, if any, of their windows open. How does air ventilate
     people in a building more comfortable?                                      in such closed spaces?




     Facilities such as large air conditioners used in buildings are sometimes
     cooled down by water. This water warms up after such use, so the cooling    In buildings in which natural ventilation is
     tower allows it to cool down for re-use, upon contact with outside air      weak, fans ventilate by bringing in
     blown in by fan. Ebara cooling towers work on building rooftops to          external air through air ducts and
     protect cooling water from harsh external                                   distributing it throughout the facilities.
     environments.                                                               And used air is discharged by fans
                                                                                 through exhaust air ducts out of the build-
                                                                                 ings. In this way, by using Ebara fans,
                                                                                 facilities can breathe in a similar way to
                                                                                 people.

                                                                                                                                      Single suction multi-blade fan



                       Square, cross-flow type cooling tower

24                                                                                                                                                                     25
     Life section C: Flat-screen TVs (vacuum equipment)
     "What do thin TVs have to do with clean air?"

     Thin TVs are becoming more popular. Did you know that a process of        The LCD*10 screen of a thin-type TV is manufactured by a process that
     ultrafine manufacturing down to the level of mere micrometers*9 is        coats a sheet of glass that is over 2 meters long per side. This occurs
     required to put such big, beautiful, dynamic images on display? Here is
     how Ebara technology contributes to such manufacturing.                   within a high-vacuum*11 chamber to keep levels of impurities (including
                                                                               airborne dust, dirt and particles too small for the naked eye to see) as
                                                                               close to zero as possible. Ebara's dry vacuum pumps are used to keep
                                                                               such environments clean.




                                                                                                                                                       Dry vacuum pump




                                                                                  <Vacuum equipment>
                                                                                  What is a vacuum?                                  Ebara vacuum pumps
                                                                                  If the pressure of a place is "1", a place where   Ebara's high-quality, high-performance vacuum
                                                                                  pressure is under 1 is a vacuum. However, the      pumps include a compact, energy-saving dry
                                                                                  required vacuum level for semiconductor/LCD        vacuum pump series and large-capacity, highly
                                                                                  manufacturing is as high as 1/one millon. Even     corrosion-resistant turbo-molecular pumps for
                                                                                  higher vacuum levels are needed for                air exhaustion.
                                                                                  microfabrication to advance.




26                                                                                                                                                                                   27
     Life section D: PCs (Semiconductor manufacturing devices)
     "What do semiconductors have to do with Ebara technology?"

     PCs, which have become essential for work, study and leisure, integrate   Ebara technology contributes to the manufacture of semiconductors used
     state-of-the-art semiconductor manufacturing. How does Ebara support      in personal computers, gaming machines, mobile phones, and digital
     semiconductor manufacturing?                                              consumer appliances that society relies upon. This manufacturing
                                                                               requires cutting-edge technology, as electronic semiconductor circuits are
                                                                               microfabricated at the nano*12 level. As a system manufacturer, Ebara is
                                                                               thereby essential to the process of making these semiconductors that have
                                                                               become so indispensable to our lives.




                                                                                                                                                          CMP device


                                                                                 <Semiconductor manufacturing devices>
                                                                                 Ebara semiconductor manufacturing devices           <Bevel polishing device> This device polishes
                                                                                 These products support micrometer- and              and washes, cleaning minute particles from
                                                                                 nanometer-level precision required in               cascade screen separation of wafer edges,
                                                                                 semiconductor manufacturing.                        residues and scratches.
                                                                                 <CMP device> Essential for next-generation          <Exhaust gas treatment device> Various gases
                                                                                 semiconductor manufacturing, Ebara's CMP            are used for semiconductor manufacturing.
                                                                                 device grinds the irregular surface of a wafer*13   Exhaust gas treatment requires sufficiently high
                                                                                 flat, chemically and mechanically. This             security to eliminate toxic substances. To suit
                                                                                 advanced system also has washing and drying         various processes, Ebara offers combustion-
                                                                                 capability.                                         type, catalytic-type, wet-type, and dry-type
                                                                                                                                     exhaust gas treatment devices.



28                                                                                                                                                                                      29
     Life section E: Cooling systems
     "What are air-conditioning systems like for large facilities?"

     It's easy to imagine air conditioning for a residence having indoor and        In large facilities like cinemas, gymnasiums, underground malls and
     outdoor components. But it is not as easy to envision air conditioning         buildings, cooling and heating machines (chiller-heater) are used for air-
                                                                                    conditioning. When there are heat sources like boilers and engines,
     systems for big sites like public facilities, buildings, and shopping malls.   chillers are used for air-cooling. Meanwhile, using midnight power, ice
     There, too, Ebara technology is working.                                       thermal storage tanks make ice, which becomes a heat source that can
                                                                                    help peak-cut*14 of electricity/thermal daytime loads and thus it reduce
                                                                                    global environmental loads. Ebara air-conditioning equipment makes a
                                                                                    space comfortable with great efficiency.




                                                                                                                                       Direct-fired absorption chiller-heater



                                                                                      <Cooling systems>
                                                                                      Cooling technology and water sprinkling        Ebara's refrigerating machines
                                                                                      On summer evenings, water sprinkled in         A leading refrigeration manufacturer, Ebara
                                                                                      gardens and near building entrances has a      produced Japan's first centrifugal chillers, and
                                                                                      cooling effect, because water absorbs ground   also makes absorption chillers, screw chillers
                                                                                      heat and evaporates. This is similar to how    and ice thermal storage systems.
                                                                                      cooling systems work.



30                                                                                                                                                                                      31
     Life section F: Water supply/drainage pumps
     "What kinds of pumps are used in tall buildings?"

     Even very tall buildings are supplied with water and proper drainage on   According to local government regulations, commercial and residential
     every floor. What kind of water supply and drainage systems are used in   buildings having more than a certain number of floors require pumps to
     such buildings? Ebara's pumps at work there provide the answers.          supply tap water throughout the buildings. Also at work are fire pumps,
                                                                               pumps to send water from a water-purifier tank to drains, pumps to use
                                                                               rainwater for fountains and toilets, and rainwater drainage pumps. You
                                                                               may not know it, but Ebara pumps are probably at work nearby.




                                                                                        Water supply pump unit for tall buildings                                Fire pump unit




                                                                                 <Water supply/drainage pumps>
                                                                                 Water supply pump unit for tall buildings           Fire pump unit
                                                                                 The product shown above is a water supply           A pressurized water supply device conforming
                                                                                 pump unit designed for buildings from 80 to 250     to Fire Defense Law and authorized by the Fire
                                                                                 meters in height. It conforms to the Water          Protection Equipment and Safety Center of
                                                                                 Works Law in Japan and ensures the safety of        Japan. This compact, light, big-bore diameter
                                                                                 drinking water. A backup function is available to   unit can be connected to a fire hydrant and
                                                                                 ensure a stable supply of water at all times.       sprinkler.




32                                                                                                                                                                                    33
                                  Social section                                                                                            Life section
     *1 Fossil fuels:                  neous uses like flushing          *6 Dioxin:                        *9 Micrometer:                   1/million, and around              *15 Sustainable:
     These are derived from            toilets, sprinkling and so on.    A colloquial term for poly-       This unit of length equals       36,000km high above the            Capable of being sustained in
     organic matter — plant and        Moderate quality water is         chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin.     1/million meter or 1/1000        earth's surface, where fixed       such a way that social and
     animal remains — metamor-         recycled wastewater from          This compound is highly           millimeter. For reference, a     satellites are situated, the       economic growth and
     phosed by heat and ground         rainwater and sewage water        toxic, difficult to decompose,    hair is about 80 micrometers     pressure is 1/10 billion.          resource development can be
     pressure and accumulated          through purification treat-       causes skin and visceral dis-     thick.                                                              maintained without harm to
     over the ages in geological       ment and it means more effi-      orders, has teratogenic                                            *12 Nanometer:                     the environment.
     deposits, such as for coal and    cient use of resources.           potential and increases risk of                                    A unit of length equal to 1/bil-   [Sustainable development]
                                                                                                           *10 LCD (Liquid crystal
     oil. In other words, these are                                      cancer. It is in urban waste                                       lion meter, or 1/million mil-      A concept to promote social
                                                                                                               display):
     forms of ancient solar energy     *4 Heat pump:                     incinerated ash, paper mak-                                        limeter, or 1/1000 microme-        development without com-
                                                                                                           A display device using liquid
     stored in organisms. Use of       A device that transmits heat      ing sludge, and vehicle                                            ter.                               promising the environment
                                                                                                           crystal. A special liquid is
     fossil fuels increases CO2 lev-   from low-temperature objects      exhaust gases                     encapsulated between two                                            and well-being of future gen-
     els.                              to high-temperature objects       .                                 glass plates, and voltage is     *13 Wafer:                         erations. First proposed by
                                       via heat absorption/genera-       *7 Eco-cement:                    applied to the liquid, which     This is usually a round, thin      the U.N. World Commission
     *2 Trihalomethane                 tion of refrigerant. Heat                                                                            plate of 20-30cm diameter,         on Environment and
                                                                         A new, recycling-type cement      changes the direction of liq-
        precursors:                                                                                                                                                            Development in 1987.
                                       pumps using underground           made of a mixture of urban        uid crystal molecules to vari-   sliced 0.5mm thick. The sin-
     Trihalomethane is a group of
                                       water, air and ground heat,       waste incinerated ash and         ous degrees, generating          gle crystal cylinder from
     organohalogen compounds                                                                                                                                                   *16 Recycling-oriented
                                       respectively, are available.      dried sewage sludge.              image displays by raising and    which it is sliced is made of
     generated by chlorination of                                                                                                                                                  society:
                                                                         Currently, it is selected as a    lowering light transmission      silicon that is 99.999999999%
     water. Chloroform, a major                                                                                                                                                A society that aims at zero
                                       *5 Sludge recycling:              "Specific procurement item"       levels.                          pure. Microscopic electrical
     substance of this kind, is said                                                                                                                                           waste emissions by promot-
                                       Inorganic sludge can be           according to the Law on                                            circuits are formed on that
     to raise the risk of cancer.                                                                                                                                              ing recycling and reuse to
                                       recycled into gardening soil,     Promoting Green Purchasing.                                        plate, which becomes a base
     Trihalomethane precursors                                                                             *11 High vacuum:
                                                                                                                                            of various semiconductors.         curb the use of new
     are organic matter and            material for civil engineering                                      If the atmospheric pressure is
                                                                                                                                                                               resources. It replaces the cur-
     ammonia that can be trans-        projects, and stone bulking       *8 Natural energy:                "1", a vacuum exists where
                                                                                                                                                                               rent practices of mass pro-
     formed into those com-            fillers, and organic sludge can   Energies such as solar power,     the pressure is less than 1.     *14 Peak-cut:
                                                                                                                                                                               duction, consumption and
     pounds.                           be recycled, mainly for recov-    wind power, hydropower,           Pressure from 1 to 1/1000 is     Peak-cut minimizes peaking
                                                                                                                                                                               discarding. In Japan, the
                                       ery of methane gas and com-       ground heat, and tidal ener-      called low vacuum, to 1/mil-     of electricity load in order to
                                                                                                                                                                               Basic Law for Establishing a
     *3 Moderate quality               post (sewage sludge ferment-      gy. This category does not        lion is called medium vacu-      reduce loads imposed on
                                                                                                                                                                               Recycling-Based Society was
        water:                         ed fertilizer).                   include limited types of ener-    um, and to 1/10 billion is       power generating facilities. A
                                                                                                                                                                               enacted in 2000.
     The system supplies moder-                                          gy that can destroy and pol-      called high vacuum. Around       year's peak electrical power is
     ate quality water for miscella-                                     lute nature, like fossil fuels.   40km above the ground            supposedly achieved at 14:00
                                                                                                           where space shuttles orbit is    on midsummer afternoons.           ● This glossary was compiled using Sanseido's
                                                                                                                                                                                 Daijirin Japanese Dictionary, 2nd ed., etc.



                                                                                                              Ebara started with pumps                       expertise, which has grown from pumps, to
                                                                                                              Since its origins in 1912, our company         cooling/heating and water treatment, to
                                                                                                              produced Japan’s first Inokuchi-type pump,     vacuum and semiconductor devices. In
                                                                                                              and started an Inokuchi-type machinery         developing these technologies,
                                                                                                              operation. In 1920, Ebara Corporation was      Ebara supports a sustainable*15
                                                                                                              founded to manufacture and sell pumps. As      society that values recycling*16.
                                                                                                              Ebara expanded on a global scale, so did its

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