Course 8: Subjects 2009-2010

Document Sample

```					Course           8                                   PhysiCs

undergraduate subjeCts                               8.012 Physics i                                       tion. Basic electric circuits. Electromagnetic
Prereq: None                                          waves and Maxwell’s equations. Subject taught
8.01 Physics i                                       U (Fall)                                              using the TEAL (Technology Enabled Active
Prereq: None                                         5-0-7 PHYSICS I                                       Learning) studio format which utilizes small
U (Fall)                                             Credit cannot also be received for 8.01, 8.011,       group interaction and current technology to help
3-2-7 PHYSICS I                                      8.01L, 8.01T                                          students develop intuition about, and concep-
Credit cannot also be received for 8.011, 8.012,                                                           tual models of, physical phenomena.
Elementary mechanics, presented in greater
8.01L, 8.01T                                                                                               Fall: E. Hudson
depth than in 8.01. Newton’s laws, concepts of
Spring: Staff
Introduces classical mechanics. Space and time:      momentum, energy, angular momentum, rigid
straight-line kinematics; motion in a plane;         body motion, and non-inertial systems. Uses el-
8.021 Physics ii (new)
forces and static equilibrium; particle dynam-       ementary calculus freely; concurrent registration
Prereq: Physics I (GIR), Calculus I (GIR),
ics, with force and conservation of momentum;        in a math subject more advanced than 18.01
permission of instructor
relative inertial frames and non-inertial force;     is recommended. In addition to covering the
U (Fall)
work, potential energy and conservation of           theoretical subject matter, students complete a
5-0-7 PHYSICS II
energy; kinetic theory and the ideal gas; rigid      small experimental project of their own design.
Credit cannot also be received for 8.02, 8.022
bodies and rotational dynamics; vibrational          Freshmen admitted via AP or Math Diagnostic for
motion; conservation of angular momentum;            Physics Placement results.                            Introduction to electromagnetism and electro-
central force motions; fluid mechanics. Subject      M. Zwierlein                                          statics: electric charge, Coulomb’s law, electric
taught using the TEAL (Technology-Enabled                                                                  structure of matter; conductors and dielectrics.
Active Learning) format which features students      8.01L Physics i                                       Concepts of electrostatic field and potential,
working in groups of three, discussing concepts,     Prereq: None                                          electrostatic energy. Electric currents, magnetic
solving problems, and doing table-top experi-        U (Fall)                                              fields and Ampere’s law. Magnetic materials.
ments with the aid of computer data acquisition      3-2-7 PHYSICS I                                       Time-varying fields and Faraday’s law of induc-
and analysis.                                        Credit cannot also be received for 8.01, 8.011,       tion. Basic electric circuits. Electromagnetic
T. Greytak                                           8.012, 8.01T                                          waves and Maxwell’s equations. Designed for
students with previous experience in 8.02; the
Introduction to classical mechanics (see descrip-
8.011 Physics i                                                                                            subject is designated as 8.02 on the transcript.
tion under 8.01). Includes components of the
Prereq: None                                                                                               Enrollment limited.
TEAL (Technology-Enabled Active Learning)
U (Spring)                                                                                                 G. Sciolla
format. Material covered over a longer interval
5-0-7 PHYSICS I                                      so that the subject is completed by the end of
Credit cannot also be received for 8.01, 8.012,                                                            8.022 Physics ii
the IAP. Substantial emphasis given to reviewing
8.01L, 8.01T                                                                                               Prereq: Physics I (GIR), Coreq: Calculus II (GIR)
and strengthening necessary mathematics tools,
U (Fall, Spring)
Introduces classical mechanics. Space and time:      as well as basic physics concepts and problem-
5-0-7 PHYSICS II
straight-line kinematics; motion in a plane;         solving skills. Content, depth, and difficulty is
Credit cannot also be received for 8.02, 8.021
forces and equilibrium; experimental basis of        otherwise identical to that of 8.01. The subject is
Newton’s laws; particle dynamics; universal          designated as 8.01 on the transcript. Enrollment      Parallel to 8.02, but more advanced mathemati-
gravitation; collisions and conservation laws;       limited to 100 students via lottery.                  cally. Some knowledge of vector calculus as-
work and potential energy; vibrational motion;       P. Schechter                                          sumed. Maxwell’s equations, in both differential
conservative forces; inertial forces and non-in-                                                           and integral form. Electrostatic and magnetic
ertial frames; central force motions; rigid bodies   8.02 Physics ii                                       vector potential. Properties of dielectrics and
and rotational dynamics. Designed for students       Prereq: Physics I (GIR), Calculus I (GIR)             magnetic materials. In addition to the theoretical
with previous experience in 8.01; the subject is     U (Fall, Spring)                                      subject matter, several experiments in electricity
designated as 8.01 on the transcript.                3-2-7 PHYSICS II                                      and magnetism are performed by the students in
Staff                                                Credit cannot also be received for 8.021, 8.022       the laboratory.
Fall: S. Rappaport
Introduction to electromagnetism and electro-
Spring: Staff
statics: electric charge, Coulomb’s law, electric
structure of matter; conductors and dielectrics.
Concepts of electrostatic field and potential,
electrostatic energy. Electric currents, magnetic
fields and Ampere’s law. Magnetic materials.
Time-varying fields and Faraday’s law of induc-

128
8.03 Physics iii                                      8.044 statistical Physics i                          waves, review of one-dimension, low-energy ap-

C o u r s e
Prereq: Calculus II (GIR), Physics II (GIR)           Prereq: 8.03, 18.03                                  proximations, resonance, Born approximation.
U (Fall, Spring)                                      U (Spring)                                           Time-dependent perturbation theory. Students
5-0-7 REST                                            5-0-7                                                research and write a paper on a topic related to
the content of 8.05 and 8.06.
Mechanical vibrations and waves; simple har-          Introduction to probability, statistical mechan-
Staff

8
monic motion, superposition, forced vibrations        ics, and thermodynamics. Random variables,
and resonance, coupled oscillations, and normal       joint and conditional probability densities,
8.07 electromagnetism ii
modes; vibrations of continuous systems; reflec-      and functions of a random variable. Concepts
Prereq: 8.03, 18.03
tion and refraction; phase and group velocity.        of macroscopic variables and thermodynamic
U (Fall)
Optics; wave solutions to Maxwell’s equa-             equilibrium, fundamental assumption of statisti-
4-0-8
tions; polarization; Snell’s Law, interference,       cal mechanics, microcanonical and canonical
Huygens’s principle, Fraunhofer diffraction, and      ensembles. First, second, and third laws of          Survey of basic electromagnetic phenomena:
gratings.                                             thermodynamics. Numerous examples illustrat-         electrostatics, magnetostatics; electromagnetic
Fall: N. Gedik                                        ing a wide variety of physical phenomena such        properties of matter. Time-dependent elec-
Spring: Staff                                         as magnetism, polyatomic gases, thermal radia-       tromagnetic fields and Maxwell’s equations.
tion, electrons in solids, and noise in electronic   Electromagnetic waves, emission, absorption,
8.033 relativity                                      devices. Concurrent enrollment in 8.04 is recom-     and scattering of radiation. Relativistic electro-
Prereq: Physics I (GIR), Calculus II (GIR)            mended.                                              dynamics and mechanics.
U (Fall)                                              K. Rajagopal                                         J. Belcher
5-0-7
8.05 Quantum Physics ii                              8.08 statistical Physics ii
Normally taken by Physics majors in their
Prereq: 8.04                                         Prereq: 8.044, 8.05
sophomore year. Einstein’s postulates;
U (Fall)                                             U (Spring)
consequences for simultaneity, time dilation,
5-0-7                                                4-0-8
length contraction, and clock synchronization;
Lorentz transformation; relativistic effects and      Together 8.05 and 8.06 cover quantum physics         Probability distributions for classical and quan-
paradoxes; Minkowski diagrams; invariants and         with applications drawn from modern phys-            tum systems. Microcanonical, canonical, and
four-vectors; momentum, energy, and mass;             ics. General formalism of quantum mechanics:         grand canonical partition-functions and associ-
particle collisions. Relativity and electricity;      states, operators, Dirac notation, representa-       ated thermodynamic potentials. Conditions of
Coulomb’s law; magnetic fields. Brief introduc-       tions, measurement theory. Harmonic oscillator:      thermodynamic equilibrium for homogenous and
tion to Newtonian cosmology. Introduction to          operator algebra, states. Quantum mechanics          heterogenous systems. Applications: non-inter-
some concepts of general relativity; principle of     in three-dimensions: central potentials and the      acting Bose and Fermi gases; mean field theo-
equivalence. The Schwarzchild metric; gravita-        radial equation, bound and scattering states,        ries for real gases, binary mixtures, magnetic
tional red shift; particle and light trajectories;    qualitative analysis of wavefunctions. Angular       systems, polymer solutions; phase and reaction
geodesics; Shapiro delay.                             momentum: operators, commutator algebra,             equilibria, critical phenomena. Fluctuations, cor-
T. Figueroa                                           eigenvalues and eigenstates, spherical harmon-       relation functions and susceptibilities, and Kubo
ics. Spin: Stern-Gerlach devices and measure-        formulae. Evolution of distribution functions:
8.04 Quantum Physics i                                ments, nuclear magnetic resonance, spin and          Boltzmann and Smoluchowski equations.
Prereq: 8.03 or 6.014; 18.03 or 18.034                statistics. Addition of angular momentum:            Staff
U (Fall, Spring)                                      Clebsch-Gordan series and coefficients, spin
5-0-7 REST                                            systems, and allotropic forms of hydrogen.           8.09 Classical Mechanics iii
J. Negele                                            Prereq: Physics I (GIR)
Experimental basis of quantum physics:
U (Fall)
photoelectric effect, Compton scattering,
8.06 Quantum Physics iii                             4-0-8
photons, Franck-Hertz experiment, the Bohr
Prereq: 8.05
atom, electron diffraction, deBroglie waves,                                                               Formal introduction to classical mechanics,
U (Spring)
and wave-particle duality of matter and light.                                                             Euler-Lagrange equations, Hamilton’s equations
5-0-7
Introduction to wave mechanics: Schroed-                                                                   of motion used to describe central force motion,
inger’s equation, wave functions, wave packets,       Continuation of 8.05. Units: natural units,          scattering, perturbation theory and Noether’s
probability amplitudes, stationary states, the        scales of microscopic phenomena, applications.       theroem. Extension to continuous and relativis-
Heisenberg uncertainty principle, and zero-point      Time-independent approximation methods:              tic systems and classical electrodynamics.
energies. Solutions to Schroedinger’s equation        degenerate and nondegenerate perturbation            B. Surrow
in one dimension: transmission and reflection         theory, variational method, Born-Oppenheimer
at a barrier, barrier penetration, potential wells,   approximation, applications to atomic and
the simple harmonic oscillator. Schroedinger’s        molecular systems. The structure of one- and
equation in three dimensions: central potentials      two-electron atoms: overview, spin-orbit and
and introduction to hydrogenic systems.               relativistic corrections, fine structure, varia-
Fall: P. Jarillo-Herrero                              tional approximation, screening, Zeeman and
Spring: Staff                                         Stark effects. Charged particles in a magnetic
field: Landau levels and integer quantum hall
effect. Scattering: general principles, partial

129                                                                                                                          subjects 8.01 to 8.09
undergraduate                                        undergraduate eLeCtive                                 8.223 Classical Mechanics ii
P h y s i C s

Laboratory and sPeCiaL                               subjeCts                                               Prereq: Physics I (GIR), Calculus II (GIR)
ProjeCt subjeCts                                                                                            U (IAP)
8.20 introduction to special relativity                2-0-4
8.13 experimental Physics i                          Prereq: Physics I (GIR), Calculus I (GIR)              A broad, theoretical treatment of classical
Prereq: 8.04                                         U (IAP)                                                mechanics, useful in its own right for treating
U (Fall)                                             2-0-7 REST                                             complex dynamical problems, but essential
0-6-12 Institute LAB                                                                                        to understanding the foundations of quantum
Introduces the basic ideas and equations of Ein-
8.14 experimental Physics ii                                                                                mechanics and statistical physics. Generalized
stein’s special theory of relativity. Topics include
Prereq: 8.05, 8.13                                                                                          coordinates, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formu-
Lorentz transformations, length contraction and
U (Spring)                                                                                                  lations, canonical transformations, and Poisson
time dilation, four vectors, Lorentz invariants,
0-6-12 Institute LAB                                                                                        brackets. Applications to continuous media. The
relativistic energy and momentum, relativistic
Four fundamental laboratory experiments are          kinematics, Doppler shift, space-time diagrams,        relativistic Lagrangian and Maxwell’s equations.
carried out each term, covering most aspects         relativity paradoxes, and some concepts of             P. Fisher
of modern physics relating to names such as          general relativity. Intended for freshmen and
Rutherford, Franck-Hertz, Hall, Ramsauer, Dop-       sophomores. Not usable as a restricted elective        8.224 exploring black holes: general relativity
pler, Fraunhofer, Faraday, Mossbauer, Compton,       by Physics majors. Credit cannot be received for       and astrophysics
and Stern-Gerlach. Stresses basic experimental       8.20 if credit for 8.033 is or has been received in    Prereq: 8.033 or 8.20
techniques and data analysis, and written and        the same or prior terms.                               Acad Year 2009–2010: Not offered
oral presentation of experiment results. 8.14        S. Kowalski                                            Acad Year 2010–2011: U (Spring)
requires knowledge of quantum mechanics at                                                                  3-0-9
the 8.05 level.                                      8.21 Physics of energy                                 Study of physical effects in the vicinity of a black
D. Litster                                           Prereq: Physics II (GIR), Calculus II (GIR),           hole as a basis for understanding general relativ-
Chemistry (GIR)                                        ity, astrophysics, and elements of cosmology.
8.18 special Problems in undergraduate               U (Fall)                                               Extension to current developments in theory
Physics                                              5-0-7 REST                                             and observation. Energy and momentum in flat
Prereq: None                                                                                                space-time; the metric; curvature of space-time
A comprehensive introduction to the fundamen-
U (Fall, IAP, Spring, Summer)                                                                               near rotating and nonrotating centers of attrac-
tal physics of energy systems that emphasizes
Units arranged [P/D/F]                                                                                      tion; trajectories and orbits of particles and light;
quantitative analysis. Focuses on the fundamen-
Can be repeated for credit                                                                                  elementary models of the Cosmos. Weekly meet-
tal physical principles underlying energy pro-
Opportunity for undergraduates to engage in          cesses and on the application of these principles      ings include an evening seminar and recitation.
experimental or theoretical research under the       to practical calculations. Applies mechanics and       The last third of the term is reserved for collab-
supervision of a staff member. Specific approval     electromagnetism to energy systems; introduces         orative research projects on topics such as the
required in each case.                               and applies basic ideas from thermodynam-              Global Positioning System, solar system tests of
Consult D. E. Pritchard                              ics, quantum mechanics, and nuclear physics.           relativity, descending into a black hole, gravita-
Examines energy sources, conversion, transport,        tional lensing, gravitational waves, Gravity Probe
8.19 readings in Physics                             losses, storage, conservation, and end uses.           B, and more advanced models of the cosmos.
Prereq: None                                         Analyzes the physics of side effects, such as          Subject has online components that are open to
U (Fall, IAP, Spring, Summer)                        global warming and radiation hazards. Provides         selected MIT alumni. Alumni wishing to partici-
Units arranged [P/D/F]                               students with technical tools and perspective to       pate should contact Professor Bertschinger at
Can be repeated for credit                           evaluate energy choices quantitatively at both         edbert@mit.edu. Enrollment limited to 40.
national policy and personal levels.                   E. Bertschinger
Supervised reading and library work. Choice of
R. L. Jaffe, W. Taylor
material and allotment of time according to indi-                                                           8.225 j einstein, oppenheimer, Feynman:
vidual needs. For students who want to do work                                                              Physics in the 20th Century
8.22 j interactive introduction to nuclear
not provided for in the regular subjects. Specific                                                          (Same subject as STS.042J)
Magnetic resonance
approval required in each case.                                                                             Prereq: None
(Same subject as 22.920J)
Consult D. E. Pritchard                                                                                     Acad Year 2009–2010: Not offered
Prereq: Calculus II (GIR)
G (IAP)                                                Acad Year 2010–2011: U (Spring)
1-2-0 H-LEVEL Grad Credit                              3-0-9 HASS

See description under subject 22.920J.                 See description under subject STS.042J.
D. G. Cory, S. D. Sewell                               D. I. Kaiser

130
8.231 Physics of solids i                           8.277 j introduction to Particle accelerators        8.286 the early universe

C o u r s e
Prereq: 8.044, Coreq: 8.05                          (Same subject as 6.608J)                             Prereq: 18.03, Physics II (GIR)
U (Fall)                                            Prereq: 6.013 or 8.07                                Acad Year 2009–2010: U (Fall)
4-0-8                                               U (Spring)                                           Acad Year 2010–2011: Not offered
3-0-9                                                3-0-9 REST
Introduction to the basic concepts of the quan-

8
tum theory of solids. Topics: periodic structure    Principles of acceleration: beam properties;         Introduction to modern cosmology. First half
and symmetry of crystals; diffraction; reciprocal   linear accelerators, synchrotrons, and storage       deals with the development of the big bang
lattice; chemical bonding; lattice dynamics,        rings. Accelerator technologies: radio frequency     theory from 1915 to 1980, and latter half with
phonons, thermal properties; free electron gas;     cavities, bending and focusing magnets, beam         recent impact of particle theory. Topics: special
model of metals; Bloch theorem and band struc-      diagnostics. Particle beam optics and dynam-         relativity and the Doppler effect, Newtonian
ture, nearly free electron approximation; tight     ics. Special topics: measures of accelerators        cosmological models, introduction to non-
binding method; Fermi surface; semiconductors,      performance in science, medicine and industry;       Euclidean spaces, thermal radiation and early
electrons, holes, impurities; optical properties,   synchrotron radiation sources; free electron         history of the universe, big bang nucleosynthe-
excitons; and magnetism.                            lasers; high-energy colliders; and accelerators      sis, introduction to grand unified theories and
X. G. Wen                                           for radiation therapy.                               other recent developments in particle theory,
W. Barletta                                          baryogenesis, the inflationary universe model,
8.251 string theory for undergraduates                                                                   and the evolution of galactic structure.
Prereq: 8.033, 8.044, 8.05                          8.282 j introduction to astronomy                    A. Guth
Acad Year 2009–2010: Not offered                    (Same subject as 12.402J)
Acad Year 2010–2011: U (Spring)                     Prereq: Physics I (GIR)                              8.287 j observational techniques of optical
4-0-8                                               U (Spring)                                           astronomy
3-0-6 REST                                           (Same subject as 12.410J)
Introduction to the main concepts of string
Prereq: 8.282J, 12.402J, 12.409, or other intro-
theory, i.e. quantum mechanics of a relativistic    Quantitative introduction to physics of the solar
ductory astronomy course; Coreq: 8.03
string. Develops aspects of string theory and       system, stars, interstellar medium, the galaxy,
U (Fall)
makes it accessible to students familiar with       and universe, as determined from a variety of
3-4-8 Institute LAB
basic electromagnetism and statistical mechan-      astronomical observations and models. Top-
ics, including the study of D-branes and string     ics: planets, planet formation; stars, the Sun,      See description under subject 12.410J.
thermodynamics.                                     “normal” stars, star formation; stellar evolution,   J. L. Elliot
B. Zwiebach                                         supernovae, compact objects (white dwarfs,
neutron stars, and black holes), plusars, binary     8.292 j Fluid Physics
8.261 j introduction to Computational               x-ray sources; star clusters, globular and open      (Same subject as 12.330J)
neuroscience                                        clusters; interstellar medium, gas, dust, magnet-    Prereq: 8.044, 5.60, or permission of instructor
(Same subject as 9.29J)                             ic fields, cosmic rays; distance ladder; galaxies,   U (Spring)
Prereq: 18.03, Physics II (GIR); or permission of   normal and active galaxies, jets; gravitational      3-0-9
instructor                                          lensing; large scaling structure; Newtonian
A physics-based introduction to the properties
U (Fall)                                            cosmology, dynamical expansion and thermal
of fluids and fluid systems, with examples drawn
3-0-9                                               history of the universe; cosmic microwave back-
from a broad range of sciences, including atmo-
ground radiation; big bang nucleosynthesis. No
See description under subject 9.29J.                                                                     spheric physics and astrophysics. Definitions of
prior knowledge of astronomy necessary. Not
M. Fee                                                                                                   fluids and the notion of continuum. Equations of
usable as a restricted elective by Physics majors.
state and continuity, hydrostatics and conserva-
Staff
8.276 nuclear and Particle Physics                                                                       tion of momentum; ideal fluids and Euler’s equa-
Prereq: 8.05                                                                                             tion; viscosity and the Navier-Stokes equation.
8.284 Modern astrophysics
Acad Year 2009–2010: Not offered                                                                         Energy considerations, fluid thermodynamics,
Prereq: 8.04, Coreq: 8.05
Acad Year 2010–2011: U (Spring)                                                                          and isentropic flow. Compressible versus incom-
U (Spring)
4-0-8                                                                                                    pressible and rotational versus irrotational flow;
3-0-9
Bernoulli’s theorem; steady flow, streamlines
A modern view of the fundamental structure of
Applications of physics (Newtonian, statistical,     and potential flow. Circulation and vorticity.
matter. Starting from a model that views quarks
and quantum mechanics) to fundamental pro-           Kelvin’s theorem. Boundary layers. Fluid waves
as basic building blocks of mesons and baryons,
cesses that occur in celestial objects. Includes     and instabilities. Quantum fluids.
the properties and interactions of these par-
main-sequence stars, collapsed stars (white          P. Joss
ticles are established. Quantum numbers and
dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes), pulsars,
multiplet structure of particle families. Nuclei
supernovae, the interstellar medium, galaxies,
as multibaryon systems: stability, radioactive
and as time permits, active galaxies, quasars,
decay, and reactions. Current topics in nuclear
and cosmology. Observational data discussed.
and particle physics research at MIT.
No prior knowledge of astronomy is required.
Staff

131                                                                                                                     subjects 8.13 to 8.292j
8.298 selected topics in Physics                   mathematics but emphasizes physical phenom-         8.325 relativistic Quantum Field theory iii
P h y s i C s

Prereq: Permission of instructor                   ena and principles.                                 Prereq: 8.324
U (Fall, IAP, Spring, Summer)                      Staff                                               G (Spring)
Units arranged                                                                                         4-0-8 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
Can be repeated for credit                         8.321 Quantum theory i
The third and last term of the quantum field
Prereq: 8.05, 8.21
Presentation of topics of current interest, with                                                       theory sequence. Its aim is the proper theoreti-
G (Fall)
content varying from year to year.                                                                     cal discussion of the physics of the standard
4-0-8 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
Consult T. Greytak                                                                                     model. Topics: quantum chromodynamics; Higgs
8.322 Quantum theory ii
phenomenon and a description of the standard
Prereq: 8.07, 8.321
8.299 Physics teaching                                                                                 model; deep-inelastic scattering and structure
G (Spring)
Prereq: None                                                                                           functions; basics of lattice gauge theory; opera-
4-0-8 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
U (Fall, Spring)                                                                                       tor products and effective theories; detailed
Units arranged [P/D/F]                             A two-term subject on quantum theory, stressing     structure of the standard model; spontaneously
Can be repeated for credit                         principles: uncertainty relation, observables,      broken gauge theory and its quantization;
eigenstates, eigenvalues, probabilities of the      instantons and theta-vacua; topological defects;
For qualified undergraduate students interested
results of measurement, transformation theory,      introduction to supersymmetry.
in gaining some experience in teaching. Labora-
equations of motion, and constants of motion.       Staff
tory, tutorial, or classroom teaching under the
Symmetry in quantum mechanics, represen-
supervision of a faculty member. Students
tations of symmetry groups. Variational and         8.333 statistical Mechanics i
selected by interview.
perturbation approximations. Systems of identi-     Prereq: 8.044, 8.05
Consult D. E. Pritchard
cal particles and applications. Time-dependent      G (Fall)
perturbation theory. Scattering theory: phase       4-0-8 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
shifts, Born approximation. The quantum theory      8.334 statistical Mechanics ii
Prereq: None
of radiation. Second quantization and many-         Prereq: 8.333
U (Fall, Spring, Summer)
body theory. Relativistic quantum mechanics of      G (Spring)
Units arranged [P/D/F]
one electron.                                       4-0-8 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
Can be repeated for credit
R. Jackiw
A two-term subject on statistical mechanics.
Research opportunities in physics. For further
Basic principles are examined in 8.333: the laws
information, contact the departmental UROP         8.323 relativistic Quantum Field theory i
of thermodynamics and the concepts of tem-
coordinator.                                       Prereq: 8.321
perature, work, heat, and entropy. Postulates of
D. E. Pritchard                                    G (Spring)
classical statistical mechanics, microcanonical,
4-0-8 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
canonical, and grand canonical distributions;
8.thu undergraduate Physics thesis
A one-term self-contained subject in quantum        applications to lattice vibrations, ideal gas, pho-
Prereq: None
field theory. Concepts and basic techniques are     ton gas. Quantum statistical mechanics; Fermi
U (Fall, Spring, Summer)
developed through applications in elementary        and Bose systems. Interacting systems: cluster
Units arranged
particle physics, and condensed matter phys-        expansions, van der Waal’s gas, and mean-field
Can be repeated for credit
ics. Topics: classical field theory, symmetries,    theory. Topics from modern statistical mechanics
Program of research leading to the writing of an   and Noether’s theorem. Quantization of scalar       are explored in 8.334: the hydrodynamic limit
SB thesis; to be arranged by the student under     fields, spin ½ fields, and Gauge bosons. Feyn-      and classical field theories. Phase transitions
approved supervision.                              man graphs, analytic properties of amplitudes       and broken symmetries: universality, correlation
Information: D. E. Pritchard                       and unitarity of the S-matrix. Calculations in      functions, and scaling theory. The renormaliza-
quantum electrodynamics (QED). Introduction to      tion approach to collective phenomena. Dynamic
renormalization.                                    critical behavior. Random systems.
graduate subjeCts                                  Staff                                               8.333: M. Kardar
8.334: Staff
8.311 electromagnetic theory i                     8.324 relativistic Quantum Field theory ii
Prereq: 8.07                                       Prereq: 8.322, 8.323                                8.351 j Classical Mechanics: a Computational
G (Spring)                                         G (Fall)                                            approach
4-0-8 H-LEVEL Grad Credit                          4-0-8 H-LEVEL Grad Credit                           (Same subject as 6.946J, 12.620J)
(Subject meets with 12.008)
Basic principles of electromagnetism: experi-      The second term of the quantum field theory
Prereq: Physics I (GIR), 18.03, permission of
mental basis, electrostatics, magnetic fields of   sequence. Develops in depth some of the topics
instructor
steady currents, motional emf and electromag-      discussed in 8.323 and introduces some ad-
G (Fall)
netic induction, Maxwell’s equations, propaga-     vanced material. Topics: perturbation theory and
3-3-6 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
tion and radiation of electromagnetic waves,       Feynman diagrams, scattering theory, Quantum
electric and magnetic properties of matter, and    Electrodynamics, one loop renormalization,          See description under subject 12.620J.
conservation laws. Subject uses appropriate        quantization of non-abelian gauge theories, the     J. Wisdom, G. J. Sussman
Standard Model of particle physics, other topics.
H. Liu

132
8.361 Quantum theory of Many-Particle                8.395 j teaching College-Level science and            8.422 atomic and optical Physics ii

C o u r s e
systems                                              engineering                                           Prereq: 8.05
Prereq: 8.322, 8.333                                 (Same subject as 5.95J, 6.982J, 7.59J, 18.094J)       Acad Year 2009–2010: Not offered
Acad Year 2009–2010: Not offered                     Prereq: None                                          Acad Year 2010–2011: G (Spring)
Acad Year 2010–2011: G (Fall)                        G (Spring)                                            3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit                            2-0-2 [P/D/F]

8
The second of a two-term subject sequence
Introduces general many-body theory applicable       See description under subject 5.95J.                  that provides the foundations for contemporary
to low temperature, nuclear, and solid-state         L. Breslow                                            research in selected areas of atomic and optical
physics. Reviews occupation number rep-                                                                    physics. Non-classical states of light- squeezed
resentation and classical Mayer expansion.           8.398 selected topics in graduate Physics             states; multi-photon processes, Raman scatter-
Perturbation theory: diagrammatic expansions         Prereq: Permission of instructor                      ing; coherence- level crossings, quantum beats,
and linked-cluster theorem for zero or finite        G (Fall, IAP, Spring)                                 double resonance, superradiance; trapping and
temperature systems of fermions or bosons.           Units arranged H-LEVEL Grad Credit                    cooling- light forces, laser cooling, atom optics,
Green’s functions: analytic properties, equations    Can be repeated for credit                            spectroscopy of trapped atoms and ions; atomic
of motion, relation to observables, approxima-                                                             interactions- classical collisions, quantum scat-
Presentation of topics of current interest with
tions, linear response theory, and random phase                                                            tering theory, ultracold collisions; and experi-
content varying from year to year.
approximation. Superconductivity: electron-                                                                mental methods.
Consult T. Greytak
phonon interaction, instability of normal state,                                                           Staff
BCS ground state, perturbation theory.
8.399 Physics teaching
T. W. Donnelly                                                                                             8.431 j nonlinear optics
Prereq: Permission of instructor
(Same subject as 6.634J)
G (Fall, Spring)
8.371 j Quantum information science                                                                        Prereq: 6.013 or 8.07
Units arranged [P/D/F] H-LEVEL Grad Credit
(Same subject as 6.443J, 18.436J)                                                                          G (Spring)
Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: 18.435                                                                                             3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
G (Spring)                                           For qualified graduate students interested in
See description under subject 6.634J.
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit                            gaining some experience in teaching. Labora-
E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto
tory, tutorial, or classroom teaching under the
See description under subject 18.436J.
supervision of a faculty member. Students
P. Shor                                                                                                    8.481, 8.482 selected topics in Physics of
selected by interview.
Consult S. P. Robinson
8.381, 8.382 selected topics in theoretical                                                                Prereq: 8.321
Physics                                                                                                    G (Fall, Spring)
Prereq: Permission of instructor                                                                           3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
G (Fall, Spring)                                     Physics of atoms, radiation, solids,
Fluids, and Plasmas                                   Presentation of topics of current interest, with
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
content varying from year to year. Subject not
Topics of current interest in theoretical physics,   8.421 atomic and optical Physics i                    routinely offered; given when sufficient interest
varying from year to year. Subject not routinely     Prereq: 8.05                                          is indicated.
offered; given when sufficient interest is indi-     Acad Year 2009–2010: G (Spring)                       Consult P. A. Lee
cated.                                               Acad Year 2010–2011: Not offered
Consult P. A. Lee                                    3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit                             8.511 theory of solids i
Prereq: 8.231
8.391 special Problems in graduate Physics           The first of a two-term subject sequence that         G (Fall)
Prereq: Permission of instructor                     provides the foundations for contemporary             3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
G (Fall)                                             research in selected areas of atomic and optical
phsyics. The interaction of radiation with atoms:     First term of a theoretical treatment of the phys-
Units arranged [P/D/F] H-LEVEL Grad Credit
resonance; absorption, stimulated and sponta-         ics of solids. Concept of elementary excitations.
Can be repeated for credit
neous emission; methods of resonance, dressed         Symmetry- translational, rotational, and time-
8.392 special Problems in graduate Physics
atom formalism, masers and lasers, cavity             reversal invariances- theory of representations.
Prereq: Permission of instructor
quantum electrodynamics; structure of simple          Energy bands- APW, OPW, pseudopotential and
G (Spring, Summer)
atoms, behavior in very strong fields; fundamen-      LCAO schemes. Survey of electronic structure
Units arranged [P/D/F] H-LEVEL Grad Credit
tal tests: time reversal, parity violations, Bell’s   of metals, semimetals, semiconductors, and
Can be repeated for credit
inequalities; and experimental methods.               insulators, Excitons, Critical points, Response
Advanced problems in any area of experimental        Staff                                                 functions, and Interactions in the electron gas.
or theoretical physics, with assigned reading                                                              P. A. Lee
and consultations.
Consult R. Ashoori

133                                                                                                                       subjects 8.298 to 8.511
8.512 theory of solids ii                            renormalization group methods in condensed           methods for extracting information content of
P h y s i C s

Prereq: 8.511                                        matter physics.                                      DNA; gene finding, sequence comparison, phylo-
G (Spring)                                           S. Todadri                                           genetic trees. Physical interactions responsible
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit                                                                                 for structure of biopolymers; DNA double helix,
8.575 j statistical thermodynamics of Complex        secondary structure of RNA, elements of protein
Second term of a theoretical treatment of the
Liquids                                              folding. Considerations of force, motion, and
physics of solids. Interacting electron gas: many-
(Same subject as 10.44J, 22.52J)                     packaging; protein motors, membranes. Col-
body formulation, Feynman diagrams, random
Prereq: 8.08, 10.213                                 lective behavior of biological elements; cellular
phase approximation and beyond. General the-
Acad Year 2009–2010: G (Spring)                      networks, neural networks, and evolution.
ory of linear response: dielectric function; sum
Acad Year 2010–2011: Not offered                     M. Kardar, L. Mirny
rules; plasmons; optical properties; applications
3-0-6 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
to semiconductors, metals, and insulators.
8.593 j biological Physics
Transport properties: non-interacting electron       See description under subject 10.44J.
(Same subject as HST.450J)
gas with impurities, diffusons. Quantum Hall         D. Blankschtein, S. H. Chen
Prereq: 8.044 recommended but not necessary
effect: integral and fractional. Electron-phonon
Acad Year 2009–2010: G (Spring)
interaction: general theory, applications to met-    8.581, 8.582 selected topics in Condensed
Acad Year 2010–2011: Not offered
als, semiconductors and insulators, polarons,        Matter Physics
4-0-8 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
and field-theory description. Superconductivity:     Prereq: Permission of instructor
experimental observations, phenomenological          G (Fall, Spring)                                     Designed to provide seniors and first-year
theories, and BCS theory.                            3-0-9                                                graduate students with a quantitative, analytical
Staff                                                Can be repeated for credit                           understanding of selected biological phenom-
ena. Topics include experimental and theoretical
Presentation of topics of current interest, with
8.513 Many-body theory for Condensed Matter                                                               basis for the phase boundaries and equation
contents varying from year to year. Subject not
systems                                                                                                   of state of concentrated protein solutions,
routinely offered; given when sufficient interest
Prereq: 8.05, 8.08, 8.033, 8.231J                                                                         with application to diseases such as sickle cell
is indicated.
Acad Year 2009–2010: Not offered                                                                          anemia and cataract. Protein-ligand binding and
Consult P. A. Lee
Acad Year 2010–2011: G (Fall)                                                                             linkage and the theory of allosteric regulation of
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit                                                                                 protein function, with application to proteins as
8.591 j systems biology
stores as transporters in respiration, enzymes
Concepts and physical pictures behind various        (Same subject as 7.81J)
in metabolic pathways, membrane receptors,
phenomena that appear in interacting many-           (Subject meets with 7.32)
regulators of gene expression, and self-assem-
body systems. Visualization occurs through con-      Prereq: None
bling scaffolds. The physics of locomotion and
centration on path integral, mean-field theories     G (Fall)
chemoreception in bacteria and the biophysics
and semiclassical picture of fluctuations around     3-0-9
of vision, including the theory of transparency
mean-field state. Topics covered: interacting
Topics include molecular, cellular, and devel-       of the eye, molecular basis of photo reception,
boson/fermion systems, Fermi liquid theory and
opmental systems biology. Molecular systems          and the detection of light as a signal-to-noise
bosonization, symmetry breaking and nonlinear
component covers constructing and modeling           discrimination.
sigma-model, quantum gauge theory, quantum
of genetic networks, control theory and genetic      G. Benedek
Hall theory, mean-field theory of spin liquids
networks, lambda phage as a genetic switch,
and quantum order, string-net condensation and
synthetic genetic switches, bacterial chemot-        8.594 j introduction to neural networks
emergence of light and fermions.
axis, genetic oscillators, and circadian rhythms.    (Same subject as 9.641J)
L. Levitov
Cellular systems includes reaction diffusion         Prereq: 9.29 or permission of instructor
equations, local activation and global inhibition    Acad Year 2009–2010: Not offered
8.514 strongly Correlated systems in
models, gradient sensing systems, and center-        Acad Year 2010–2011: G (Spring)
Condensed Matter Physics
finding networks. Developmental systems covers       3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
Prereq: 8.322, 8.333
general pattern formation models, modeling
Acad Year 2009–2010: G (Fall)                                                                             See description under subject 9.641J.
cell-cell communication, quorum sensing, and
Acad Year 2010–2011: Not offered                                                                          H. S. Seung
models for Drosophila development. Students
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
taking the graduate version explore the subject
8.613 j introduction to Plasma Physics i
Study of condensed matter systems where in-          in more depth.
(Same subject as 6.651J, 22.611J)
teractions between electrons play an important       A. Van Oudenaarden
Prereq: 6.013, 8.07, or 22.105; 18.04 or Coreq:
role. Topics vary depending on lecturer but may
18.075
include low-dimension magnetic and electronic        8.592 j statistical Physics in biology
G (Fall)
systems, disorder and quantum transport,             (Same subject as HST.452J)
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
magnetic impurities (the Kondo problem),             Prereq: 8.333 or permission of instructor
quantum spin systems, the Hubbard model and          Acad Year 2009–2010: Not offered                     See description under subject 22.611J.
high-temperature superconductors. Topics are         Acad Year 2010–2011: G (Spring)                      J. Egedal-Pedersen
chosen to illustrate the application of diagram-     3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
matic techniques, field-theory approaches, and
A survey of problems at the interface of statisti-
cal physics and modern biology: bioinformatic

134
8.614 j introduction to Plasma Physics ii            resistivity, thermal conductivities, particle          of the structure of nuclei, beginning with the

C o u r s e
(Same subject as 6.652J, 22.612J)                    “diffusion”). Runaway and slide-away regimes.          two- and three-nucleon problems. Basic nuclear
Prereq: 6.651J, 8.613J, or 22.611J                   Magnetic reconnection processes and their rel-         properties, collective and single-particle motion,
G (Spring)                                           evance to experimental observations. Radiation         giant resonances, mean field models, interacting
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit                            emission from inhomogeneous plasmas. Condi-            boson model. Nuclei far from stability, nuclear
tions for thermonuclear burning and ignition           astrophysics, big-bang and stellar nucleosyn-

8
Linear waves and instabilities in magnetized
(D-T and “advanced” fusion reactions, plasmas          thesis. Electron scattering: nucleon momentum
plasma; solutions of Vlasov-Maxwell equations
with polarized nuclei). Role of “impurity” nuclei.     distributions, scaling, olarization observables.
in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plas-
“Finite-ß” (pressure) regimes and ballooning           Parity-violating electron scattering. Neutrino
mas; conservation principles for energy and
modes. Convective modes in configuration               physics. Current results in relativistic heavy ion
momentum; quasi-linear theory and nonlinear
and velocity space. Trapped particle regimes.          physics and hadronic physics. Frontiers and
stabilization; solitons and coherent nonlinear
Nonlinear and explosive instabilities. Interaction     future facilities.
phenomena; collisions and discrete particle
of positive and negative energy modes. Each            J. Matthews
effects; fluctuations in a stable plasma; Fokker-
subject can be taken independently.
Planck equation and transport phenomena. A
Staff                                                  8.712 advanced topics in nuclear Physics
subject description tailored to fit the back-
Prereq: 8.711 or permission of instructor
ground and interests of the attending students
8.681, 8.682 selected topics in Fluid and              G (Fall, Spring)
distributed shortly before and at the beginning
Plasma Physics                                         3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
of the subject.
Prereq: 8.613J                                         Can be repeated for credit
Staff
G (Fall, Spring)
Subject for experimentalists and theorists with
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
8.624 Plasma Waves                                                                                          rotation of the following topics: (1) Nuclear
Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: 8.613J                                                                                              chromodynamics—introduction to QCD, struc-
Acad Year 2009–2010: Not offered                     Presentation of topics of current interest, with       ture of nucleons, lattice QCD, phases of hadronic
Acad Year 2010–2011: G (Fall)                        content varying from year to year. Subject             matter; and relativistic heavy ion collisions. (2)
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit                            not routinely offered; given when interest is          Medium-energy physics—nuclear and nucleon
indicated.                                             structure and dynamics studied with medium-
Comprehensive theory of electromagnetic waves
Consult M. Porkolab                                    and high-energy probes (neutrinos, photons,
in a magnetized plasma. Wave propagation in
electrons, nucleons, pions, and kaons). Studies
cold and hot plasmas. Energy flow. Absorption
of weak and strong interactions.
by Landau and cyclotron damping and by transit
time magnetic pumping (TTMP). Wave propaga-
nuclear and Particle Physics                           Consult P. Fisher

tion in inhomogeneous plasma: accessibility,
8.701 introduction to nuclear and Particle             8.781, 8.782 selected topics in nuclear theory
WKB theory, mode conversion, connection
Physics                                                Prereq: 8.323
formulae, and Budden tunneling. Applications
Prereq: 8.321, Coreq: 8.322                            G (Fall, Spring)
to RF plasma heating, wave propagation in the
G (Fall)                                               3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
ionosphere and laser-plasma interactions. Wave
propagation in toroidal plasmas, and applica-        3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
Presents topics of current interest in nuclear
tions to ion cyclotron (ICRF), electron cyclotron    The phenomenology and experimental foun-               structure and reaction theory, with content vary-
(ECRH), and lower hybrid (LHH) wave heating.         dations of particle and nuclear physics; the           ing from year to year. Subject not routinely of-
Quasi-linear theory and applications to RF cur-      fundamental forces and particles, composites.          fered; given when sufficient interest is indicated.
rent drive in tokamaks. Extensive discussion of      Interactions of particles with matter, and             Consult E. Farhi
relevant experimental observations.                  detectors. SU(2), SU(3), models of mesons and
Staff                                                baryons. QED, weak interactions, parity viola-         8.811 Particle Physics
tion, lepton-nucleon scattering, and structure         Prereq: 8.701
8.641 Physics of high-energy Plasmas i               functions. QCD, gluon field and color. W and Z         G (Fall)
Prereq: 8.613J                                       fields, electro-weak unification, the CKM matrix.      3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
Acad Year 2009–2010: Not offered                     Nucleon-nucleon interactions, properties of
Modern review of particles, interactions, and
Acad Year 2010–2011: G (Fall)                        nuclei, single- and collective- particle models.
recent experiments. Experimental and analyti-
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit                            Electron and hadron interactions with nuclei.
cal methods. QED, electroweak theory, and the
8.642 Physics of high-energy Plasmas ii              Relativistic heavy ion collisions, and transition to
Standard Model as tested in recent key experi-
Prereq: 8.613J                                       quark-gluon plasma.
ments at ee and pp colliders. Mass generation,
Acad Year 2009–2010: G (Fall)                        T. W. Donnelly
W, Z, and Higgs physics. Weak decays of
Acad Year 2010–2011: Not offered
mesons, including heavy flavors with QCD cor-
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit                            8.711 nuclear Physics
rections. Mixing phenomena for K, D, B mesons
Basic concepts of plasmas, with temperatures         Prereq: 8.322, 8.701
and neutrinos. CP violation with results from
of thermonuclear interest, relevant to fusion re-    G (Spring)
B-factories. Future physics expectations: Higgs,
search and astrophysics. Microscopic transport       4-0-8 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
SUSY, sub-structure as addressed by new experi-
processes due to interparticle collisions and col-   A modern, advanced subject in the experimen-           ments at the LHC collider.
lective modes (e.g., microinstabilities). Relevant   tal foundations and theoretical understanding          U. Becker
macroscopic transport coefficients (electrical

135                                                                                                                       subjects 8.512 to 8.811
8.821 string theory                                 established applications to liquid helium 3 as       tions; Oort constants; Oort limit; and globular
P h y s i C s

Prereq: 8.324                                       a warm-up; research will be explored including       clusters.
Acad Year 2009–2010: Not offered                    anisotropic superconductivity in heavy fermion       Staff
Acad Year 2010–2011: G (Fall)                       systems and cuprates; color superconductivity
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit                           in high-density QCD; and pairing in fermion sys-     8.902 astrophysics ii
tems with mismatched Fermi surfaces, including       Prereq: 8.901
An introduction to string theory. Basics of
ultracold atom systems. Additional ideas needed      G (Fall)
conformal field theory; light-cone and covariant
to discuss the fractional quantum Hall effect        3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
quantization of the relativistic bosonic string;
will be reviewed, emphasizing its connection to
quantization and spectrum of supersymmetric                                                              Galactic dynamics: potential theory, orbits,
conventional superfluidity, and pointing toward
10-dimensional string theories; T-duality and D-                                                         collisionless Boltzmann equation, etc. Galaxy
aspects of anyon behavior potentially relevant
branes; toroidal compactification and orbifolds;                                                         interactions. Groups and clusters; dark matter.
for quantum information processing.
11-dimensional supergravity and M-theory.                                                                Intergalactic medium; x-ray clusters. Active
F. Wilczek
J. McGreevy                                                                                              galactic nuclei: unified models, black hole ac-
cretion, radio and optical jets, etc. Homogeneity
8.871, 8.872 selected topics in theoretical
8.831 j supersymmetric Quantum Field theories                                                            and isotropy, redshift, galaxy distance ladder.
Particle Physics
(Same subject as 18.396J)                                                                                Newtonian cosmology. Roberston-Walker mod-
Prereq: 8.323
Prereq: Permission of instructor                                                                         els and cosmography. Early universe, primor-
G (Fall, Spring)
G (Spring)                                                                                               dial nucleosynthesis, recombination. Cosmic
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit                                                                                microwave background radiation. Large-scale
Can be repeated for credit
Can be repeated for credit                                                                               structure, galaxy formation.
Presents topics of current interest in theoreti-     M. Tegmark
See description under subject 18.396J.
cal particle physics, with content varying from
D. Z. Freedman
year to year. Subject not routinely offered; given   8.913 Plasma astrophysics i
when sufficient interest is indicated.               Prereq: Permission of instructor
8.841 electroweak interactions
Consult E. Farhi                                     G (Fall)
Prereq: 8.324
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
Acad Year 2009–2010: G (Spring)
8.881, 8.882 selected topics in experimental         8.914 Plasma astrophysics ii
Acad Year 2010–2011: Not offered
Particle Physics                                     Prereq: Permission of instructor
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
Prereq: 8.811                                        Acad Year 2009–2010: G (Spring)
An introduction to the standard model of            G (Fall, Spring)                                     Acad Year 2010–2011: Not offered
electroweak interactions and beyond; neutrino       3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit                            3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
interactions and masses; the CKM matrix; lepton     Can be repeated for credit
For students interested in space physics,
scattering off of necleons and nuclei; the search
Presents topics of current interest in experimen-    astrophysics, and plasma physics in general.
for the Higgs boson; supersymmetric extension of
tal particle physics, with content varying from      Magnetospheres of rotating magnetized planets,
the standard model. Topics vary with instructor.
year to year. Subject not routinely offered; given   ordinary stars, neutron stars, and black holes.
Staff
when sufficient interest is indicated.               Pulsar models: processes for slowing down,
Consult P. Fisher                                    particle acceleration, and radiation emission;
8.851 strong interactions
accreting plasmas and x-ray stars; stellar winds;
Prereq: 8.324
heliosphere and solar wind- relevant magnetic
Acad Year 2009–2010: G (Fall)
space Physics and astrophysics                       field configuration, measured particle distri-
Acad Year 2010–2011: Not offered
bution in velocity space and induced collec-
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
8.901 astrophysics i                                 tive modes; stability of the current sheet and
The strong force which bind quarks together is      Prereq: Permission of instructor                     collisionless processes for magnetic reconnec-
described by a relativistic quantum field theory    G (Spring)                                           tion; theory of collisionless shocks; solitons;
called quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Subject        3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit                            Ferroaro-Rosenbluth sheet; solar flare models;
surveys: The QCD Langrangian, asymptotic free-                                                           heating processes of the solar corona; earth’s
Size and time scales. Historical astronomy.          magnetosphere (auroral phenomena and their
dom and deep inelastic scattering, jets, the QCD
Astronomical instrumentation. Stars: spectra         interpretation, bowshock, magnetotail, trapped
vacuum, instantons and the U(1) problem, lattice
and classification. Stellar structure equations      particle effects); relationship between gravita-
guage theory, and other phases of QCD.
and survey of stellar evolution. Stellar oscilla-    tional (galactic) plasmas and electromagnetic
I. Stewart
tions. Degenerate and collapsed stars; radio         plasmas. 8.913 deals with heliospheric, 8.914
pulsars. Interacting binary systems; accretion       with extra-heliospheric plasmas.
8.861 advanced topics in superfluidity
disks, x-ray sources. Gravitational lenses;          B. Coppi
Prereq: 8.324
dark matter. Interstellar medium: HII regions,
Acad Year 2009–2010: Not offered
supernova remnants, molecular clouds, dust;
Acad Year 2010–2011: G (Fall)
radiative transfer; Jeans’ mass; star formation.
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
High-energy astrophysics: Compton scattering,
Basic pairing theory, effective field theory        bremsstrahlung, synchrotron radiation, cosmic
and spontaneous symmetry breaking; well-            rays. Galactic stellar distributions and popula-

136
8.921 stellar structure and evolution               8.962 general relativity

C o u r s e
Prereq: Permission of instructor                    Prereq: 18.03, 18.06, 8.07
G (Spring)                                          G (Spring)
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit                           4-0-8 H-LEVEL Grad Credit

Observable stellar characteristics; overview of     The basic principles of Einstein’s general theory

8
observational information. Principles underlying    of relativity, differential geometry, experimen-
calculations of stellar structure. Physical pro-    tal tests of general relativity, black holes, and
cesses in stellar interiors; properties of matter   cosmology.
and radiation; radiative, conductive, and convec-   Staff
tive heat transport; nuclear energy generation;
nucleosynthesis; and neutrino emission. Proto-      8.971, 8.972 astrophysics seminar
stars; the main sequence, and the solar neutrino    Prereq: Permission of instructor
flux; advanced evolutionary stages; variable        G (Fall, Spring)
stars; planetary nebulae, supernovae, white         2-0-4 [P/D/F] H-LEVEL Grad Credit
dwarfs, and neutron stars; close binary systems;    Can be repeated for credit
and abundance of chemical elements.
Advanced seminar on current topics, with a
Staff
different focus each term. Typical topics: gravi-
tational lenses, active galactic nuclei, neutron
8.942 Cosmology
stars and pulsars, galaxy formation, supernovae
Prereq: Permission of instructor
and supernova remnants, brown dwarfs, and
Acad Year 2009–2010: Not offered
extrasolar planetary systems. The presenter at
Acad Year 2010–2011: G (Fall)
each session is selected by drawing names from
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
a hat containing those of all attendees. Offered
Thermal backgrounds in space. Cosmological          if sufficient interest is indicated.
principle and its consequences: Newtonian           Consult D. Chakrabarty
cosmology and types of “universes”; survey of
relativistic cosmology; horizons. Overview of       8.981, 8.982 selected topics in astrophysics
evolution in cosmology; radiation and element       Prereq: Permission of instructor
synthesis; physical models of the “early stages.”   G (Fall, Spring)
Formation of large-scale structure to variability   3-0-9 [P/D/F] H-LEVEL Grad Credit
of physical laws. First and last states. Some       Can be repeated for credit
knowledge of relativity expected. 8.962 recom-
Topics of current interest, varying from year to
mended though not required.
year. Subject not routinely offered; given when
M. Tegmark
sufficient interest is indicated.
Consult D. Chakrabarty
8.952 Particle Physics of the early universe
Prereq: 8.323, Coreq: 8.324
8.thg graduate Physics thesis
Acad Year 2009–2010: Not offered
Prereq: None-
Acad Year 2010–2011: G (Spring)
G (Fall, Spring, Summer)
3-0-9 H-LEVEL Grad Credit
Units arranged H-LEVEL Grad Credit
Basics of general relativity, standard big bang     Can be repeated for credit
cosmology, thermodynamics of the early uni-
Program of research leading to the writing of an
verse, cosmic background radiation, primordial
SM, PhD, or ScD thesis; to be arranged by the
nucleosynthesis, basics of the standard model
student and an appropriate MIT faculty member.
of particle physics, electroweak and QCD phase
transition, basics of group theory, grand unified   Consult R. Ashoori
theories, baryon asymmetry, monopoles, cosmic
strings, domain walls, axions, inflationary uni-
verse, and structure formation.
A. Guth

137                                                                                                     s u b j e c t s 8 . 8 2 1 t o 8 .t h g
P h y s i C s

Bachelor of Science in Physics/Course 8

General Institute Requirements (GIRs)                                                                    Subjects
Science Requirement                                                                                             6
Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences Requirement                                                               8
Restricted Electives in Science and Technology (REST) Requirement [can be satisfied by 8.03 or 8.04, and
18.03 or 18.034 in the Departmental Program]                                                                  2
Laboratory Requirement [satisfied by 8.13 or equivalent in the Departmental Program]                            1

Total GIR Subjects Required for SB Degree                                                                              17

Communication Requirement
The program includes a Communication Requirement of 4 subjects:
2 subjects designated as Communication Intensive in Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (CI-H); and
2 subjects designated as Communication Intensive in the Major (CI-M).

PLUS Departmental Program                                                                                        Units
Subject names below are followed by credit units, and by prerequisites, if any (corequisites are indicated in italics).

Required Subjects                                                                                              81–138
8.03 Physics III, 12, REST; Physics II (GIR), Calculus II (GIR)
18.03 Differential Equations, 12, REST; Calculus II (GIR)
or
18.034 Differential Equations, 12, REST; Calculus II (GIR)
8.04 Quantum Physics I, 12, REST; 8.03*, 18.03*
8.044 Statistical Physics I, 12; 8.03, 18.03

Physics: Flexible Option
One of the following subjects:
8.21 Physics of Energy, 12; Physics II (GIR), Calculus II (GIR), Chemistry (GIR)
8.223 Classical Mechanics II, 6; Physics I (GIR), Calculus II (GIR)
One of the following subjects:
8.05 Quantum Physics II, 12; 8.04
8.20 Introduction to Special Relativity, 9, REST;
Physics I (GIR), Calculus I (GIR)
8.033 Relativity, 12; Physics I (GIR), Calculus II (GIR)
One of the following experimental experiences:
8.13 Experimental Physics I, 18, LAB, CI-M; 8.04
A laboratory subject of similar intensity in another department
An experimental research project or senior thesis
An experimentally oriented summer externship

Physics: Focused Option
8.033 Relativity, 12; Physics I (GIR), Calculus II (GIR)
8.05 Quantum Physics II, 12; 8.04
8.06 Quantum Physics III, 12, CI-M; 8.05
8.13 Experimental Physics I, 18, LAB, CI-M; 8.04
8.14 Experimental Physics II, 18, LAB; 8.05, 8.13
8.223 Classical Mechanics II, 6; Physics I (GIR), Calculus II (GIR)
8.ThU Thesis (12 units)(1)

Restricted Electives                                                                                            36–48
Physics: Flexible Option
At least one subject in the Department of Physics in addition to those listed above (12 units)(2)
Three subjects forming one intellectually coherent unit in some area, not necessarily physics, subject to
the approval of the department (36 units)
Physics: Focused Option
One subject in the Department of Mathematics beyond 18.03 (12 units)
Two subjects in the Department of Physics in addition to those listed above,(2) including at least one of
the following: 8.07, 8.08, and 8.09 (24 units)

Departmental Program Units That Also Satisfy the GIRs                                                         (24–36)
Unrestricted Electives                                                                                          48–87

Total Units Beyond the GIRs Required for SB Degree                                                         180–186
No subject can be counted both as part of the 17-subject GIRs and as part of the 180–186 units required beyond
the GIRs. Every subject in the student’s departmental program will count toward one or the other, but not both.

Notes
*Alternate prerequisites and corequisites are listed in the subject description.
A thesis of 12 units is required. Not more than 30 units of thesis credit may be included in the minimum of 180
(1)

units beyond the General Institute Requirements required for the SB degree.
(2)
Subject descriptions identify subjects that cannot be used for this purpose.
For an explanation of credit units, or hours, please refer to the online help of the MIT Subject Listing & Schedule,
http://student.mit.edu/catalog/index.cgi.

138

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