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EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY LEDA COS

VIEWS: 15 PAGES: 46

  • pg 1
									 Theoretical Perspectives on Development:
 Ethology: Konrad Lorenz, Niko Tinbergen

 CLASSICAL ETHOLOGICAL THEORY: Ethology studies
  the behavior of animals and humans from an
  evolutionary perspective
 BEHAVIOR AS AN ADAPTATION (HAS SURVIVAL
  VALUE)
    ADAPTATION = A BEHAVIOR OR
     MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURE DESIGNED BY
     NATURAL SELECTION IN ORDER TO PERFORM A
     PARTICULAR FUNCTION
    EXAMPLE: ATTACHMENT IS A BEHAVIORAL
     SYSTEM DESIGNED BY NATURAL SELECTION TO
     KEEP THE BABY CLOSE TO ITS MOTHER
    Animals have thousands of adaptations.
Theoretical Perspectives on Development:
Ethology

 MUCH OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR IS INSTINCTIVE
   INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOR = :
    1.) BEHAVIOR OCCURS IN ALL MEMBERS OF
    SPECIES (= SPECIES-TYPICAL BEHAVIOR)
    2.) NO LEARNING REQUIRED; OFTEN BEHAVIOR
    CAN DEVELOP WITHOUT ANIMAL EVER
    EXPERIENCING OTHER MEMBERS OF THE
    SPECIES
    3.) STEREOTYPED BEHAVIOR
Theoretical Perspectives on Development:
Ethology
 Example: Spider webs. All spiders of a certain species are able
   to spin their particular type
    of web.
     They don't learn this by classical conditioning, operant
       conditioning, or social
        learning.
     Young spiders may never see other members of the same
       species, but they are
        able to spin a web as soon as necessary when they reach
       the appropriate developmental stage.
     Their webs all look basically alike; they are stereotyped.
Theoretical Perspectives on Development:
Ethology

 Ethology emphasize how animal’s behavior is
  adapted to the context (evolutionary
  contextualism).
     BEHAVIOR IS ELICITED IN PARTICULAR
      CONTEXTS: E.G., AN ANIMAL MAY BE
      AGGRESSIVE ONLY DURING MATING SEASON,
      OR ONLY WITH OTHER MALES
Theoretical Perspectives on Development:
Ethology

 FIXED OR MODAL ACTION PATTERN
  (FAP): A SEQUENCE OF BEHAVIORS
  ELICITED BY A SPECIFIC STIMULUS;
  E.G. AGGRESSION IN FIGHTING FISH.
     When the fighting fish sees the red belly of
      another male during breeding season while
      he is defending his territory, he will attack
      in a stereotyped manner. There are a great
      many such examples, ranging from mating
      rituals to parenting behaviors.
Theoretical Perspectives on Development:
Ethology
 INNATE RELEASING MECHANISM (IRM):
  AN IRM IS A MECHANISM THAT TRIGGERS AN INNATE
  SEQUENCE OR PATTERN OF BEHAVIOR AS A RESULT OF
  PERCEIVING A STIMULUS;
     E.G., RED BELLY OF ANOTHER MALE TRIGGERS
      AGGRESSION IN FIGHTING
      FISH. \
     IF IRM PRESENT, THEN FAP WILL BE EMITTED.

     THE IRM IS A PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISM IN THE
      FISH. IT RESPONDS TO A CERTAIN STIMULUS, SUCH AS
      THE RED BELLY OF ANOTHER MALE, AND TRIGGERS A
      PARTICULAR BEHAVIORAL SEQUENCE, IN THIS CASE,
      AGGRESSION.
Theoretical Perspectives on Development:
Ethology


 LIKE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY,
  ETHOLOGY EMPHASIZES UNIVERSALS OF
  DEVELOPMENT (NORMATIVE DEVELOPMENT:
     ALL CHILDREN DEVELOP THE BASIC EMOTIONS
      IN THE SAME SEQUENCE IN ALL CULTURES: JOY,
      SADNESS, DISTRESS, ANGER, FEAR, ETC.
Theoretical Perspectives on Development:
Ethology

 METHODOLOGY: NATURALISTIC
  OBSERVATION; STRONGLY OPPOSED TO
  LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS UNTIL
  BASIC NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION
  COMPLETED.
     This was a major departure from both
      Cognitive Social Learning Theory (lab based
      experiments) and Cognitive Developmental
      Theory (interviews)
Theoretical Perspectives on Development:
Ethology

 IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS OF ETHOLOGY:
    1.) NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION
    2.) THINK OF CHILDREN'S BEHAVIOR AS
     INCLUDING A SET OF BIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS
     FOR SURVIVAL OVER EVOLUTIONARY TIME
    3.) STUDY BEHAVIORS THAT ALSO OCCUR IN
     ANIMALS (DOMINANCE, AGGRESSION,
     ATTACHMENT, early parent-offspring relationships)
    4.) FOCUS ON NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR:
     EMOTIONAL EXPRESSIONS, THREAT GESTURES,
     POSTURE, ETC.
    5.) CRITICAL PERIOD OR SENSITIVE PERIOD.
Theoretical Perspectives on Development:
Ethology: Sensitive or Critical Periods
 DEFINITION: A PERIOD IN DEVELOPMENT WHEN
  ORGANISM IS MOST OPEN TO ENVIRONMENTAL
  INFLUENCES (I. E., HAS GREATEST PLASTICITY)
          HIGH
PLASTICITY

          LOW       ______________________________
                              AGE
 EXAMPLES OF CRITICAL OR SENSITIVE PERIODS:
  IMPRINTING IN DUCKS;
  ATTACHMENT IN HUMANS;
  EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT ON IQ(?)
  PRENATAL EFFECTS OF TERATOGENS (E.G., ALCOHOL)
  ON BABIES
Sensitive Periods for Teratogens
Ethology: Sensitive or Critical Periods:
Orphaned Baby Hippo adopts Turtle as
Mom
Ethology: Sensitive or Critical Periods:
Orphaned Baby Hippo adopts Turtle as
Mom
Ethology: Sensitive or Critical Periods:
Orphaned Baby Hippo adopts Turtle as
Mom
Piagetian (Cognitive Developmental) Theory

 1.) DEVELOPMENT THE RESULT OF QUALITATIVE
  CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF CHILDREN'S
  THINKING.

 2.) COGNITIVE STRUCTURE = AN INTERRELATED
  SYSTEM OF KNOWLEDGE THAT GUIDES BEHAVIOR
    EXAMPLE: SCHEME = A COGNITIVE STRUCTURE OF
     INFANCY;
           A SCHEME CONSISTS OF SKILLED, FLEXIBLE ACTION
            PATTERNS THROUGH WHICH CHILD UNDERSTANDS
            THE WORLD;
      BALL SCHEME INCLUDES WHAT YOU CAN DO WITH A
       BALL, ETC.;
           SCHEME OF BALL CHANGES OVER DEVELOPMENT IN
            A QUALITATIVE MANNER
Piagetian (Cognitive Developmental) Theory

 3.) FUNCTIONS: INNATE BIOLOGICAL
  PROCESSES UNDERLYING COGNITION
     a.) ORGANIZATION: THE INNATE NEED TO MAKE
      SENSE OF WORLD AND INTEGRATE NEW
      INFORMATION WITH OLD
     b.) ASSIMILATION: INTERPRETING NEW
      EXPERIENCES IN TERMS OF EXISTING
      COGNITIVE STRUCTURES
     c.) ACCOMMODATION: CHANGING EXISTING
      COGNITIVE STRUCTURES TO FIT WITH NEW
      EXPERIENCES
Piagetian (Cognitive Developmental) Theory



                      Adapt to new
                       information



          Assimilation           Accommodation

    Reinterpret new             Revamp old ideas so
    experiences so they         they can adapt to new –
    fit into old ideas –        change current ways of
    existing ideas don’t        thinking/ideas so as to
    change, stay same           add new knowledge
Piagetian (Cognitive Developmental) Theory


   4.) CONSTRUCTIVISM: CHILDREN CREATE THEIR OWN WORLDS;
   INTERPRET WORLD AS FUNCTION OF THEIR STAGE.
   A stage is like having a pair of colored glasses:
   It makes you see the world differently;
Piagetian (Cognitive Developmental) Theory




   5.) METHOD: CLINICAL METHOD: A SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEW
   AIMED AT GETTING AT HOW THE CHILD IS THINKING
Piagetian (Cognitive Developmental)
Theory
 6.) EGOCENTRISM: CHILDREN TEND TO HAVE DIFFICULTY
  SEEING THINGS FROM OTHERS' POINTS OF VIEW.
      E.g., 4-year-old can’t understand other child’s point of
       view about a toy they both want, or thinks that a visual
       display will look the same from a different viewpoint.
      WITH AGE, CHILDREN GRADUALLY DECENTER,
       but even we adults are somewhat egocentric.
Piagetian (Cognitive Developmental) Theory

 7.) YOUNG CHILDREN ARE LESS FLEXIBLE IN THEIR
  THINKING;
      e.g., moral rules are absolute: “Stealing is bad,”
      Sex roles are absolute: “Girls wear dresses”; there are
       no exceptions.
 Piaget’s Periods of Cognitive Development
Birth to   2   Sensori-motor   Uses senses and       Object
years                          motor skills, items   permanence
                               known by use          learned

2-6 yrs        Pre-            Symbolic thinking,    Imagination/
               operational     language used;        experience grow,
                               egocentric thinking   child de-centers

7-11 yrs       Concrete        Logic applied, has    Conservation,
               operational     objective/rational    numbers, ideas,
                               interpretations       classifications

12 yrs to      Formal          Thinks abstractly,    Ethics, politics,
adulthood      operational     hypothetical ideas    social/moral
                               (broader issues)      issues explored



            Focus on organization and adaptation
Piagetian (Cognitive Developmental) Theory

 8.) CRITERIA FOR A STAGE ACCORDING
  TO PIAGET:
     a.) QUALITATIVE CHANGE;
     b.) UNIVERSAL
     c. INVARIANT SEQUENCE
     d.) STRUCTURED WHOLE:
Piagetian (Cognitive Developmental) Theory

 Structured Whole: CHILDREN IN A PARTICULAR STAGE
  THINK THE SAME WAY ABOUT MORALITY AND THEIR
  FRIENDS AS THEY THINK ABOUT STICKS AND STONES.
    This happens because children's cognitive mechanisms
     develop in sync with each other.
    At any age there is a sort of stereotypical way that children
     think. You might say of a child that he "thinks like a four year
     old".
    According to Piaget, children exhibit the same strengths and
     weaknesses in their thinking no matter what the subject
     matter;
          Whether a child is thinking about what makes something
           morally good or what happens when you pour water from a tall,
           thin beaker into a short, fat beaker, the same age typical
           mechanisms are on display.
Piagetian (Cognitive Developmental) Theory

 Stages are therefore DOMAIN GENERAL as opposed to
  DOMAIN SPECIFIC.
    Domain specific mechanisms take in only a very narrow
     and specific range of information and each mechanism is
     designed to solve a very specific problem.
    For example, one aspect of the human fear system is that it
     is designed to respond to images of snakes with fear.
        This system is designed to deal with information on
         snakes in a reflexive way but does not respond to other
         stimuli (e.g., tasty food).
    Domain general mechanisms are not restricted to a narrow
     range of information and are not designed to solve any
     particular problem.
        Stages are domain general because they are are very
         general mechanisms designed to solve a wide range of
         problems--in fact, all the problems the child encounters,
         from morality, to religion, to figuring out the properties of
         sets of objects.
Piagetian (Cognitive Developmental) Theory

   Stages are therefore DOMAIN GENERAL as opposed to DOMAIN SPECIFIC.
      Domain specific mechanisms take in only a very narrow and specific range of
        information and each mechanism is designed to solve a very specific
        problem.
      For example, one aspect of the human fear system is that it is designed to
        respond to images of snakes with fear.
             This system is designed to deal with information on snakes in a reflexive way but
              does not respond to other stimuli (e.g., tasty food).
        Domain general mechanisms are not restricted to a narrow range of information
         and are not designed to solve any particular problem.
             Stages are domain general because they are are very general mechanisms
              designed to solve a wide range of problems--in fact, all the problems the child
              encounters, from morality, to religion, to figuring out the properties of sets of
              objects.

          The next section of the course will deal with evolutionary psychology which
            emphasizes domain specific mechanisms and even denies the existence of
            domain general mechanisms. And after that, I will present a perspective that
            shows that the domain specific perspective can be combined with the
            domain general perspective.
EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY
LEDA COSMIDES AND JOHN TOOBY

INTERESTED IN 'NATURAL COMPETENCIES'; i.e., ABILITIES
  TO SEE, SPEAK, FIND SOMEONE BEAUTIFUL, FEAR
  DISEASE, FALL IN LOVE, RECIPROCATE A FAVOR,
  EXPERIENCE MORAL OUTRAGE.
 These are universals—aspects of normative
  development. All people have these abilities.
      Not interested in individual differences—why one child is
       nicer or more aggressive than another
EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY
LEDA COSMIDES AND JOHN TOOBY

 BEING ABLE TO SEE, SPEAK, FIND SOMEONE BEAUTIFUL, FEAR
  DISEASE, FALL IN LOVE, RECIPROCATE A FAVOR, EXPERIENCE
  MORAL OUTRAGE ARE SUPPORTED BY A SET OF MENTAL
  ADAPTATIONS THAT EVOLVED TO SOLVE PARTICULAR
  ADAPTIVE PROBLEMS IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT OF
  EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTEDNESS (EEA).
      EEA = ENVIRONMENT OF EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTEDNESS =
       ENVIRONMENT WHICH HUMANS EVOLVED IN AND WHICH
       PRESENTED THE SET OF PROBLEMS THAT WERE SOLVED BY
       THE SET OF HUMAN ADAPTATIONS.
      EXAMPLE: ATTACHMENT IS AN ADAPTATION THAT SOLVED
       THE PROBLEM PRESENTED BY AN ANCESTRAL ENVIRONMENT
       WITH PREDATORS AND OTHER DANGERS TO INFANTS. THIS
       ANCESTRAL ENVIRONMENT IS THE HUMAN EEA.
Levels of an Evolutionary Analysis
ADAPTIVE PROBLEM: Males must discriminate
                         appropriate mate
             ↕
COGNITIVE PROGRAM: Find young healthy women
                         attractive
             ↕
NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS: Brain mechanism
                       responsible for positive
                       appraisal of healthy, young
                       female
EP: Different Tools for different tasks;
SSSM: One tool for all tasks

The Swiss Army Knife Analogy
FIVE PRINCIPLES OF EVOLUTIONARY
PSYCHOLOGY
 (1) THE BRAIN IS A PHYSICAL SYSTEM. IT FUNCTIONS AS
  A COMPUTER DESIGNED TO GENERATE BEHAVIOR
  APPROPRIATE TO YOUR ENVIRONMENTAL
  CIRCUMSTANCES.
      Like Innate Releasing Mechanism in ethology
      The psychological mechanism is responsive to
       particular environmental contingencies.
         If E1 occurs, do x; if E2 occurs, do y.
FIVE PRINCIPLES OF EVOLUTIONARY
PSYCHOLOGY
   (2) OUR NEURAL CIRCUITS WERE DESIGNED BY NS TO SOLVE
    PROBLEMS THAT OUR ANCESTORS FACED DURING HUMAN
    EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY.
      EXAMPLE: HUMANS AND DUNG FLIES RESPOND DIFFERENTLY TO
         FECES.

   MORAL: ENVIRONMENTS DO NOT SPECIFY APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR;
    BRAIN VIA NS DOES.
      BRAIN IS NATURALLY CONSTRUCTED COMPUTATIONAL SYSTEM
       WHOSE FUNCTION IS TO SOLVE ADAPTIVE INFORMATION PROCESSING
       PROBLEMS.

   ADAPTIVE PROBLEMS ARE
      (a) RECURRENT IN OUR EVOLUTIONARY PAST;
             Natural selection can only work on problems that occur repeatedly over
              very long periods of time.
        (b) THEIR SOLUTION INCREASED FITNESS IN THE EEA.
FIVE PRINCIPLES OF EVOLUTIONARY
PSYCHOLOGY
 (3) WE ACCOMPLISH DIFFICULT TASKS EASILY
 AND UNCONSCIOUSLY. THE CIRCUITRY IS
 COMPLEX, BUT WE ARE NOT CONSCIOUS OF IT.
     CONSCIOUSNESS IS LIKE BEING PRESIDENT:
      YOU ARE AWARE OF HIGH LEVEL CONCLUSIONS
      PASSED ON BY THOUSANDS OF LOWER LEVEL
      MECHANISMS.
     EXAMPLE: VISION: CELLS SPECIALIZED TO
      DETECT MOTION, VERTICAL SURFACES,
      HORIZONTAL SURFACES; CIRCUITS
      SPECIALIZED FOR JUDGING DISTANCE,
      DIRECTION OF MOTION.
FIVE PRINCIPLES OF EVOLUTIONARY
PSYCHOLOGY
 (4) DIFFERENT NEURAL CIRCUITS ARE SPECIALIZED
  FOR SOLVING DIFFERENT ADAPTIVE PROBLEMS.
    VISION, HEARING, LOVE, MORAL OUTRAGE HAVE
     SEPARATE CIRCUITS. THE BRAIN IS A SET OF MINI-
     COMPUTERS (MODULES) DESIGNED TO SOLVE
     SPECIFIC PROBLEMS. THESE MODULES ARE
     FUNCTIONALLY INTEGRATED TO PRODUCE
     BEHAVIOR.
    Module is a specialized psychological mechanism designed to
     solve a particular problem. It takes in specific information and
     it has a particular output.
    EXAMPLE: INFANTS AT 2-1/2 MONTHS HAVE
     'PRIVILEGED HYPOTHESES': i.e., THEY ASSUME
     WORLD IS MADE UP OF RIGID OBJECTS CONTINUOUS
     IN SPACE AND TIME; THEY ARE SURPRISED IF ONE
     OBJECT APPEARS TO GO THROUGH ANOTHER, ETC.
FIVE PRINCIPLES OF EVOLUTIONARY
PSYCHOLOGY
 4 (cont.) THE BRAIN CONSISTS OF CIRCUITS FOR
  LEARNING AND REASONING. THESE CIRCUITS
    (a) ARE DOMAIN SPECIFIC: EACH MECHANISM IS
     SPECIALIZED FOR A PARTICULAR DOMAIN (Vision,
     Love, Sexual attraction, Emotion recognition, etc.)
    (b) SOLVE SPECIFIC ADAPTIVE PROBLEMS;
    (c) DEVELOP IN ALL NORMAL HUMANS
     (UNIVERSALS);
    (d) DEVELOP WITHOUT CONSCIOUS EFFORT OR
     FORMAL INSTRUCTION;
    (e) APPLIED WITHOUT CONSCIOUS AWARENESS OF
     UNDERLYING LOGIC;
FIVE PRINCIPLES OF EVOLUTIONARY
PSYCHOLOGY
 (5) OUR MODERN SKULLS HOUSE A STONE-AGE MIND.
     WE LIVED AS HUNTER-GATHERERS FOR 99.9% OF
      OUR 10 MILLION YEAR EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY. OUR
      ADAPTATIONS ARE DESIGNED TO SOLVE THE
      PROBLEMS OF HUNTERS AND GATHERERS.
     OUR ADAPTATIONS DO NOT NECESSARILY
      GENERATE ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR NOW.
          OUR ADAPTATIONS MAY NOT PRODUCE FIT BEHAVIOR
           IN CONTEMPORARY ENVIRONMENTS.
          Mismatch Theory
          EXAMPLES: PEOPLE LOVE TO EAT SWEET, SALT, AND
           FAT; BUT IN MODERN ENVIRONMENT OF FOOD
           SURPLUSES AND REFINED SUGAR, THIS MAY LEAD TO
           HEALTH PROBLEMS.
Evolutionary Psychology: The Bottom
Line
• The mind is composed of a large number of mental
  modules each designed to solve a specific problem.
   •   For example, there is one mechanism for perceiving
       three dimensions, another for anger, another for falling
       in love.
   •   The mind is like a Swiss Army knife; i.e., it has lots of
       specialized tools.
   •   There is no such thing as general intelligence, general
       learning, or any other general ability to solve problems.
   •   These mechanisms are modules: They take in specific
       input (e.g., the fear mechanism responds to specific
       inputs, such as a snake; and it has specific outputs—
       the fear response. This is discussed further in Ch. 3
Neo-Piagetian Approaches: Synthesis between Piaget
(domain general) and Evolutionary Psychology (domain
specific)
 NEO-PIAGETIAN APPROACHES COMBINE DOMAIN-SPECIFIC
  MODULES (CONSISTENT WITH EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY)
  WITH DOMAIN-GENERAL MECHANISMS OF TRADITIONAL
  PIAGETIAN THEORY.

 AN IMPORTANT CANDIDATE FOR THE MOST IMPORTANT
  DOMAIN GENERAL MECHANISMS ARE THOSE ASSOCIATED
  WITH GENERAL INTELLIGENCE:
      WORKING MEMORY AS PARADIGM: HAVING A GOOD WORKING
       MEMORY IS LIKE A COMPUTER HAVING A HIGH-CAPACITY
       PROCESSER: It is able to run all kinds of software better. A good
       working memory means that you can keep lots of different things in
       your mind when you solve a problem—spatial relationships, verbal
       instructions, etc. You would be better at math and at law or medicine.
      A high capacity computer chip runs video games, web browsers, or
       word processes faster.
      Because it works with different types of input, it is domain general.
  Neo-Piagetian Approaches: Synthesis between Piaget
  (domain general) and Evolutionary Psychology (domain
  specific): Figure 1

• g is like a computer chip.
   • Computers with a faster computer chip outperform
      computers with slower chips.
       • This means they run all your software faster, whether

          it’s graphics, web browsing, or word processing.
   • In this analogy, the graphics and word processing
      programs are like modules—they have specific inputs
      and outputs.
   • g is the domain general, non-modular processor that
      affects the speed and efficiency of the domain specific
      modules underlying the middle level factors in the
      diagram.
Neo-Piagetian Approaches: Synthesis between Piaget
(domain general) and Evolutionary Psychology (domain
specific): Figure 1
    Neo-Piagetian Approaches: Synthesis between Piaget
    (domain general) and Evolutionary Psychology (domain
    specific): Figure 1
•   The figure represents the results of factor analysis of cognitive ability
    tests.
•   Factor analysis is a correlational procedure that basically discovers what
    traits co-vary together.
     •   These results show several middle level factors (spatial, numerical,
         social/verbal, etc.) and a higher order factor (g).
     •   Items related to spatial reasoning tend to correlate with each other,
         resulting in the middle level spatial factor.
•   The evolutionary psychology idea is that a spatial reasoning module
    underlies this spatial ability factor.
     •   The spatial reasoning module has all the characteristics of modules: It
         takes in only a very specialized type of stimulation (related to objects in
         space), and it has only very specific outputs (spatial reasoning).
     •   This means it is domain specific (= able to deal with only one type of
         stimulation.)
•   The same could be said for all of the other middle level factors.
Neo-Piagetian Approaches: Synthesis between Piaget
(domain general) and Evolutionary Psychology (domain
specific): Figure 1
    Neo-Piagetian Approaches: Synthesis between Piaget
    (domain general) and Evolutionary Psychology (domain
    specific): Figure 1
•   g, the higher order factor, is correlated with all of the middle level
    factors.
     • people higher on g perform better on all of the middle level
        abilities.
     • This means that the mechanisms underlying g are domain
        general. (Why?)
•   The psychological mechanisms underlying g include domain general
    abilities such as working memory and speed of processing.
     • These abilities are domain general and non-modular because
        they are not restricted to specific types of inputs and not
        restricted to specific types of outputs.
     • Working memory can be used with an incredible variety of
        inputs, from number lists to rotating figures in space; so it is not
        domain specific.
Neo-Piagetian Approaches: Synthesis between Piaget
(domain general) and Evolutionary Psychology (domain
specific): Figure 1
Neo-Piagetian Approaches: Synthesis between Piaget
(domain general) and Evolutionary Psychology (domain
specific): Figure 2
    Neo-Piagetian Approaches: Synthesis between Piaget
    (domain general) and Evolutionary Psychology (domain
    specific): Figure 2
•   The core capacities are domain general: speed, span, and
    control.
     •   These are the same as processing speed, working
         memory, and the ability to inhibit irrelevant responses
         from previous slide.
•   Specialized capacity spheres are the domain specific modules:
    spatial, verbal social, numerical, etc.
•   Stage Transition Zones: Times when children’s core capacities
    change rapidly (= stages).

								
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