Quality Improving vocational education through by maclaren1

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              Quality Improvement of Vocational Education
               Through Integrating ICT Skill development
                                           by Herawati
                                       herawati@seamolec.org

Abstract

The advancement of ICT in the knowledge era causes the workplace to demand a new skill,
especially lifelong learning ability and the information managerial capability as well as
adaptability toward change. This change can only be responded through education and
training, so that knowledge and skill gained are systematically designed, well planned to meet
the new demand, and accountable.

Within that framework, Directorate Technical and Vocational Education (DTVE)
implemented the utilization of ICT in technical and vocational secondary school programs
through integration of ICT skills into its curriculum. The main focus of the DTVE program
is acceleration of human resources preparation (student and teacher) in the field of ICT. This
program is expected to improve the quality of learning process in technical and vocational
education. This paper describes the implementation of the utilization of ICT through
integration ICT skills into the technical and vocational education curriculum. In addition, it
will also describe best practices of technical and vocational schools implementing the
program.


Introduction

One of the big challenges in the information era is how to utilize and to manage the
information, so the information gap is not occurring. The information overflow causes a
dramatic transformation in the world of work, changing not only the foundation of
economies and social life but also the knowledge, skills and competencies that people
require. At the same time, it is, crucial to choose policies and program which encourage the
efficient use of resources and adopt technologies that lead to less the information as well as
only possible when the information gap can be processed are systematically, designed, and
well planned, to meet the new demand, and accountable. This effort should be used the
future paradigm, not today paradigm even less the past paradigm.

To bring this paradigm into reality, the process is changing profoundly. The skills of
learning, the ability to process information, and the capacity to adapt rapidly to change, are
fast becoming determining factors in personal and employment as well as the world of work.
That is means the education system not only give people the knowledge but also to educate
and to train people in the expectation that their work activities will remain in the one job
throughout their working life as well as will be in any job requiring skills. The learning
process has become an imperative strategy for meeting the challenges. As the former British
Secretary of State for Education and Employment put it:




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        For all of us the task is to get that massage across: that learning is for life; that we can
        renew our skills; that leaning gives us grater security in employment; but it also equips to be
        able to take on the scourge of unemployment; to be able to equip ourselves for
        competitiveness. - Blunket cited in Moran & Rumble, 2004

Indonesia has a great concern over this change and believes that the information gap should
be reduced. The Indonesian Government is determined to utilize the information
technology effectively to support efforts to increase the national competitiveness.

The Government realizes that the success of the development and utilization of telematics
depends mostly on the infrastructure that can provide easy access, and also ensure
availability of information and subjects. To meet these provisions, competent human
resources is a necessity. Meanwhile, the scarcity of and low quality human resources in the
area of Information and Communications Technologies can delay mastery of
communication and information technology.

As such, the government through the Minister of Efficiency of State Apparatus as Head of
the Coordination Team of Telematics of Indonesia has drawn up a Five-Year Action Plan
for the Development and Implementation of Information and Communication
Technologies (ICT) in Indonesia. (Yuhetty; 2002)

This plan among others includes a plan for the implementation of the use of telematics in
the area of education starting from 2001 until 2005, which includes:

     Development of collaboration between ICT industry and ICT educational
      institutions through training and R & D , and network building for skills and capacity
      development
     Develop and implement Curricula of ICT
     Use ICTs as an essential part of the curricula and learning tools in
      schools/universities and training centers
     Facilitate the use of internet for more efficient teaching and learning

The development of the plan has been continued by Directorate Technical and Vocational
Education (DTVE) as a formal education in their program. The Program has been
integrated in the vocational education curriculum and implemented in each Vocational
School program in Information Technology. One of the expectations from this program is
to enhance the quality of vocational education to support the improvement of the quality
human resources in Indonesia. In addition, there are three main in ICT program
development by DTVE. The main focus is acceleration of human resources preparation
trough education in ICT School, the second focus is to provide qualified teacher in
material/Substantial mastery or instructional methodology in the field of ICT, and the third
focus is to give skill to the entire vocational school outcomes for survival in this knowledge
era.




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This paper describes integration of ICT skills development to improve quality of vocational
education. In addition it also draws the implementation of ICT utilization in vocational
school.

Indonesia Education System

The Ministry of National Education (Depdiknas) has the function of maintaining and
developing the education of the country. The Minister (Menteri) assists the President in the
field entrusted to him. At the national level, the Minister is assisted by Secretary-General
(Setjen) in doing the secretariat tasks to support the administration functions and by
Director Generals (Dirjen) for Academic and Culture Development. At regional levels the
Minister is assisted by the Head of Regional Office (KANWIL) who plays the roles and the
functions of the Minister in the Province.

The formal education system in Indonesia consists of six-year primary school, three-year
junior secondary school, three-year senior secondary school and higher education from one
to six years. Children enter primary school at the age of six. At the end of their primary
education they are admitted to junior secondary schools. Advancement from junior
secondary school to senior secondary school is through selection. Specialization in education
commences at the junior and secondary levels of education. The various specialized
secondary level programs are organized and offered separately and managed by different
Directorates in the Ministry of Education and Culture. Overall coordination is held by the
Director General or Primary and Secondary Education (Ditjen Dikdasmen).

Technical and Vocational Education

In Indonesia, technical and vocational education as a system in the primary and secondary
education is organized under the Directorate of Technical and Vocational Education
(DTVE) of the Director General of primary and secondary Education, consisting of Junior
Technical and Vocational School and Senior Technical and Vocational Schools. Vocational
secondary education gives priority to expanding specific occupational skills and emphasizes
the preparation of students to enter the world of work and expand their professional
attitude.

For this preparation to 2005-2009, DTVE had developed ICT program which is stated in
the work plan. The objectives of the work plans are:

       To introduce ICT program to school society especially the vocational school trough
        to extend subsidize for ICT program activities
       To prepare the qualified teacher in substance and instructional design.
       To support school to be national or international standards in accordance with the
        vision and mission of DTVE
       To create school information network/Jaringan Informasi Sekolah in each city/regency
        throughout Indonesia and interrelationship with each other.




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Scope of Activities

    A. The institutional development and expertise program development
       ICT program development for vocational school is using ICT curriculum in 2004 is
       included:
        Software Engineering
        Computer and Infrastructure Technology
        Multimedia
        Radio Broadcasting Technology (in process)
    B. Certification and standardization
        Cisco Networking Academic Program
        Microsoft IT Academy
    C. ICT Human Resources Development
        Recruitment of ICT teacher with outsourcing system
        Training of KKPI teacher
        Scholarship for D3,D4,S2
    D. Infrastructure Building
        Internet Network
        School Information Network
        Wide Area Network (WAN) regency/WAN KOTA
        ICT Center
        Mobile Training Unit
        Broadcasting
        School Mapping
        Monitoring and evaluation


Integrating the ICT skills development into Vocational School Learning

In 1999, the development of ICT program of DTVE was started by provision of Internet
program socialization through training of trainer of Management Information System in
vocational secondary education from 26 provinces (now to be 32 provinces). This training
was intended to equip participation to be able disseminate the knowledge and skill about
Internet, email, and homepage from the entire staff of DTVE, computer teacher, and the
headmaster of school in their province.

At the same time, DTVE collaborates with PAU-ME-ITB develops ICT skill Tandem 200
hour’s training for three competencies involves: Help desk, Technical support, and
electronic. The program was offered to interested vocational school. The main target was 24
vocational schools in regency location, which has Internet Service Provider (ISP). The
vocational school involved in ICT Tandem is called ICT vocational school. The competency
test and certification were conducted by ITB (Bandung Technology Institute). This program
was also supported by PAU-ME-ITB who also trains the teachers to be tutors for all three
programs.




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DTVE also collaborates with PPGT/VEDC Malang to create ICT development team, with
assistance expert team from Germany to develop two specialization or competencies i.e.,: the
office automation, to support computerization in the office and automotive industrial
automation to support computerization in industry and the office informatics is changed to
be Commercial informatics. Since 2000/2001, this program was offered for some vocational
schools. The commercial informatics curriculum gives the competencies about hardware and
software, operational system installation in PC and server, computer network installation,
and advance language programming. In the third years, it was conducted specialization of
material with competencies in relation to object programming oriented and network security,
and web programming.

Afterwards, since January 2000, a number of Internet, email, and homepage training were
conducted simultaneously in 26 provinces with the audiences of the staff of DTVE, the
headmasters, the computer teachers of the school regional center, and interested teachers.
To create school homepage, the audiences were advised to promote the activities school and
region predominance in the economic and tourist field. Since 2001 DTVE collaborates with
Internet Service Provider Association to conduct Millennium Internet Roadshow (MIR)
2001 in 15 big cities in Indonesia. The aim is to socialize the information, knowledge, and
skill in ICT field especially Internet and its application.

In 2002-2003, DTVE carried out the evaluation of ICT program based on the inputs from
their stakeholders. This evaluation is to bring out the preparedness and info literacy of
student of vocational education, the survival ability in knowledge-based society, and self-
learning ability. In other words, the student must be competent to manage the information,
which involves:

       Determining the information needed;
       Searching the information needed;
       Classifying the information between appropriate and misappropriate;
       Arranging the information as data;
       Saving data;
       Getting and analyzing data become the new information; and
       Wrapping and presenting the new information.

These competencies are found in subject material of “Computer Skills and Information
management”. The main competency of Computer Skills and Information management is to
give the participants capability in using and monitoring hardware, operation system, and
computer application which refer to in competency standar SKKNI (Standar Kompetensi
Kerja National Indonesia). The second, DTVE had developed the expertise program as ICT
expertise program consist of:

       Software Engineering
       Computer and Infrastructure Technology
       Multimedia
       Radio Broadcasting Technology (in process)




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And the next step, it created the curriculum of vocational school based on the standard
competency of SKKNI (Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia). SKNNI has
developed 21 curriculums programs of vocational school in 2004. The other program was
also developed and directed to Internet networking development as well as preparing
assistance to support the ICT expertise program, that is,

       Internet Network
       School Information Network
       Wide Area Network (WAN) regency/WAN KOTA
       ICT Center
       Mobile Training Unit
       Broadcasting
       School Mapping

Data in 2004 showed that there were 2130 vocational school had email address and a
number of 4500 mailing list (milist) members of DTVE consist of the vocational school, the
teacher, and the observer. The realization ICT program is follows:

       Internet Network in 784 regencies
       School Information Network in 137 regencies
       Wide Area Network (WAN) regency/WAN KOTA in 30 regencies
       ICT Center in 44 regencies
       Mobile Training Unit in 8 vocational school
       Broadcasting not realized yet
       School Mapping in 300 regencies


Internet Networking Program

This program has the objective to provide the infrastructure of actual information and
instructional media for school and common society.

The assistance of the Internet networking is used to provide tools and training Local Area
Network in school. Since 2003, the amounts of 784 private/state vocational school in each
regency have had internet connectivity.

School Information Network Program

The establishment of the school information network is intended to create school
community to utilize ICT. This program aims is to empower the old computer to support
learning process in school through cloning system. In addition, this program has been
regarded as a point of discussion and sharing on ICT knowledge in each school.




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WAN KOTA/Wide Area Network Program

Recently, each vocational school has computer and equipped by local area network (LAN) to
support in their learning activities. LAN is provided in each school and joins a big
networking computer, thus LAN in other school in a region can related with others schools
in other region. The collaboration among LANs will create a bigger network, which is called
Wide Area Networking (WAN). Wide Area Networking (WAN) KOTA is computer
network in a city, which is physically related to wireless. The functions of Wide Area
Networking (WAN) KOTA are:

        As the infrastructure of e-learning and the government public service;
        As server of learning module; and
        As digital library can be access by the entire school in each region.

Furthermore, WAN Kota development is expected to enhance and improve computer based
learning process (e=learning), and the recipient school was achieved subsidize will function
as NOC (Networking Operation Center)/BTS (Base Terminal Server).


ICT Center Program

ICT program is a quality improvement of vocational school which addressed to accelerate
the socialization of ICT in school, society, and DTVE environment. The ICT Center has
functions as: learning center resources and data/information of education center, and human
resources development center. ICT Center has three of main duty, they are:

        Human resources development
        The utilization of ICT development
        ICT Development

The vocational school that proposes to have an ICT center must complete the requirements
as follows:

        Have 3 rooms involves 2 rooms of computer library and 1 room will be developed
         to a digital library;
        Have the capable resources in ICT field with an international certification; and
        Have the experience to manage school information networking, WAN Kota, and
         actively in some activities related to ICT.

ICT Center is also equipped with interactive modules related to the curriculum of vocational
school.




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Mobile Training Unit Program (MTU)

Especially, MTU serves schools in socialization and ICT training. MTU has functioned as
public telephone area around and also function as “mobile workshop” MTU is expected to
reach school efficiently and effectively. The aims of MTU establishment are to enhance and
optimally the use of ICT tools and to conduct practice services for state and private school.

The implementation of this Program similarly and the expectation of this program are the
impact and the result can be used to develop new ideas for the sustainability program, as
well as the achievement of the objective of the program of DTVE will bring out the
outcomes of teachers and student of qualified skill in ICT field.


The Implementation of Integrating ICT Skills into Vocational School

SEAMOLEC collaborates with Directorate of Technical and Vocational Education was
conducted the research related to integrating ICT skills into vocational school in title
“Analysis of Policy Impact of the Utilization ICT in Vocational School”.

The research aims is to identify the situation and condition of ICT field in vocational
education and to identify the implementation ICT for the competency development, which
related to the curriculum or the learning process and to support adoption of the policy by
stakeholders.

This research considers that the policy of ICT by DTVE comes from the policy of ministry
of national Education of Indonesia and the implementation of the program by vocational
school through integration of ICT program into their curriculum and applied directly in their
learning process is started launching a policy of DTVE about the utilization of ICT in each
vocational school. DTVE offered to schools, which have the human resources in ICT field
and ready to adopt the program. DTVE also conducted the socialization and training to the
vocational school.

The respondents of this research are 7 vocational schools in each province/regency in
throughout Indonesia. However, in this paper only showed two vocational schools, which
succeed implementing the program. The vocational schools came from North Sumatra
Province, at Medan regency, state Medan 10 of vocational school, and North Sulawesi
(Manado) province, at Kotamobagu regency, Cokroaminoto School. Both of school have IT
course and to be ICT center in their province. Medan 10 of vocational school has IT course
is Multimedia and to be ICT center since 2003, while since 2005 Cokroaminoto of
vocational school to be ICT Center and it has IT course is software engineering as well as it
has been past the firs outcomes.




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ICT Program Adoption by the Vocational School

Table 1 describes about the year of adoption of ICT program by vocational schools. In
generally, the adoption of the ICT program was started in 1999 through adopting the
Internet network.


             Table 1. Year of Adoption of ICT Program by vocational school
              ICT Program of DTVE                        Year of adoption
                                                    Medan         Cokroaminoto
                                                    School            School
  Internet Network                               2000           1999
  Miling list                                    2000           1999
  TI Tandenm 200 hours                           2000           2005
  Commercial IT                                  2000           1999
  The utilization of Interactive module          2005           1999
  Computer skill and info management             2004           -
  Software engineering                           -              1999
  Computer and infrastructure technology         -              -
  Multimedia                                     2005           -
  School Information Network                     2003           2003
  Wide Area Network (WAN) regency/WAN 2001                      2004
  KOTA
  ICT Center                                     2003           2005
  Mobile Training Unit                           2004           -
  Broadcasting                                   -              2004
  School Mapping                                 -              2004


The facility of the vocational school

                   Table 2 the availability of facolity of vocational school
 Fasilitas                                        Medan                 Cokroaminoto
Availability of laboratory               Available (3 computer           Available (3
                                                laboratory)                computer
                                                                          laboratory)
Laboratory Capacity                      20 students/laboratory               20
                                                                      students/laborator
                                                                               y
Laboratorium tersebut dipakai        KKPI, English language,             Elektronika
untuk mendukung mata diklat          peripheral graphis, to data
apa saja? (Sebutkan)                 entry, mengoperasikan
                                     software pengolah gambar
                                     vector, mengoperasikan
                                     peripheral web,



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Fasilitas                                          Medan                          Cokroaminoto
                                        mengoperasikan software
                                        animasi 2 dimensi,
                                        mengoperasikan software
                                        FTP
How long to have the                         More than 4 years                  More than 4 years
laboratory
Operation system of                             Windows, Linux                   Windows, Linux
computer

Networking access :                     electric (PLN), telephone, fax         electric (PLN),
                                        machine, internet connection,          telephone, fax
                                        satellite connection                   machine, internet
                                                                               connection,
                                                                               satellite
                                                                               connection
  Internet Service Provider                          Citylink                         Indosat
(ISP) to be provided
Amount of computer with                 85 unit stand alone computer 23 unit stand
connected with internet, stan           and 45 unit computer as a part alone computer,
alone or networking status              networking computer            40 unit computer
                                                                       as a part
                                                                       networking
                                                                       computer
Amount of ICT tools will                1 OHP, 2 TV monitor, 1         1 OHP , 1 TV
support learning activities             VCD Player, 1 DVD player, 3 Monitor, 1 VCD
                                        Photo camera, 4                player, 1 video
                                        radio/cassette player, 2 LCD   camera, 2 photo
                                        Projector, 20 Desktop          camera, 1
                                        computer, 1 laptop, 6          radio/cassette
                                        computer printer, 5 black and player, 1
                                        white printer, 1 dot matrix    photocopy digital,
                                        printer, 1 laser printer, 4 CD 3 LCD projector,
                                        printer, 4 scanner, 2 CD       5 Laptop
                                        writer, 1 computer speaker, 1 computer, 7
                                        webcam                         computer printer,
                                                                       5 color printer, 2
                                                                       black white
                                                                       printer, 2 dot
                                                                       matrix printer, 1
                                                                       laser printer, 4 CD
                                                                       printer, 2 scanner,
                                                                       computer speaker,
                                                                       3 webcam




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The utilization of ICT program in learning activities by teacher showed in table 3. Teacher is
the first user in implementing the ICT program into learning activities as a part of IT course
or as a tool to teach other course. The teacher consist of IT teacher means teacher teaches
IT course and Non IT (N-IT) means teacher teaches non IT course.

Table 3 describes the most of the utilization Internet in learning by IT teacher and Non IT
teacher is to teach for specific lessons, however in Kotamobagu School, NIT teacher did not
answer. There are only a few teachers (IT & N-IT teacher) using Internet for
communication with their student.


           Table 4. Purposes of the utilization of Internet in learning activity
 The purposes of the utilization of               Medan                    Kotamobagu
 internet                                IT           N-IT           IT          N-IT
                                         Teacher      Teacher        Teacher     Teacher
                                         (n=4)        (n=6)          (n=5)       (n=1)
 Internet for teaching specific lessons           4               4            4                               0
 for making presentations                         3               0            0                               0
 for preparing lesson                             4               3            1                               0
 communicating with students                      1               0            3                               0
 communicating with other teachers                3               2            4                               0
 using online assessment tools                    2               0            4                               0
 collecting handouts and reference                3               1            3                               1
 materials

             Table 5 showed routine participation by IT & N-IT teacher
                              in ICT program of DTVE.
                                             Medan           Kotambaguu
 Routine Participation in ICT      IT Teacher   N-IT         IT Teacher   N-IT
 Program                           (n=4)        Teacher      (n=5)        Teacher
                                                (n=6)                     (n=1)
 KKPI                                         1           0             1                                      0
 RPL                                          0           0             0                                      1
 TKJ                                          0           0             4                                      1
 MM                                           2           0             0                                      0
 Jarnet                                       2           0             4                                      1
 JIS                                          1           0             2                                      1
 Wankota                                      0           0             4                                      1
 ICT Center                                   2           1             4                                      1
 School MAP                                   0           0             3                                      0

Table 5 shows routine participation in ICT program of DTVE by IT and N-IT teacher. The
categorizations of routine participation are the teacher teaches IT course and using ICT as a
tool in their learning activities every day. From table see that only IT teacher the
participation routinely in ICT program because they teach IT course.



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Table 6 shows teacher is care actively to follow ICT program development by Internet,
socialization, and training, which was conducted by DTVE. They are aware the important of
the curriculum innovation sustainability and to participate actively in the program activities
development.

             Table 6. the ways of the teacher to follow ICT program activities
                             Medan                    Kotamobagu
                             IT-        N-IT                       N-IT
                             Teacher Teacher          IT-Teacher   Teacher
             by Internet             4             2             4           1
             Sosialization           3             0             4           0
             by training             3             0             0           0
             Sosialitation
             from                    2             0             4           0
             by training
             center                  0             1             0           0
             routin meeting          4             2             3           0
             Others                  0             0             0           0

Table 7a and 7bdescribes the teacher skills in the use of computer in. The authorizing of the
teacher in the use of computer around excellence and good in operate computer and ICT
program. This indicates that the improvement of quality teacher had succeeded and it is
expected the learning activities also increase.

   Table 7a. Teacher skill in the use of computer at Medan vocational school [IT
                     Teacher (n=4) & N-IT Teacher (n=6) ]
                    ICT            ICT        N-ICT       N-ICT
                    Teacher        Teacher    Teacher     Teacher
                    Excellence Good           Excellence Good
 MS Office Internet             1          5            1              1
 Web developer                  0          2            0              1
 Other Program                  0          2            0              0


  Table7b . Teacher skill in the use of computer at Cokroaminoto vocational school
                     [IT Teacher (n=5) & N-IT Teacher (n=1)]
                           ICT           ICT         N-ICT      N-ICT
                           Teacher       Teacher     Teacher    Teacher
                           Excellence Good           Excellence Good
      MS Office Internet              4          1            1              1
      Web developer                   2          2            1              2
      Other Program                   3          1            0              0




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Table 8 describes about Student Ability in the use of ICT Program. From table seen many
student have been able to use basic computer program application level (Microsoft office,
graphic, Web, and chatting), intermediate level (material learning, tasks, telecolaboration via
email, searching), and advance level (statistics application program, database, web design,
and website maintenance). This indicates that IT student can be using computer application
in their learning.

    Table 8a. IT Student Ability in the use of computer application in several level
 Level         Medan                  Cokroaminoto
               IT Student (n=17)      IT Student (n=23)
               Excellence Good        Excellence         Good
 Basic                 10         1                  16                            11
 Intermediate           4        11                    5                           14
 Advance                2         5                    5                           13


 Table 8b. N-IT Student Ability in the use of computer application in several level
 Level         Medan                Cokroaminoto
               N-IT Student (n=10) N-IT Student (n=0)
               Excellence Good      Excellence Good
 Basic                  0        6            0                                   0
 Intermediate           0        2            0                                   0
 Advance                0        2            0                                   0
(Note: N-IT student from Cokroaminoto School did not answer)


            Table 9 shows student participation in ICT Program of DTVE
         ICT Program                 IT Student               N-IT Student
                                Medan Cokroaminoto Medan Cokroaminoto
KKPI                                   9              19       2
RPL                                    1              20       1
TKJ                                    1              21       1
MM                                    12              19       0
Jarnet                                 4              18       2
JIS                                    0              10       3
Wankota                                0              11       0
ICT Center                             4              17       0
School MAP                             1              11       0
 (Note: N-IT student from Cokroaminoto School did not answer)

Table 9 describes student participation in ICT program of DTVE. In Cokroaminoto school,
the most students participate in TKJ course. However in Medan school the most student
participate Multimedia course. This is appropriate with they took course in they learning.
Table 9 shows the frequency of the student in the use ICT program. 12 of the students using



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computer more than 6 hours (Medan), at the same time in Cokroaminoto vocational school,
13 students using coputer more than 6 hours.

               Table 10a. Frequency in the use of ICT by IT student
 Frequency in the use of ICT                      Medan        Cokroaminoto
 Less 1 hour                                                0        0
 1-2 hours                                                  0        0
 2-4 hours                                                  1        1
 4-6 hours                                                  2        7
 More than 6 hours                                         12        13

  Table 10b. Frequency in the use of ICT by N-
                  IT student

 Frequency in the use of                                Medan                Cokroaminoto
 until 1 hour                                               2                      0
 1-2 hours                                                  3                      0
 2-4 hours                                                  3                      0
 4-6 hours                                                  0                      0
 More than 6 hours                                          0                      0

Table 11 shows the purposes activity of the student in the us of ICT program. The purposes
consist of:

       information categorize: searching, getting, and using the information
       functional categorize: utilizing and manipulating the information to: arrange book
        list, make abstract, summarize of the material etc.
       creation categorize: arranging and producing the new information and mixing from
        the old information such as to write paper, drawing, programming, to make
        presentation, and to make website
       communication categorize: sharing and transferring the information among student,
        teachers, and the other person via email through discussion and chatting forum

From table most of the student using the ICT program for getting information (in medan),
at the same time in Cokroaminoto school 12 student using ICT program as function
categorize.

            Table 11a. The purposes in the use of ICT program by IT Student
          Purposes in the use ICT           Medan       Cokroaminoto
          Program
          Information                         1      7     1              7
          Function                            0      2     2             12
          Creation                            1      6     2             10
          Communication                       1      1     1              9




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          Table 11a. the purposes in the use of ICT program by IT Student
          Purposes in the use ICT           Medan       Cokroaminoto
          Program
          Information                          1     2       0                              0
          Function                             0     0       0                              0
          Creation                             0     0       0                              0
          Communication                        0     1       0                              0
                                               0     2       0                              0

The result research as seen from the tables, the implementation of the program necessity
stated that human resources (student and teachers) had take charge the office program and
Internet. Thus, ICT program is a difficult innovation program can be adopted easily by
qualify vocational school. This is occurred if the vocational school equipped with the
capability and ability of the student (IT or N-IT) in the utilization of ICT program; it is
showed the ability of the student in the use basic and intermediate level computer and also
equipped the availability of facility.

However, this research is not success to identify the integration of ICT programs models in
curriculum and learning process which developed by IT & N-IT teachers. Factors to be
barriers are:

       Lack of maintenance of the facility;
       Late response in updating data;
       Lack of communication infrastructure;
       Expensive Internet connections;
       Inadequate management supports;
       Lack of technical capacities and manpower;
       Language constraints; and
       Slow adoption of ICT culture.

While, factors that will support the ICT Program of DTVE:

       Availability of facilities;
       Availability of human resources (teachers) for integrating ICT into learning;
       Intensive socialization by Centre officials of DTVE;
       Intensive socialization by district officials of DTVE;
       Intensive training for the teachers; and
       A standard operating system.

Conclusion

With the development of ICT program in Directorate Technical and Vocational Education
is perceived to be a alternative learning program is using ICT tools in many vocational
region/regency of vocational school is expected to improve the quality vocational education.
While the availability of ICT infrastructure is indeed important, however the preparation of



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human resources also must to be concerned. The improvement of the quality teachers and
the outcomes of vocational school through education and training the ICT program will
support the acceleration of the preparation of human recourses in facing globalization era.

The ICT program by DTVE had been implemented in vocational school, which conducted
research in collaboration with SEAMOLEC-DTVE. The result of the research stated the
ICT program must be developed still as well as the

sustain program must have concerned through monitoring and evaluation sustainability in
each school which implementing these program. With the integration of the ICT program
into the curriculum, it is expected that the vision and the mission of the Directorate
Technical and Education to improve the quality of vocational education can be achieved.



References:

Moran, L. & Rumble, G. (2004). Vocational Education and Training through Open and Distance
Learning (vol.5). London:Roudgledfalmer

Yuhetty, Harina (2002), ICT and Educaion in Indonesia, Jakarta

Directorat of Technical and Vocational Education, (2004), to Welcome to the Information
Century: ICT Program of DTVE 1999-2009. The Ministry of National Education of
Indonesia (Depdiknas). Jakarta.

Mustafa, Dina & Herawati (2005), Report of the research “Analysis of Policy Impact of the
Utilization ICT in Vocational School”. Jakarta




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