Construction Materials Recycling Guidebook

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Construction Materials Recycling Guidebook Powered By Docstoc
					Construction' Materials Recycling Guidebook
A Guide to Reducing and Recycling Construction and Remodeling Waste Including a Directov of Twin Cities Area Recycling Markets
March 1993
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Project Team:
Project Director: Pamela Winthrop Lauer, Innovative Waste Management Assistant Director: Del Edwards, WF'ste Alternatives Consulting, Inc. Advisor: Ellen Wells, Environmental Guidelines for Business Economist: Eugene Wahl, Consulting Economist and Educator Layout and Design: Trish Gardiner, The Perfect Page Editor: Neal Miller, Neal Miller Communications Researcher: Justine Roe Research Aids: Steve Botts, Lynn Kalfsbeek Illustrators: Pete Salmon and R. Bruce Cornwall, A W M N Committee on the Environment Writer of Guide Spec: Peter Vesterholt, AIA
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This project was funded in part by a grant from the Metropolitan Council of the Twin Cities Area.

The' project is co-sponsored by the following .organizations and businesses: Builhrs Association of the Twin Cities \ Dakota County Board of Commissioners , 3M Opus Corporation Construction Industry Cooperative Committee of Minnesota American Institute of ArchitectdMN Committee on the Environment Keith Waters &Associates, Inc. Materials Recoiery, Ltd. SKB Inc. Greg Frazee Homes Burnsville Lapdfill and Quarry Eberhardt Commercial Real Estate Aagard Environmental Services
If you have questions or qomments about this guidebook, please call:

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32-7038

Disclaimer
The worksheets, guides, and market listings in this guidebook are provided as a service to organizations seeking information about reducing and recycling construction and remodeling wastes. Companies have given information voluntarily and should be contacted personally about the services offered and the companies’ compliance with waste management regulations. The appearance,of a
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company’s name in this guidebook or its Markets Directory does not constitute endorsement by any of the authors or sponsors of this guidebook, nor does it imply that the company is in compliance with all applicable laws. The information herein and the Markets Directory are not represented as being complete.

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Acknowledgements
Many people contributed to the Construction Materials Recycling Project. The project director gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following people as well as other contributors not listed here.
Mary Ayde, MinnesotaWaste Asscc. Greg Baich, 3M Facil. Eng & Real Es David Bergstrm, Eberhardt Commercial Real Estate David Boe, Waters & Bonner, Inc. William Bonner
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William Lohmann, Murphy-Jahn Jim Lukasiewicz Oscar Mathison, Orrin Thompson Homes Tom McGough, Jr., McGoughConstruction co. W. Lyle Meyer, Opus Corporation

Pat Weber, Winthrop & Weinstine Sherman Winthrop, Winthrop & Weinstine Shari Wright, MnTAP

Members of the Construction IndustryCooperative Committee of Minnesota
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Paul Brugger, Whole Builders Dan Carlson, Opus COrpOratiOh Kevin M. Clark. Centex Homes

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Laura Milberg, OWM
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John Morley, Edward Kraemer & Sons,lnc Bob Mueller, Greg Frazee Homes RichardNaughton,James SteeleConstruction Wayne Nelson, Me!ropolitan Council Rick OGara, SKB, Inc. Fred Paul, Cy-Con Gen. Contractors

Members of American Institute of ArchitectslMinnesotaCommitteeon the Environment

R. Bruce Cornwall, BentzlThompsonl RietowJnc
Dan Donkers, Ramsey County Tracy W. Donovan, Commonwealth Electnc of MN Sunny Jo Emerson, Metropolitan Council

Gayle Prest, DakotaCounty Craig Gerkm, Materials Recovery Ltd. Peter A. Rand, A l W N Todd Goderstad. AGC Victoria Reinhardt, Metropolitan Council Pam Goldfarb, BuildersAssoc. of Twin Cities Oscar Healy, Opus Corporation Clair Larson, 3M Eng. & Real Estate Craig Larson, Opus Corporation Cathy Latham, MPCA William D. Lauer Donald Lewis, McGough ConstructionCo. ViAnne MarieTraynor,Builders h o c . Twin Cities
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Bob Sawats!y,

Renova Consultants

Pete Schwab, Schwab Co. Cathy Smith, Central Roofing

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Sherman E. Stromen, 3M Facilities Engineiring & Real Estate

Warren Wilson, Dakota County

Section One

Introduction: How To Use This Book
Introduction
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-Construction and demolition wastes comprise nearly a third of the' solid waste generated in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. A portion of these construction and demolition wastes come from construction and remodeling projects. According to Don Lewis of McGough Construction, a large construction project generates an average of three 20-cubic-yard (cy) dumpsters of waste per day. For example, during an eight-month remodeling project at Southdale Shopping Center in Edina, more than a thousand 2Ocy dumpsters were hauled from the site. The construction of new homes also generates substantial waste. The construction of a $100,000 home typically generates about two 20cy dumpsters of waste, and waste from the construction of a $500,000 home typically fills four dumpsters. Landfills are filling up, and developing new landfills is difficult and expensive. Although most builders already strive to use materials efficiently, rising disposal costs are forcing builders and waste haulers to consider new alternatives such as waste reduction, recycling artd reuse for managing construction and remodeling wastes.

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How to Use this Book
This guidebook is designed to address several specific barriers to recycling construction and remodeling wastes. The barriers were identified during inter. views with Twin Cities building professionals in 1991 and 1992.
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Here are some of the barriers and how they are addressed in this guidebook;

1. Conservative Culture of the Industry. Like many other industries, the construction industry tends to resist change. Also, because time is so highly valued on a job site, it is standard practice to cut new materials to size instead of taking time to see if pieces left over from previous cuts could be used. Construction Waste Reduction and Recycling Today, Section 2, describes ways to reduce waste before and during construction and remodeling projects. The methods aren't really new to the construction industry, but rising disposal costs may mike it worthwhile to revive them. The hformation on ways to iecycle construction and remodeling wastes includes several examples showing how builders are making recycling work. 2 Cos& Sorting wastes on-site for recycling can be labor-intensive. Many . building contractors feel that savings in disposal costs are not likely to offset this expense. The Recycling Economics Worksheet,Section 3, provides a practical procesg for builders and/or their waste haulers to use to determine the 'cost-effectiveness of recycling on a given project.
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Section Two Construction Waste Reduction and Recycling today
Introduction
This section begins with an overview of the composition of construction and remodeling waste in the Twin Cities area and a table showing wastes that are currently recyclable in Minnesota. Next, the section suggests ways to reduce waste before and during construction and remodeling projects, followed by information on ways to recycle these wastes.

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A. Composition of Construction and Remodeling Waste in the Twin Cities Area
In 1992, as part of the research for this guidebook, project staff and cosponsors worked together to estimate the types and amounts of wastes generated at local construction and remodeling projects. (The complete Construction Matejals Recycling Project Composition of Construction Waste Report is available from the Metropolitan Council Solid Waste Grants Department or Innovative Waste Management.) Because the report was nota scientific study, but a compilation of estimates by industry professionals, the amounts are reported as a range of percentages. For our purposes, "waste" includes all materials hauled away from a job site to be landfilled, burned, recycled, or salvaged for reuse. New, left,over materials that are returned are not considere'd wastes. To estimate percentages, we considered the total volume of wastes generated over the course of a typical project. For example, in Table 1: Residential New Construction, wood waste is listed as "20-35 %.It This means that wood makes up 20 to 35 percent of the entire volume of waste generated by a typical new residential construction project. Waste types and approximate percentages are given separately for residential and commerdial ne& construction.

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Residential New Construction (See Table 1). n7e predominant waste types from residential new construction are wood, 20-35 percent; drywall, 10-20 percent; and cardboard, 5-15 percent. According to Materials Recovery Ltd., a construction waste recycling f r ,approximately 24 percent of the constrution im waste entering its facility is dimensional lumber suitable for processing. Shingles, concrete, and fibeqboard each make up another 1-8percent of the waste from typical new home c~nstruction.The remaining waste types each typically comprise one percent or less of a project's waste stream. Commercial New Construction (See Table 2 ) . The predominant waste types from commercial new oonstruction are wood, 20-30 percent; concrete and

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Dimensional Lumber, Manufactured Wood Products, and Treated Nood
These percentages do not distinguish between dimensional lumber, manufactured wood products (such as plywood and particle board), and treated wood. However, because recycling markets are more common for dimensional lumber than for manufactured wood products, we investigated further.

block, 10-20 percent; drywall, 5-10 percent; and cardboard, 510 percent Secondary materials in the commercial construction waste stream are steel, 1-8percent, and brick, 1-5percent. Also in the 3 percent range are extruded polystyrene (rigid) insulation, kraft paper packaging, and plastic sheeting and bags. Electrical wire makes up about 2 percent of a project’s waste, and over-sprayfrom fireproofing products makes up 0-5 percent of the waste. Remodeling. Wastes from remodeling projects vary so widely that estimating their percentages was beyond the scope of this report. Instead, we note that all materials and equipment that become part of a building during the buiIding process may eventually be replaced. These materials then enter the waste stream. Wastes generated during the construction phase of remodeling projects are similar in composition to those from new construction.

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Table 1: Residential New Construction
A survey of four lumber Pards revealed that, typically, 60-70 percent of the wood purchased for a construction project is dimensional lumber and 30-40percent is manufactured (usually glued) wood products. Wood treated to resist rot and moisture amounts to less than 5 percent of the total wood used on a project. (See the Reference Section of this.guidebook to find out where to seek information about disposing of treated wood.) The lumber yard respondents said that the use of manufactured wood products is increasing, and noted that some products could be considered recycled products themselves.
To estimate percentages, we considered the total volume of wastes generated over the course of a typical project. Please see above for additional assumptions.

Predominant Rough Materials Percentages Wood ..................................................... 20-35% Drywall ..................................................... 10-20% 5-15% Corrugated cardboard ......I ................................ Secondary Rough Materials Percentages Shingles ......................................................... 1-8% Concrete ......................................................... I-8% I-8% Fiberboard .......................................................... Materials comprising 1% or less. Listed in approximate order of quantity, from more to less:
Fiberglass insulation Carpet scrap, padding and backing Kraft paper Sheathing Aluminum siding Vinyl, siding Concrete block Copper wire Other wire PVC pipe Core cardboard Plastic buckets Dirt and rock from excavation Aluminum duct-work Foam packaging Plastic sheeting or bags Steel banding Lunch garbage, including pop cans Plastic pails Paint cans Flooring scrap

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Materials comprising less than 1% but notable because they may be considered problem materials:
Paint, including frozen or damaged (cans.or pails) Driveway sealant (pails) Caulk (tubes) Tile adhesive (cans)

Table 2 Commercial New Construction :
To estimate percentages, we considered the total volume of wastes generated over the course of a typical project. Please see above for additional assumptions.
Rough Predominant Materials , ' Percentages Wood ........................................................................... 20-30% Concrete and block ....................................................... 10-20% .Drywall ........................ .....:........................................... 5-10% 5 0% . 1 Cardboard .......................................................................

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Secondary Rough Percentages Materials , Steel from decking, re-rod, etc .......................................... 1-8% Brick ................................................................................ 1-5% I-5% Crates and pallets ............................................................ Extruded polystyrene (rigid) insulation ......................... 3% range Kraft paper packaging ................................................ 3% range Plastic sheeting and bags ........................................... 3%range Electrical wire ............................................................. 2% range Overspray from fireproofing products ................................ 0-5% Materials comprising 1% or less: Carpet scrap, padding, and backing Fiberglass (bat) insulation Excess mortar Particle board Solvent containers Caulking wntainers Epoxy containers Small bore pipe, steel or pvc

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Plaster Iron Polystyrene foam packaging Plastic laminate Adhesive containers Silicone containers Sheet metal *Vinyltile ,

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Construction and Remodeling Wastes Currently Recycled in Minnesota
Table 3 shows the construction and remodeling wastes currently being recycled in Minnesota. The number of processors and type of use listed correspond to the Markets Directog found in this guidebook. There may be other processors and uses not uncovered in our research. Some information on developing markets is provided at the end of this section.

C. Ways to Reduce (Prevent) Waste Before and During
Co,nstruction and ‘RemodelingProjects
Reducing waste (preventing waste at its source) means not creating a waste in the first place, or creating less waste material, which reduces the need to recycle. Waste reduction not only 6aves money on disposal costs, but lessens the need for processing facilities, which consume energy and create their own waste by-products. From an economic standpoint, waste often indicates an inefficient use of materials. By preventing waste to the extent possible, you only pay for what you use. According to Bob Sawatsky of Renova Consultants in Ontario, “Any . construction project will generate some residual waste... there’s no getting around this. But, the trick is to minimize the volume of that waste and maximize its reusability.” Many of the following waste prevention ideas are taken directly from the Greater Toronto Home Builders Association (GTHBA) publication Making a Molehill Out of a Mountain and from Bob Sawatsky.
1. Reducing Waste in the Design Stage. Attention to wagte potential in the design stage can lead to less waste on the building site. Here are some methods:
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off-cuts of lumber and wallboard.

(e.g., eight-foot lengths) to reduce

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v a l s m For ~ example, framing details can be designed to minimize unnecessary corner studs, excessive lumber at window and door openings, and over-built lintels.

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tbns to optimize the use of subflooring and sheathing.

2 Reducing Waste at . the Purchasing Stage. Purchasing decisions can have a major impact on the amount of waste generated on a construction or remodeling project. Methods include:

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. . 7 correct amount of each material is to make sure the
brought to the site. Make sure wallboard orders are consistent with room dimensions, since wallboard is available in a variety of stock sues. In large quantities, wallboard can be specially ordered to suit custom designs.
s to r e d u c e o n a project. For e x h p l e , ask suppIiers to take back or buy back substandard, rejected items. Ask them to help identify the least hazardous material suitable for a specific job. Ask for ideas about using kilndried lumber to reduce on-site warpage and shrinkage and reusing concrete forms.

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Ask suppliers to deliver supplies in sturdy, returnable pallets and containers, and have them back-haul the empty containers when delivering goods. For example, some suppliers of concrete block and mortar mix charge a deposit on their pallets$When additional materials we delivered, the pallets from the previous delivery are picked up and the buyer’s account is credited. Buying in bNlk can reduce packaging waste, but it only works if it doesn’t lead to the purchase of more materials than needed or more than can be safely stored on site at one time. such as cabinets, doors, and equipment, which saves them from .the landfill and saves you the cost of buying new. (Don’t assume your customer will resist using a reclaimed product on the new project-ask.)

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3. Reducing Waste, at the Building Site. Many on-site practices can make Wood I-Beam a difference in the amount of waste produced. to prevent loss from weather and other damage. For example, use plastic to cover bags of mortar, stack bricks and blocks carefully to keep them from getting lost in the mud, and keep lumber covered and off the ground.

Wood Scrap Re-Use

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Studwall

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Edge of plywood is

w o to make it easier to find offcuts for cripples, lintels, and blocking, which reduces the need to cut full-kength scrap , lumber. According to the Molehill Report, home construction sites , using centralized cutting procedures have reduced lumber usage Reuse scrap piece by 15 percent.

See illustration.

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4. salvaging reusable items from remodeling projects. Reusing items

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stripped from buildings or rooms during remodeling projects helps reduce waste. Careful removal of these items is the key to their marketability. Although this practice isn’t new, high labor costs in recent years have made it less common. Today, however, rising disposal costs, the high cost of new maferials, concern for the environment, and an interest in preserving the craftsmanship of the past may help the practice make a comeback.
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Items such as doors, windows, and cabinets from homes can be donated to not-for-profit groups such as Habitat for Humanity arid the Project for Pride in Living Shop in Minneapolis. Architectural items in good condition can be sold to Architectural Antiques in Minneapolis. Showcases, shelving, clothes racks, and other used store equipment can be sold to dealers such as The Showcase Place in Minneapolis, liquidators, and others specializing in buying and selling commercial equipment. Some salvage companies, such as Bauer Bros. Salvage in St. Paul, in addition to accepting building materials, accept uncommon items that they can resell or rent out (for example, to film crews or theater groups). Many organizations and businesses will pick up items. Some will visit a site (including demolition projects) and offer a bid to remove and pay for the items they want. See the Markets Directory for a list of potential outlets for reusable items. Some builders are having success selling removed materials on site through short-term “yard sales.” Peter Schwab describes how his firm in Winona, the Schwab Company, used a newspaper ad to sell an entire gymnasium floor square by square during a college remodeling job. Demand for the floorsquares exceeded the supply. In another instance, while replacing more than a hundred kitchens for a HUD project, the .company auctioned off old kitchen items stockpiled in its yard. Many were sold to an auctioneer who resold them. The Greater Toronto Home Builders Association (GTHBA) reports success selling items from the front yard of a home being remodeled. This “House Strip” project is described in the GTHBA’s publication Making a Molehill Out of a Mountain. Many subcontractors (such as electricians and pipe fitters) reuse or recycle their own materials from a job site. Subcontractors are often

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Recycling means collecting waste and reprocessing it into raw materials for new products. Recycling not only saves landfill space and helps prevent the pollution associated with landfills, it saves money by avoiding rapidly-rising disposal fees.

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Many Minnesota builders already recycle some construction waste. Here is a list and some examples of reuse and recycling options currently practiced.
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Sorting recyclable materials from other wastes on-site during the construction process. Establishing separate containers or areas for recyclable materials is familiar to many Minnesotans accustomed to sorting household wastes for recycling. Currently, many Minnesota contractors do some on-site waste sorting to keep paper, cardboard, and garbage out of waste loads considered “clean demolition fill” (inert materials accepted at demolition landfills). The tipping fees charged by demolition landfills are significantly lower than the fees charged by sanitary landfills because demolition landfills accept only such materials as wood, concrete, and roofing materials, which pose less environmental risk and require fewer environmental safeguards. Although sorting “clean demo” waste from other waste is not recycling, it . shows that on-site separation of waste types is possible.
For some sorted recyclable materials, haulers will remove filled containers at no charge. For example, when Opus Corporation built the University of St. Thomas’ downtown Minneapolis campus, a local scrap yard placed a l 2 - q container on site during construction of the building’s foundation and steel frame. Workers put waste metals such as rebar, metal stud offcuts, and scrap angle iron into the container. The scrap yard received revenue for the metals and Opus saved money on hauling and disposal charges. Many scrap yards offer this service for a fee that is offset by the value of the materials collected, thus providing a net gain for the builder. Another example comes from Pete Schwab, who has had success sorting cardboard, metals, and sometimes repairable pallets into separate piles or containers on building sites. According to Schwab, a Winona company . removes the sorted recyclables from the sites at no charge.

As noted in the introduction to this guidebook, however, many contractors who have tried on-site sorting of recyclable materials have had miied results. Training a variety of subcontractors to sort waste types into separate containers can be difficult. Andy Aagard of Aagard Environmental Services in . Minneapolis noted that, despite having a separate container for corrugated cardboard available during one large construction project, every load of cardboard was rejected at the market due to contamination.
Aagard also noted khat, if there is not enough material to fill most of a container, the avoided disposal cost and revenue from the material may not be enough to offset the hauling charge. The Recycling Economics section of this guidebook provides a detailed worksheet with some examples showing how to determine when on-site sorting of recyclable Materials is cost-effective..

One exampleof innovativeonsite sorting of recyclable ma-. terials comes from Central Roofing Comphny of Minneapolis. According to Cathy Smith, the high disposal cost from one re-roofing job prompted ,the company to think about reuse and recycling alternatives, which resulted in the reuse or recycling of about fourteen 30-cy boxes worth of material altogether about 420 cy. In this case, polystyrene sheet insulation and perlite insulation found under a layer of PVC roofing material and gravel had remained quite clean and dry. The roofing team decided to package, store, and reuse thetwotypes of insulation on future roofing projects. On its first attempt, the team salvaged about a third of the insulation-material, but the labor needed to package and store it was too expensive. However, the remainingpolystyrene sheet insulation was recycled through Styrotech, a local polystyrene manufacturer. Sorting materials from this re-roofing job was fairly simple. First the roofers removed the roof gravel, which wasdonated forthe building’s parking lot construction project. Although roof gravel is not always suitable for this purpase, this particulargravel could be used as a class five base material. The underlying layer of polystyreneinsulationwastossed from the roof directly into a waiting truck. Central Roofing is currently trying to identify other. more cost-effective ways to re-use clean materialsfrom PVC and rubber-type re-roofing jobs, since many roofs of this type in the Twin Cities area are beginning to need replacement. Central Roofing plans to try reusing rubber roof sheets from their next re-roofing job for tarps.
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Despite these problems, some contractors have found it feasible to sort certain materials on site for recycling. Examples of such materials are metals (as noted above), concrete and block (crushed for road bed material), cardboard, and dimensional lumber. Also, subcontractors (e.g., electricians and plumbers) usually recycle valuable metal scraps such as copper tubing.

The Schwab Company makes sure recyclables are sorted cleanly by giving subcontractors a choice: either they dispose of their waste materials in the proper containers or assume responsibility for disposal of their waste. Some subcontractors choose the latter option, but many prefer having Schwab
Company deal with disposal. Also, many subcontractors generate a fairly homogenous waste, which makes sorting easy. For example, the primary waste stream for electrical contractors is often the cardboard containers used to hold electrical supplies.

2 Sorting by materials recovery facilities and transfer .
stations. One of the easiest ways for builders to recycle is by contracting with a waste hauler who delivers wastes to a materials recovery facility (MRF) or transfer station where recyclable construction wastes are sorted for markets and the remaining wastes consolidated for disposal. The Recycling Markets Directory in this guidebook lists haulers, MRFs, and transfer stations that sort at least three recyclable materials from mixed construction waste.

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One example is Materials Recovery Limited (ME) in Rosemount, where construction waste loads are sorted into the following recyclable components: cardboard, concrete, metals, dimensional lumber, and pallet wood. MRL hauls wastes mostly from residential construction and remodeling sites. Nails are,mecbanically removed from wood, which is then chipped into turkey bedding. Some separation of recyclables occurs at landfills. For example, the SKI3 Rich Valley Demolition Landfill in Inver Grove Heights routinely monitors incoming loads and pulls out recyclable materials such as scrap metal, wood (for mulch), and household appliances.

Developing Markets
In researching markets for construction and remodeling wastes, it became clear that several materials that are not currently being recycled in Minnesota may be recycled in the future. Here are some examples:

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Gypsum Wallboard. See below.

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Manufactured Wood Products. Many of the animal bedding and landscape markets for chipped wood do not accept chips from glued wood products. Research on using “wood flour” and ground wood as filler in other products may reveal uses for manufactured wood products waste, although these manufacturing processes may require a cleaner waste than would be available from construction sites. Asphalt Roofing and Shingles. Research by the Minnesota Department of Transportation and others outside the state is finding ways to use asphalt roofing and asphalt shingles in pavement mixes. Plastics.‘ Many manufacturers are exploring new ways to recycle plastics, including PVC. Mixed Cardboard, Wood, a n d Heavy Plastics. Conversion Products, a company based in Edina, has developed a process to grind mixed-waste materials and add adhesive to form a wet concrete-like substance to be used for brick, landscape timbers, etc. Case in Point: Gypsum Wallboard Recycling. . Gypsum wallboard offers an interesting case study of emerging markets for recyclable construction waste. Wallboard is among the most common construction wastes,typically discarded in both demolition landfills and sanitary landfills, but the future holds promise for eliminating wallboard from the waste stream by recycling it into new wallboard and possibly finding other uses, such as animal bedding and soil amendment. A Canadian company called New West Gypsum is recycling wallboard at three facilities. New West crushes wallboard to separate the backing paper scrap from the core gypsum powder. The gypsum powder is sold to a wallboar&manufacturer, who mixes it with virgin ore to make new wallboard. The paper scrap is sold to a paper company that repulps it to produce new wallboard backing sheets. Scrap backing paper from New West’s Oakville, Ontario facility is currently composted or processed into animal beddtng.

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New West recycles manufacturing scrap, scrap wallboard from new construction, and used wallboard, which they test for lead (from paint). If lead is found, the used wallboard is landfilled.

A gypsum wallboard recycling plant in Minnesota may be possible. According to McCamley, to be economically feasible, a plant requires a population of at least one million to supply enough scrap wallboard and a wallboard manufacturer within reasonable proximity willing to buy the gypsum powder. The deciding factor is, of course, economics. Currently, nearly all of New West’s profits come €rom tip fees, and the incentive for recycling comes from the fact that recycling tip fees are lower than landfill tip fees. For example, a recycling transfer station called Gypsum Wallboard Recycling outside of Portland, Oregon charges $55 per ton to accept yallboard, while the local landfill/transfer station charges $75 per ton now and is expected to increase its fees soon. Also, in some parts of Canada wallboard has been banned from landfills, making gypsum recycling more economically feasible.
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Another wallboard recycling alternative is to use gypsum as a soil amendment for low pH or sulfur deficient soils. According to Tom Halbach, assistant state specialist for waste management with the Minnesota Extension Service, a chemical analysis of used wallboard showed high calcium content and heavy metal levels comparable to those in commonlyused ag lime. Determiningthe usefulness of wallboard as a soil amendment depends on addressing concerns about adhesive-content, soluble salts, metal-content, and profitability. Meanwhile, at least one Minnesota business, Dynamic Homes of Detroit Lakes, is seeking funding to develop a processing facility for turning wallboard into a soil amendment. Another Minnesota business, Empire Organic Greenhouses in Rosemount, uses some scrap wallboard in its compost.

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Section 3 :

The Economicsof Recycling ConstructionWaste
This section consists of the Recycling Economics Worksheet and two examples of how the worksheet has been filled out for local projects. Building professionals, waste haulers, and anyone else interested are encouraged to make copies of the worksheet for use and distiibution. The worksheet is designed so that builders and haulers can estimate the amounts of various waste types expected to result from a project, then plug in hauling and other costs for recycling. Two methods of recycling are considered: on-site separation of recyclable materials and off-site sorting of mixed waste to recover at least three types of materials by a waste hauler, transfer station, or materials recovery facility. Please note that the Markets Directory includes a listing of some of the businesses providing this service in the Twin Cities area.

Beacause the numbers inserted by users of this worksheet are estimates, the results will necessarily be estimates.

Recycling Economics Worksheet Residential And Commercial Construction ’
Project Prepared by Date

The following worksheet is designed to help determinethe cost effectiveness of recyclingwaste materials generated by a givenconstructionproject. Supplementalworksheets usedfor calculatingcertainitemsare providedon a separate sheet. The processallowsyounotonlytocalculatetheactualcostsandbenefitsof recycling, butto factor in (separately) the intangible benefits of a recycling program.

STEP ONE: Estimate Total Project Waste and Amounts of Recyclable Materials
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Estimate theTotal Project Waste in cubic yards (cy) ................................................................... Use information from previous projects, if comparable.) 1 ____cy

Determinewhat materialscanbe recycled and estimate the amount of each. I you are uncertainof these amounts, f multiplyline 1andthe percentagesprovided (basedon asurvey of constructionprojectsinthe Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area).
TYPICAL CURRENT RESIDENTIAUCOMMERCIAL PROJECT ESTIMATE Wood waste (dimensionallumber, broken crates, and pallets no manufactured , wood products) ................................................ (250~418%) .......... 2a C Y Corrugated cardboard ..................................... (10% n.5YO).................................... 2b -y c Concrdte .......................................................... .2d -y c (4.5%/15%) . Metals .............................................................. (1Y0/4.5%) ..................................... 2d -y c Other recyclable materia@): Identify Total amount of recyclable material: Add lines 2a-2e ............ Non-recyclable material: Subtract line 3 from line 1 .

2a 2b 2c 2d 2e

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COMPLETED SAMPLES: Recycling EconomlcsWorksheet Resldentlal And CommerclalConstruction
Project Prepared by Date 9192 The following worksheet is designed to help Cetermine the cost effectiveness of recycling waste materiils generated by a given construction prqed. Supplementalwotksheelsused for calculatingcertainitemsare providedon a separatesheet. The processallowsyou not only to cakulate the actualcosts and benefits of recycling, bul to factor in (separately) the intangible benefits of a recyclingprogram.
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STEP ONE: Estimate Total Project Waste and Amounts of Recyclable Materials ................................................................. , . 1 29(2a_cy Estimatethe Total Project Waste in cubic yards (cy) ............................ 1 Use informationfrom previous projects, if comparable.) Deteninewhatmateriakcanberecycledandestimatetheamountoleach.If youare uncertainoftheseamounts,multipiyline1andlhe percentages provided (based on a survey of constructionprojecls in the Minneapdis.St. Paul metropolitanarea). TYPICAL CURRENT . . RESIDENTIAUCOMMERCIAL PROJECT ESTIMATE d pallets no manufactured 2a 4811cy (25%/180/,) est. 20% .................................................. ............................................. (10% nS%) ........................................... 2b lliia cy ....................................................... (4.5%/15%) ............................................ 2C X3Q Cy
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Non-recydablematerial: Subtract line 3 from line 1 .....................................................................................................

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STEP TWO: Estlmate the Cost Effactiveness of Recycling There are two basic ways to recycle construction waste: types Method 1: Hirearecyclinghauler,thatis,ahaulerwhowillcollect allwaste. ~~rloutatleastthree of recyclab!ematerialsandtransportthemtoappropriate buyers, and transportthe remainingwaste loa landfill. The recydinghaulerreceivesthe revenuesfor the recycledmaterials. I the recyclinghaulertakes materials f ’toamaterialsrecoverfacility, makesurethefacilitywillrecycleatleastthreelypesofmaterialandprocessall loads,includingclea?demoloads.Usethefollowing formula to determine the costslbenefitsof recycling under Method 1:

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Cost per cy for hauling by a non-recycling hauler .................................................................................. - ......................... /........................................... Cost per cy lor hauling by a recycling hauler Net benefit (or cost, if less than zero) per cy: Subtract line 6 from line 5 Total net beneffi(orcost, if less than zero) of recycling: Multiply lines 7 and 1

5 $ - .G Q! Z l 6 $ .X E . ? Z

Method 2 Builder separates recyclable materialsfrom waste a d arranges for their transphtion to buyers. Use the following formula to determinethe WSW benefits of recyding under Method2:

-9b Sorting costs (from Worksheet B) ..... 9c Administrativecosts (from Worksheet
10 1l a 11b 12 13

9a

Transportalioncosts (fromWorksheet 4)
i

..................................................................... Totatcosts: Add lines 9a, 9b, and Qc Reducbn in disposal costs: Multiply I Scrap revenues (from Worksheet 0) .. Totalbenefils: Addlinesllaandllb .................................................................................................................................... Net benefit cost, if less than zero) of recycling: Subtract line 10 fromline12(line12-line10) ........................................................... : ....................................................................................

10 $ A6693 12 $JZ.Q3fi .

(v

. .

13 $sz%.&&

Ifeither line 8 or line 13 is greater lhan zero, recycling is cost effective for this project. If both lines are greater than zero, the higher repressnls the more cost effective recycling method. If both lines are less than zero, the higher represenls the less costly method. . .
STEP THREE Estlmate the Intangible Beneflts of Recycling Does your client respondto environmentalm e m s andyalues? Will recycling improve your company’s public image or improve relations with the community? Will the implementationof a recycling programgive you the edge over a competitor bidding at a similar price? Does recycling ?tribute company by giving employees a sense of satisfaction? Estimate the intangjble benefitsof recycling below: 14a 14b .15 16 17 Public relations value of recycling............................................. Value of recyclingto your company .................... Total intangible benefits: Add lines 14aand 14b ........................ Insert total from line 8 or line 13 (whkhbver is hig Total benefit (or cost, If less t h zero) of recycling: Add lines 15 and 16 ........................................................................ h

.

to your

i

: 17 J5.mQ .......

1555.mQ ’ 16 $ 0

.

If line 17 is greater than zero, the illtangible benefits of recycling make it effective ovyall. If line 17 is less than zero, it shows the total cost of recycling for ‘ the project including intangible benefils.
N o t a Recycling is cost-effective using method one.On thie projcc; method two wa5 n o t cost-effective.

\

.

.

COMPLETEDSAMPLES: Recycling Economics Worksheet Resldentlal And Commercial Construction . . Project ~ a w ~ o m EGQQAZ s Preparedby Date 9/92

v v

The following wotksheet is designed to help determine the cost effectiveness of recyclingwaste malerials generated by a given constructionproject. Supplementalworksheetsusedforcalcutatingcertainitemsare providedonaseparatesheet.The processallows younoionly tocablale theattualcosts and benefitsol recyding, but to lactor in (separately) the intangible tynefils ol a recycling program. STEP ONE: EstlmateTotal Project WasIe and Amounts of RecyclableMatedale Estimate the Total Project Waste in wbc yards (cy) .. 1 1%icy Use information Iran previous projects,ilcomparable.) Determinewhatmaterialsoberecycledandestimatetheamwntof Hyoua~uncertainoftheseamounts. multiplyline 1 andlhepercantages provided(basedon a survey of construction projects in the Miiineipdis-SI. Paul metropolitan area).

ea^.

.

2a

TYPICAL RESIDENTIAUCOM~ I Wood waste (dimensional lumber, broken crates, and pallets .no manufactured

CURRENT PROJECTESTIMATE

-

.There are two basic ways to recycle construction waste:

STEP TWO Estimate the Cost Effectiveness of Recycllng

Method 1: Hire a recyclinghauler,thal is, a hauler who will collect all waste. sort out at least three types of recyclablematerials and transport lhem lo appropriate buyers,andtransportIheremainingwastetoalandfill. Therecyclinghaulerreceivestherevenuesfortherecycledmalerials.if lherecyciinghaulertakesmaterials toamaterialsrecoveryfacility,makesurethefacilitywill recycleat~astthreety~sof materialandpr~essall~ads, includingcieandemoloads. Use’thefollowing formula to determine,the cosWbenelitsof reqcling under-Method1:

5 6
A 8

Cost per cy for haulingby a non-recycling hauler ................................................................................ 5 $ .-l3.50 .................................. 6 $ A L Q Q Cost per cy for hauling by a recycling hauler Net benefit (or cost.if less than zero) per cy: 7$s&!cb Total net benefit (or cost, if less than zero) of recycling: Multiply lines 7 and 1. ........................................................................

8 $<-47RO,

Method 2: Builder separates recyclable materials from waste and arranges for their transportation to buyers. Use the followingformula to determine the costsl benefits of recycling under Method 2:

9a
9b 9c 10 lla llb 12 13

.

Transportation costs (from Works ......................................................................... 9bS-C Sorting costs (from Worksheet 8) Administrativecosts (from Worksheet C) ........................... Total cosls: Add lines 9a. 9b, and 9c ..................................................................................................................................... 10 Reduction in disposal costs: Mullipiy lines 3 and 5 ........... Scrap revenues (from Worksheet D).......................................................... ........................................ ............... $ x j a Q 12 Total benefits: Add lines 1 l a and 1 1b Net benefit (or cost, if less than zero) of recycling: Sublract line 10 from line 12 (line 12. line 10) ............................................................................... 1............................................................... 13 $sZi&E&

If eitherke 8 or line 13 is greater than zero, recyclingis zost effective forthis project. If both lines are greater lhan zero, the higher represents the more cost effective recydingmethod. If both lines are less than zkro, the higher represents the less costly method. STEP THREE Estimate the Intangible Benefits of Recycling Does your client respond to environmental concems and values? Will recycling improve your company’s public image or improve relations with the , community?. W 1 the implerytation of a recyclingprogram give you the edge over a competitor bidding at a similar price? Does recyclingcontribute to your 1 company by giving employees a sense of satisfaction? Estimale the intangible benefits of recycling below: 14a 14b 15 16 17 Public reiatiw value ol recycling ....................................................................................................... 14a $ 0 Value of recycling to your CM Total intangible benelits: Add ........................... 158 4 Insert total from line 8 or line 1 16 $<-47M> Total benefit (or wst, if less than zero) 01 recycling: Add lines 15 and 16 ..................................... : ................ : ........................ 17 $
rc

I line 17 is greater than zero, the intangiblebenefits of recyclingmake it effective overall., If line 17 is less than zero, it shows Ihe total cos1 of recyclingfor f the project including intangible benefits.
Note In this case, it would cost -47.50 to recycle by using a hauler who sorts recyclablesoff-site and it would cost -296.50 to 401%
materials on-site for wcycling.

I SUPPLEMENTALWORKSHEETS For Use with the Recycling Economics Worksheet Residential & Commercial Construction
WORKSHEET A TRANSPORTATION COSTS, SELF-SORTED MATERIALS (FOR LINE Sa) Option 1: Outside Hauler For each material. determine container capacity and the per I w d container and hauling costs. Handlingcosts are not includedbecause it is assumed materials have been sotled directly into containers. The cost of sorting is estimated in Worksheet B. , , Wood: Divide amount on line 2a _hh cy by container capacity (e.g., U r 30 cy), round OHresult o , to nearest whole number 3 and multiply by containerhaulingcost $ - 2 2 5 $Cardboard: Divide amount on line 2b 9 cy by container capacity. round off result , to nearest whole number 1 and multiply bJcontainerhauiing cost $ 3 Concrete: Divide amount on line 2c 0 by container capacity. round off result cy he , to nearest w d number 0 and multiply by containerhaulingcost $ D

I

$ 4 1 3

$ 4

Metals: D i v i i amount on line 2d 4 cy by container capacity. round OH result - 3 2 ~ to nearest whole number 0 , and multiply by containerhaulingcost $ D
Total cost of Optin 1, usingwtside hauler: add above amounts

$ 0 $ 3

...........................................................................

Note: Would not *If-haul ymd. lnscrting hauler m5t. Option 2: Self-Haul For each material, determine cy per load; hours per trip, and labor and trucking costs per hour.

W o o d Divide amount on line 2a c y by per load capacity c y . round off to nearest whde number , and multiply by hours per trip -and per hour labor and trucKing costs 0.......................................................
Cardboard Divide amDunt on line 2b L c y by per load capacity L c y , round OH to nearest whde number 3, by hours per trip -2.5 and multiply and per hour labor and trucking costs $25 Concrete. Divide amount on line 2c c y by per load capacity -cy round OH to nearest whde number +, and multiply by hours per trip and per hour labor and trucking costs $ -

$

$ 3

$4

,

Metals: Divide amount on line 2d A c y by per load capacity c y round OH lo nearest whole number L a n d multiply by hours per trip and per b u r labor and trucking costs $ -25
Total cost of Option 2. self-haul: add above amounts

' . A
,

$A
......$,-.9&25

.................................................................

insert Ictal amounl of Q g or Opiion 2 (whicheveris less) on line 9a. &J
WORKSHEET B: SORTING COSTS (FOR LINE 9b) Estimate the numberof hours needed to sort a cubic yard of construction waste .......................... .......................................... ................................................. Determineper hour cost of labor (include benefit and overhead costs, if appropriate) Insert amount from line 1 (Total Project Waste) ...................................................................................... Total sorling costs: Multiply above amounts and insert total on line 9b ..................................................................................

:

-15Jlrs $ialhr 4ri cy $2265

. . WORKSHEET C ADMINISTRATIVECOSTS (FOR LINE SC) Arranging and carrying out recyclingactivities may require the involvementof the project manager, superintendent, andor the administrative support staff. Project manager: Multiplyestimated number 01 hours 3 _ and cost per'hour $-Ein ...................$ R 1 O Support staff: Multiply estimated number of h o u r s 7 . and cost per hour $3 .............................. ................................. $-&I2
~

Total administrative costs: Add above amounts and insert total on line 9c ..............................................................................

Superintendent

$ 1 7 0

WORKSHEET D: SCRAP REVENUES (FOR LINE I l b ) If you are hauling a recyclable material to market yourself, obtain an estimate 01 its market price. Because market prices fluctuate widely, don't rely on old figures. Materials that had little market value in the recent past may have increased in value. Conversely, some materials may have little or no market value. Wood Multiply market price $-(per cy) and amount from line 2a .................................................................................. Corrugated cardboard: Multiply market price $ (per cy) and amount from line 2b Concrete: Multiply markel price $-(per cy) and amount lrom line 2c ..................... Metals: Multiply market price $ (per cy) and amount from line 2d ............................................................ /r ................. Total Scrap Revenues: Add above amounts and insert total on line 11b ........................................................................
:

$ -

$ -

........

$ 4

Section 4:

Sample Bid Specification For Recycling On Construction Projects
The sample bid specification (guide spec) is designed to address the concern of builders that if recycling means incurring higher waste management costs, those who choose to recycle would be at a competitive disadvantage. The spec is setup so that the contractor makes a waste management plan and a cost estimate for recycling after being selected as the builder on a project. You are encouraged to photocopy the guide spec for use and distribution. Building owners and architects can use the guide spec to inform prospective builders-that the project requires the chosen builder to develop a recycling plan. It requires the contractor, after being selected as the builder, to provide a recycling . plan and cost estimate. If the contractor determines that recycling will cost more than regular disposal, the owner can choose whether to go ahead with the plan and pay the extra cost. The guide spec refers to the Recycling Economics Worksheet and the Markets Directory found in this guidebook. The guide spec was written by Peter Vesterholt, AIA, and reviewed by members of the CICC and the A W M N Committee on the Environment. The CICC endorsed the guide spec at its January 1993 meeting and plans to make it an appendix to the Blue Book.
\

,

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Page 21

TA GUIDE SPEC DECEMBER, 1992 SECTION 01505 CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT PART 1 -GENERAL 1.01 REQUIREMENTS INCLUDED A. Waste Management Goals. B. Waste Management Plan. C. Recycling. D. Reuse. E. Sorting. F. Recycling Economics Worksheet. G. List of Recycling Centers and Haulers.
/

1.02 RELATED REQUIREMENTS A. Section 01010 Summary of Work. 6. Section 01500 Construction Facilities and Temporary Controls: Cleaning during Construction. C. Section 02050 - Building Demolition D. Section 02072 - Minor Demolitionfor Remodeling.

-

1.03 WASTE MANAGEMENT GOALS A. The Owner desires that as many materials as possible from this project (whether new construction, remodeling or demolition) be salvaged, reused or recycled in order to minimize the impact of construction waste in landfills and to minimize the expenditure of energy and cost in fabricating new materials. To this end the Contractor shall develop with the assistance of the Owner and the ArchitecVEngineers,a Waste Management Plan for this project. Outlined in Article 1:05A herein are examples of materials which can be recycled or reused, as well as recommendationsfor waste sorting methods. 1.04 WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN A. Within ten (10) days after receipt of Notice of Award of Bid, or prior to any waste removal the Contractor shall develop with'the Owner and the ArchitecVEngineer a Waste Management Plan. The plan shall be structured as follows: 1.
Cost Benefit Analysis

a. b.
2.

Identify the estimated savings or cost of recycling using the attached Recycling Economics Worksheet. Determinewhethei certain building materials can be salvaged for resale or reused.

!

Assuming Owner's acceptanceof the savings or cost of recycling, identify: a. Types of materials for Recycling, Reuse or Sorting. b. Estimated quantities. c. Separation requirements. d. On-site storage. e. Transportation method. f. Destinations. g. Plan Manager (Contractor's representative.)

~

1.05 RECYCLING

A. The following materials can be recycled in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (as of December 1992):
1.

Material ' Dimensional lumber and broken crates and pallets.

Recycling Use Animal bedding, landscape use. fuel.

Notes: Some recyclers have equipment which removes nails. Plywood and other glued wood products are not usually accepted for landscape or animal bedding uses.
2.

Concrete and Concrete Masonry Units

Roadbeds

Page 22

.
2.
3.

Concrete and Concrete Masonry Units Asphaltic Concrete Pavement
4.
5.

Roadbeds Asphaltic Concrete Pavement Paper Products Metal Products

Corrugated Cardboard Metals

.

1.06 REUSE

A.

Contractor and Subcontractors are encouraged to reuse as many materials as possible. Reuse is a better waste management method than recycling because little or no reprocessing is necessary. Thus less pollution is created when items are reused in their original form. Reuse includes:
1. 2.

B.

Salvaging reusable materials from remodeling projects (before the demolition stage) for resale, for reuse on the current project gr for storage for use on future projects. Returning reusable items such as pallets or unused products to the vendors.

1.07 MATERIALS SORTING

A.

The following sorting methods are available:
1.

Employing haulers who make use of a materials recovery facility or a transfer station where recyclable materials are sorted from the waste and recycled before disposing of the remainder. Sorting recyclable materials at the construction site and have them hauled to recycling markets directly from the site.
Notes:
1.
f

2.

If using a hauler or recycling facility to sort out recyclables, certify that they sort all construction waste loads and not just those that are not acceptable at the demolition landfill and that they recycle at least three (3)types of material.

2.

Landfills will accept "Clean demo" loads which may include all of the recyclable materials mentioned above except cardboard. However, it is a waste of resources and landfill space to bury rather than recycle them.

1.08 RECYCLING ECONOMICS WORKSHEET.

A.

Refer to Attachment "A" for a Recycling Economics Worksheet, which is to be filled out with the assistance of the Owner and the ArchitecVEngineer as part of the Waste Management Plan.

1.09 LIST OF RECYCLING CENTERS AND HAULERS.

A.

Refer to Attachment ' " for a current list of construction waste recycling centers and waste haulers in the 8 MinneapolidSt. Paul Metropolitan Area. PART 2 PRODUCTS Not Used PART 3 EXECUTION Not Used END OF SECTION (Refer to Attachments)

-

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Page 23

. .

Section 5:

Markets Directory
'

This listing of salvage and reuse organizations, waste haulers, transfer stations, materials recovery facilities (MRFs),and construction waste processors is intended to provide information about reuse and recycling options available for typical construction materials. The listings are limited to the sevencounty Tkin Cities metropolitan area. Information was provided voluntarily by the organizations listed in February of 1993. The authors and sponsors of this guidebook do not guarantee its accuracy or endorse any of the companies. The list is not represented as being complete.
-6-k

.

. Other Sources of Information
This directory is not meant to be a comprehensive list of recycling maIkets for construction wastes. Rather, it is designed to give a good idea of the types of opportunities available for reusing and recycling construction materials. More complete listings, in particular of single-materiai markets such as metaIs and asphalt/concrete can be found in the Resourcelul Waste Management business recycling guide available from metropolitan county solid waste offices (an updated version of this directory is due in July 1993) and in the Minnesota Recycling Directory, available from the Minnesota Office of Waste Management, phone 6 9 4 5750. Other good sources of information include MPIRC's BARTER waste exchange program, phone 6274035, and the yellow pages. See Section 6, Reference section for where to find information on handling problem materials, such a s fluorescent and HID lamps.

-

How to Use this Directory
The directory is organized into two major categories, each of which has additional subcategories. The categories are:
1. Multi-material haulers and processors: Organizations that transport and/or process more than one construction waste material for, recycling.

Listed within this category are: Haulers, transfer stations, and MRFs that accept mixed loads of construction wastes and sort out three or more materials for recycling; and Haulers, transfer stations, MRFs, and landfills that recycle one or two types of construction materials from mixed loads or transport to recyclers one or more materials that have been sorted on site. Materials that have been sorted on site are referred to as source-separated materials.

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‘\

Note: If a hauler claims to sort recyclable materials from mixed waste loads but . also asks that “clean demolition” loads .be separated from remaining wastes, the “clean demolition” loads are most likely going straight to a demolition landfill even if they include recyclable materials.
\

2. Single material t‘ecyclers:Organizations that transport and/or process primarily .

one construction waste material. These materials include: Appliances;

.

‘

Carpet;

’

Concrete, concrete block, and/or asphalt; Corrugated cardboard; Metals; Polystyrene insulation; Salvaged/reusable items such as cabinets, doors, and fixtures; and Wood-dimensional lumber and/or pallets and crates. Note: Organizations lis_tedin the first category are not inchded in the second categow. For example, a business that hauls both wood waste and * cardboard for recycling would be listed in the first category as accepting both materials. It would not appear again in the second listing under wood or cardboard.

Additional Notes on Using this Directory:
,

How Materials are Processed. For a list of how the materials in-this directory are recycled locally. see Table 5 in Section 2, Construction Recycling Today.

-

Fees. Unless otherwise noted, organizations listed charge a fee to accept wastes.
Minimum Quantities. Unless otherwise noted, organizations listed do not‘ require minimum quantities to accept wastes. However, many charge a minimum fee.

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t

Multi-material haulers and processors:
Organizations that transport and/or process more than one construction waste material for recycling. Unless otherwise noted, organizations listed provide waste containers and do not accept deliveries.
. . 1. Haulers, transfer stations, and MRFs that accept mixed loads of construction wastes and sort out three or more materials forrecycling:
Concrete, concrete
block. and/ or asphalt

Corrugated cardboard

Scrap metals

wood: dimensional lumber and/ or pallets
and crates.

Other

Materials

Organization N a m e

and Address
Buckingham Trucking 12444 Hwy 13 , 55378 Savage M N

1.
I

Phone Contact

1
I

Additional information
I

Area Served South

hauler. Recycles paper, and other materials depending on the

m
Dakota, Scott

job.
Disposal Systems, Inc 915 N Albert St PO B,"x 4007 55104 St. Paul MN 645-6907 Paul Karsten Construction and demolition waste hauler. Sorts materials at own yard. Will try to recycle most anything. Construction! demolition waste hauler. Has recycledcardboard in the past.

L
Metro

Goodale Transfer 1931 44th St NE Buffalo MN

55313

' ,

1-682-2072 Mick Goodale

I

I
I

Hilger Transler 8550 Zachaty Lane Maple Grove MN

425-7844 Tim Klatke 55369

I
Lloyd's Construc!ion Sew, InC 16860 Welcome Ave SE Prior Lake MN . 55372

Construction waste hauler. Minimum quantity. Also special cleanups, demolitionhear downs. New construction clean-up and smaller scale demolition wo& and clean-up.

440-5832
Stephanie or Jim Lloyd
"

1 E
Hemepn

,

I
I

Ramsey others

Metro Area

Page 26

Materials

Organization Name and Address
Materials Recovery, Ltd. 13135 Doyle Path Rosemount MN 55068

Phone Contact
437-8618 Craig Gerkin

Additional Information

Metro Area

Area Serve1

Materials recovery facility set up to recycle wood and other materials from construction waste loads. No hazardous wastes, liquids, treated lumber, adhesives, or fluorescent bulbs accepted. (Note that this is the case for most of the haulers listed here.) 425-2239 Tim Klatke Transfer station. Accepts drop-offs. Also accepts oil hlters, tree waste (brush) and appliances lor recycling. Transfer station. Also accepts several other materials for recycling.

North Hennepin Recycling & Transfer 8550 Zachary Lane MapleGrove MN 55369

Metro Area

Poor Richards Inc. 400 Whitall SVPO Box 17022 St. Paul MN 55117

776-2323 Kelly Darwin

Metro Area

I

-

I

2. Haulers, transfer stations, MRFs, and landfills that recycle one or two types of construction materials from mixed loads or transport to recyclers one or more materials that have been sorted on site,

-

-I

AACE Services 1460 Woodhill Rd Burnsville MN

894.7470 Jim Johnso. 55337

Small hauling company pulls scrap metal out of mixed loads for recycling and some wood for reuse. Transfer station with sotting line. Recycles materials from mixed loads unless load is acceptable at demolition landfill. Hauler recycles source-separated scrap metal and some wood. Working on recycling carpeting.

Area

,
I

Ben Oehrlein & Sons & 451-1145 Daughter 10619 Courthouse Vince Blvd. lnver Grove Heights Vanella MN 55077

Washington, Anoka,

H "
Dakota

Boudreau Roll-OH Inc. PO Box 185 55373 Rockford MN

867-1321 Dayna Boudreau Scrap metal wood, other

Metro Area

Cooper's Hauling Mpls

824-6250 Ann Cooper recyc.

Small construction waste hauler. Pulls scrap metal and cardboard from mixed loads for. recyc. Some appliance recyc.

H "
Dakota
1

Page 27

.

.

.

A

'

Materials

1

-

Organization Name and Address
>redit River Services !0230 Judicial Rd 55372 'nor Lake MN

Phone Contact
169-2949 . Jim of Ieb Dill

Additional Information
Hauler provides several bins for soumseparated materials.

Area ierved
_ c .

Scott, Iakota, Washington, dhers

%ure Companies I1 St. Anthony Blvd. dinneapolis MN 783-8209 >on Mildon 55418 Wood, scrap metal Accepts sourceseparated pallets, scrap lumber, and scrap metal. Constructid demolition hauler. Pulls scrap metal and cardboard from mixed loads for recycling. Minimum quantity. Construction/ demolition hauler. Pulls scrap metal and cardboard from mixed loads for recycling. Minimum quantity for pick-up or call to arrange drop-off (separate drop-off location lor drywall). Recycles source-Separated materials. Some drywall composted. Landfill and transfer station. Pull clean lumber and scrap metal from mixed loads for &cycling. Large concrete crushing operation. AI? appliance recycling. Recycles sourceseparated cardboar and scrap metal. Metro Area Metro Area

ndustrial Roll 011Service I2344 99th Ave N dapleGrove MN 55369

365-1431 Jim Fansler

Metro Area

?ayAnderson and Sons Co, Inc. 330 Duluth St 3. Paul MN 55106

I

Metro Area

?74;2550 3ick 4nde6$1

Metro Area

Recycling Tech. 8 Transfer Inc 1666 Wbite Bear Ave #1S St. Paul MN 55106

123-6452 David Triemerl

SKB Rich Valley Landfill 2490 117th St lnver Grove Heights MN 55075
\ .

224-6329 John Domke

.
Waste Control Container . Service 95 West Ivy Ave St. Paul, MN 55117 227-6394 Greg Geer

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Single Material Recyclers: Organizations that transport and/or process primarily one construction waste material.
Many'of the single material recyclers require you to deliver materials to them. All reserve the right to refuse a load if it does not meet their specifications. Your best bet is to call ahead

Materials

OrganizationName and Address

I
1

Phone Contact

Additional Information

I

Area Served

Major household appliances (No TVs)

A-Plus Appliance 747 Payne Ave St. Paul MN ARCA 2601 Broadway NE Minneapolis MN

298-1929 nla 55101 378-1100 nla 55413

Accept drop-offsMonday Saturday. Hauling senrice available. Outside Metro, minimum quantity 20 units. Hauling service availableappliartces must be at ground level outside. Drop-offs accepted.

-

Metro Area

Appliances only

,

Metro Area

All major appliances, includingTVs

Bloomington-Lakeville Appliance 18863 Cedar Ave S Lakeville MN 55044

884-1594 nla .

Accept drop-off. No hauling Service available. (Bloomington store has been closed.)

south Metro

~

All major household appliances, no

NS.
All major white goods

Don Barbeau Appliance 319 W Lake St MN 55108 Mpls

827-7019 nla

Accepts drop-offs.

Mpls and suburbs

JRs Appliance Disposal 8980 Jefferson Trail W lnver Grove Hgts MN 55077

Hauling service available, drop-offs accepted. '

-

'

Metro Area

Carpet

Carpet Recovery Innovation 32273 124th st 55371 Princeton MN United Recycling 3119 Lynn Ave S St. Louis Park MN

441-8300 Pete Hovde

Call to arrange drop-off or hauling service.

--IMetro A r e a
Metro Area

Carpet and carpet pad. No rubber backed or waffle backed carpet. Must be dry

55416

929-7175 Kim Harrington

Call to arrange drop-off or hauling service.

I
Clean concrete (no rebar, wire, mesh, brick or asphalt). Clean asphalt (no concrete). Ashbach Construction Co 299 Olmstead St 55101 St. Paul MN 222-1994 Tipping fee for concrete. NO fee for asphalt. Call to arrange drop-off. No container or hauling service. 14 metro area locations. Call to arrange drop-off. No hauling or container service. Metro Area

Concrete and asphalt. Rebar and wire Barton Sand and Gravel 10633 89th Ave N mesh okay, but extra charge. Keep concrete and asphalt separate Osseo MN 55369

-

425-4191 nla

Metro Area

Page 29

Materials
Asphalt

Organization Name and Address
Commercial Asphalt Co. Box210 Newport MN 55055 Carl Bolander & Sons Co. Capp Rd. and Vandalia St. St.Pau1 MN Edward Kraemer 8 Sons, Inc. 1020 West Cliff Rd Bumsville MN 55337

Phone Contact
739-4675

Additional Information
12 Metro locations

-

Area Served

Metro Area

Concrete, concrete Moctasphalt, brick

224-6299 Bob Rentz

No minimum quantity, drop-off accepted, no hauling or container service.

MNro Area

Concrete with or without rebar. Asphalt. Clean, no rocks or other debris. Keep concrete and asphalt separate

890-3611 Dispatch

Call to arrange drop-off. No container or hauling service.

Metro Area

Corrugated cardboard. Must be clean

.

Waldorf Corporation Wabash Ave. St. Paul MN

2250 55114

641-4875 Mary Bangle

Metro Area

Ferrous and non-ferrous scrap metals

Alliance Steel Service Co. Inc. 11531stAve. North Minneapolis MN 55411 Alter Scrap Processing 801 Barge Channel Rd. St. Paul MN 55101

588-2721 Harold Goldfine 222-2751 Brian Meng Toll-free phone 800/628-7645. Container and hauling service available as well as drop-off. Consumer hotline 946-5858. Container and hauling service available, based on tonnage. Drop-off accepted. They accept drop-off of a minimum quantity of scrap.

75 mile radius

Ferrous and non-ferrous metals

Metro Area

Ferrous and non-ferrous scrap metals

American Iron & Supply 2800 Pacific St. 55411 Minneapolis MN Gordon Iron and Metal Co. 207 E. Nelson St. Stillwater MN 55082 Great Western Recycling Ind. 521 Barge Channel Rd St.Paul MN 55107 Kirschbaum-KruppMetal Co. 1728 N 2nd St. Minneapolis MN 55411 Kronick Industries, Inc. 3101 Hennepin Ave. E. Minneapolis MN 55413

529-9221 Daryl Parks

Metro Area

t

Ferrous and non-ferrous metal, heavy scrap only

439-4327 Sherman or Frank 224-4877 Mike Silverman 521-9212 Rochelle or Barry Krupp 331-8080 Steve Luzar

Metro Area

Ferrous and non-ferrous scrap metal
\ a

Containers and hauling service available. Dropoff accepted.

Metro Area

'

Non-ferrousmetals only; no steel

Containers and k e n g service available. Drop-off accepted.

Metro Area

Aluminum, brass, copper

I

Container and hauling service available. Drop-off accepted from commercial sources only. Container and hauling service available. Drop-off accepted.

Metro Area

Ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Loads Leder Bros. Iron & Metal Co. must be free from wood, glass, hazard- 3240 Snelling Ave. S. ous wastes,andanyothercontaminants. Minneapolis MN 55406

721-6244 Mark or lssac Leder

Metro Area

Page 30
$

\

Materials
Ferrous and non:ferrous scrap metal

Organization Name and Address
Mattin Bush Iron & Metal Co. 1601 N. 2nd St. Minneapolis MN 55411 Metals Reduction Co., lnc. 355 E. UniversityAve St. Paul MN 55101 MississippiStreet Metals 800 Mississippi St. St. Paul MN 55101 Sam Bloom Iron & Metal Co. 1508 N. 2nd St. Minneapolis MN 55411 Schwartzman Co. 2905FerrySt. Anoka MN

Phone Contact
521-4797 Art Smith, Ed Bush 222-8551 Harold Kaplan 222-0533 Ivan Jacobs

Additional Information
Containers and hauling service available. Drop-off accepted

Area Served
Metro Area

Ferrous and non-ferrous scrap metal

Containers and hauling service available. Drop-off accepted.

Metro Area

Scrap metals

Containerand hauling service available. Drop-off accepted from wmmercial sources only. Container and hauling service available. Drop-off accepted.

Metro Area

Ferrousand non-ferrous scrap metals

*

521-2295 Chades West 421-1187 John schwa” 377-6663 Michael Haglund

Metro Area

Ferrous and non-ferrous scrap metal

.
55303

Container and hauling service available. Accepts commercial and industrialsource metals for recycling. Container and hauling service available. Drop-off accepted.

50 mile radius

Ferrous and non-ferrous scrap metals

Scrap Metal Processors, Inc. 150 Girard Ave. N. Minneapolis MN 55405

Metro Area

‘ .

Expandedpolystyrene, polyethylene, polyurethene. Packaging, insulation. Must be clean: no dirt, no paint; no food. Materialfrom demolition jobs is not acceptable Clean and dry expanded polystyrene. Material lelt over from new construction o.k -no glue, cement, tar, paint or rocks. Band or neatly stack larger pieces Clean polystyrene foam insulation

Foam Fabrjcators 330 Commercial Dr. W AnnandaleMN 55302

274-8009 Larry Schemer

Call to arrange drop-off. Hauling sewice may be available.

Styrotech 1620 Central Ave NE Mpls MN 55413

789-4001 Donna

Call to arrange drop-off. They reservethe right to refuse any deliveries.

Plymouth Foam 9540 83rd Ave. N. Grove MN

Maple 55369

425-8855 Roy Each

Call to arrange drop-off. No fee to accept materials.

Prefer to examine items before accepting. Will purchase some items. ‘ Call toarrange drop-off or pick-up

Accent Liquidators 5200 W. 73rd St. Mpls MN

55439

884-2166 Richard Babbe

Call to &range drop-off or pick-up. Store fixtures. Showcases, checkout counters, dress racks, wall fixtures, all in good condition. Preier a week or more to remove materials themselves. Call to arrange pick-up or drop-off. They purchase some items.

E
Metro Area Metro Area

From buildings built 1940s or earlier -lighting fixtures, buffets, doors, hardware, trim and molding, stained glass windows, marble, cement pots (ums). They reserve the right to refuse some drop-offs.

ArchitecturalAntiques 801 Washington Ave N Mpls MN 55401

332-8344 Scott Anderson

Page 31

‘

Materials.
Doors, windows, plumbing, paneling, plywood, sinks and toilets, boilers, radiators all in good condition. Some appliances (fee charged). Toilets, radiators, sinks, tank covers, in reasonably pad condition

I

Organization Name and Address
Bauer Bro!-#rs Salvage 174 E Arlington Ave St. Paul MN 55117

Additional Information
489-9044
&b, Russ orchuck Large salvage yard. Call to arrange drop-off, or hauling and salvage
Service.

Area
Served
Metro Area

Frank Sales Company 1101 Washington Ave S 55415 Mpls MN

338-7609
da

Depending on items and condition, may be willing to buy. CaU to arrange drop-off or pi&-up.
8

Metro Area

Buy and sell used electrical equipment: H and H Euying and Selling MN Electric motors, circuit breakers, trans- Mpls tormers, dry transformers, electrical bus duct -all in good condition. Kitchen cabinets (modular as opposed Habitat for Humanity 1121S7thSt to built in) minimum of 9 base unlt, od carpets (no shag, g o quality, Mpls MN 55415 minimumd lo'xlo'), insulated glass windows: interiorlexteriordoor units (ext door must be insulated steel), bathroom vanities whop, appliances, more.

588-6560
Rodney Hell

Call to arrange drop-off or pick-up. Will buy some items.

Metro Area

.

332-3372
Steve Clemens

Call to arrange donation of good quality materials. If match found, dropoff or pick-upcan be ananged.

Metro Area

Unusual architectural details. Cast iron columns. bank teller cages, copper rain gutters and spouts, lighting, fencing,large clocks, terra cotla masonry, many others, in reasonably good condition. Salvage used restaurant, grocery store, cafeteria equipment (refrigera, , tors, freezers, walk-in coolers, walk-in freezers, booths, tables, chairs, compressors, etc.) Building materials such as nails, lumber, tools, cement , rolls of insulation, doors, furnaces and boilers less than ten years old, light fixtures, carpet, appliances, paint (whites), wallpaper -all in good condition. Kitchen cabinetry, bathroom vanities, some lighting fixtures. Materials must be in good cotldition having been remwed with care. No appliances, carpeting, sinks or toilets. (See PPL Construction Depatiment.) Transfoners, distribution, bus du?, motors, disconnects, industrial electrical equipment, starters, in good condition.

J D Hawkins Antiques 1787 St. Clair Ave 55105 StPaul MN

690-2865
Burton Dvergsdal

Condition determines price paid for items. Call Io arrange drop-off or pickUP.

Metro Area

.-

'1

Nielsen Store Equipment

524 N Snelling Ave St. Paul MN -

55104

1

646-2649
Floyd Carlson ,

Prefer removing equipment themselves. They rebuild used equipment for resale
I

Metro Area

PPL Construction Department

874-8511
Greg Domke

2516 Chicago Ave S
Mpls MN
55404

They rehab. homes for low-income families. Call to arrange drop-off.'

inetro Area

~~

~

~~

Project for Pride In Living

789-3322
Sue or Mark

850 15th Ave NE

Not for profitorganizationprovides training to hard-to-employindividuals. Call to arrange drop-off or pick-up.

detro Area

Root Equipment and Supply

788-9738
Jim Jensen

Call to arrange drop-off or pick-up.

detro Area

3930 University Ave NE 55421 Mpls MN

Page 32

MateriaI s

Organization Name and Address
Siwek Lumber & Idillwork Inc 2436 Mashall St NE Mpls MN 55418 The Showcase Place 2432 N 2nd St Mpls MN

Phone Contact
781-3333 Tom Siwek MA
-~

Additional ' InformatioII
May purchase items, depending on condition. Call to arrange drop-off.

-Area Served

Good condition doors and windows and door and window hardware.
Any type of store fixture. Shelving, hdding racks, etc. (wood, metal,

521-0876 Pat Sullivan
~

SkN
Home and office fumiture, newer appliays, lighting fixtures, and other items, in good condition.

Call to arrange drop-off or pick-up. Will pay for most items depending on condition.

Metro Area

United Way Gifts in Kind

340-7421 Caty Jirik

Program matches donors with nonprofit organizations. If match found, drop-off or pick-upcan be arranged.

Scrap lumber, pallets, brush, tree waste, other waste wood. Nails and bolts 0.k.
I

Advanced Envir. PrDducts Inc. 6465 Wayzata Blvd Mpls MN 55426

546-3208 Jason Jentzsch

Scrap lumber, pallets. No treated wood. Nails are o.k., but no bolts or other metal fastened to wood. Pallets only. Nails 0.k

Dunham Bros Wood Recycling 10831 215th St W Lakeville MN 55044 Pallet Service Corporation 1600 Fillmore St. NE Mpls MN . 55413 Retum IN., Pallets 420 6th Ave S Hopkins MN

469-2427 da

'
I

On-site mobile grinding service. Minimum quantity 8 hours of grinding. (Capacity 90 tonhour.) No dropsff or hauling. .
'

Hauling service available or call to arrange drop-off.

.
Call for drop-off.

788-4466 Tom or John 930-9151 Kirk Zahrbcck 890-3913

Pallets. Must be clean. Small amount of paint 0.k. Nails 0.k.

-

55343

Will pay for good condition pallets in 8 sizes 48' x 40' and 4' x 42', otherwise fee to accept. Call to arrange drop off.

Offer wash and dry service for plastic pallets.

,Tote Distributing 3500 Highway 13 West Bumsville MN ,55337

I
Merle Laumeyer quantity for pick-up, 100 pallets.

I

139 John E. CarrollAve E. St. Paul MN 55075

Page 33
,

Y

Section Six

Reference Section
\

Here is a list of a few sources of information related to managing construction and remodeling waste.
1.

Information o n Environmentally Oriented Building Materials and Technique9

.. 3 sources of home building (GREBE) lists
'

materials which make eflicient use of the primary resources from which they are made; contain recycled secondary resource materials; if a composite material, provide an environmentally sound alternative to traditional resource intensive products; and/or complete with traditional material in quality, durability, and cost over the l i e of the house,

The GREBE is available from the Center for Resourceful Building Technology (CRBT) P.O. Box 3866, Missoula, MT 59806. Phone 406/549-7678. The Recycled Products Guide includes building materials made from recycled materials and can be obtained from P.O. Box 577 Ogdensburg, NY 13669. Phone 800/267-0707.

The Minnesota Office of Waste Management ( O W has fact sheets and other information on buying recycled products in Minnesota. Call the Buy Recycled Program at 649-5750 or 800/6573843. American Institute of Architects (AIA) Environmental Resource Guide (ERG) The ERG is a quarterly subscription service containing resources on materials analysis, waste reduction and management, site design and land use, natural resources, energy and lighting, indoor air quality, case histories demonstrating implementation of environmental principles, and a long list of references for additional information. It is available from the AIA Committee on the Environment by calling 202/62&7331 or 800/365 ARCH
2.

Resources for Information on Handling Problem Materials Some construction materials can be problems in the waste stream. For information on regulations and how to handle such hazardous or problem materials as paints, solvents, sealants, fluorescent tubes, lead, and treated wood: In the seven-county metropolitan area, call the county hazardous wa&e departments: Anoka County: 422-7069 Dakota County: 891-7556 Ramsey County: 292-7898 Washington County: 43@6655 Carver County: 448-1217 Hennepin County: 3484919 Scott County: 496-8177

rr-

In Greater Minnesota, call the MPCA Generator Technical Assistance Unit at 800/657-3724 or 612/2966300.
Another source of assistance which is non-regulatory and can be called anonymously is MnTAP (Minnesota Technical Assistance Program) at 6274646 in the Metro area or 800/247-0015 in Greater Minnesota. Asbestos. For information on handling asbestos, call the Asbestos Abatement Unit in the Minnesota Department of Health's Environmental Health Department at 612/627-5089 or 5097, or call John Elling or anyone else in the MPCAAsbestos Unit at 296-8011.

I

‘ f

,

Bibliography
Recycling Construction Materials 1. Apotheker, Steve, “Managing Construction and Demolition materials”, 1992, pp. 50-61. 2. Barnes-Driscoll, Erin, .. . . Council Publication NO.520-90-153, July 1990,19 pages.
~

-.
,August ,Metropolitan

. ..

3. 4.

, Brickner,

Robert H., ”Construction Waste & Demolition Debris ...Problem or Opportunity?”, Demolitianage, October 1992, pp. 32-35., November 1992, pp. 1426. Brickner, Robert H. and Eileen Glass, “Shedding Light on C&D Issues”,6, June 1992. Brickner, Robert H.,no , - W Publication of Gershman, Brickner & Bratton, Inc., June 1992.
: Vol. 30, No.

5.
6.
7.

..

Collins, Kasey, “Recycling: Cleaning Up for Our Future”, Commercial, Mqy/June 1991,pp. 1012. Connel, Greg, “Life after demolition”, ,July 1990, pp. 38-42.

8.

Construction Industry Affairs Committee of Chicago, “Praposed CIAC Recommendation: Recycling Construction Waste Materials”, Released 11/15/90. (Contact: William T. Lohmann, Murphy/Jahn, Chicago). Curro, Joseph P., “An inside view of C & D recycling” IihQcle, March 1991, pp. 31-36.

9.

10. Dobbs, David and Wendy Talarico, ‘Turning Trash into Cash -Asdisposal costs rise, contractors are finding that ,March recyclingis notjust afeel-good exercise, b u t a ~ n a n ~ i a l n e c e s s i t y ” , ~ -1991, pp. 21-25. 11. Federle, Mark O., Analysis of I 3 W Engineering Research Institute at Iowa State University. 12. Greater Toronto Home Builders Association, 416/391-3445).
13. Hams, Sydney M., “Processing construction and demolition waste”, 1988, pp. 22-62. 14. Higgins, KevinT., ‘TheGreatest Story NeverTold”. 24-27.
*

. .

, Publication of

*

, (contact THBAat
‘

,May/June

,October 1990,pp.

15. “Industrial Recycling Takes the Stage”, EkCy.de,July 1991, p. 68. 16. Lee, Benjamin, “New-Style MRFs Recycling Construction and Demolition Waste”, Earrer, vol. 5, No. 5, October 1991. 17. Lohmann, William, “Recycling Construction Waste”

,May 1991, p. 69.

18.

.. . Published by 1
Associated BuildingContractors of the Triple Cities and General Building Contractors of New York State. Researched and written by B. Piasecki, J. Ray, and P. Golden of American Hazard Control Group. March 1990,74 pages.

19. “New Recycling Centers Take All Building Debris” E n g i News Repctxf ,June 1991.
. 20.

Spencer, Robert, “Recycling Opportunities for Demolition Debris”, EkCyqk, Nov. 1989, pp. 42-44.

Page 35

i

.

..

21. Spencer, Robert, “Taking Control of C & b Debris” EkCycle, July 1991, pp. 65-67. 22. “Recycling Debris from Construction Projects”, EkGycle, August 1992, pp. 62-63. 23. VermontAgencyof Natural Resources, C.T. Donovan Associates, Inc., Dec. 1990,150 pages.

.
#

..

B Y

Asphalt/Concrete 24. Donovan, Christine T., “Construction and demolition waste processing: new solutions to an old problem”, . ,August 1991, pp. 146-155.
25. “Another Life for Wood and Stone”, Waste,publication of Western F‘inger Lakes Authority, Vol. 2, No. 7, October 1991.

Paint ‘26. Rhea, Marsha, “Subcontractors recycle construction waste for profit and by necessity“, trach~, 14, No. 12, September 1992. Vol.
27. Watson, Tom, “Out of the Basements: A Review of Paint Recycling”, Resource Recycling, Nov. 1989, pp. 32-58.

Plastics 28. Rebeiz, K.S., “Re‘cycling Plastics in the Construction Industry”, !&k&e,
29. Rubasca, Lisa, “Manufacturers Recycle EPS Foam”, 30. “Building EPS Recycling Into the Construction Industry”.

February 1992, pp. 3538.

,November 1992. ,July/August 1992.
*

Reuse 31. Whitten, Matthew, “Reuse of low-end construction and demolition debris”, 1992, pp: 115122.
32. “ReUze building centre is for real!”.

,April

Wallboard/Drywall 33. Kalin, Zev, “CanadaTargets C&D Debris”, l3kCyde,January 1991, pp. 3536.
34. Masick, Mark, “Recycling Gypsum from C&D Debris”, EhGy.de, March 1992, pp. 3435. 35. Staatz, Ann, “Builder sets recycling standard”,
*

,July 30,1992.
*

Wood Waste 36. Apotheker, Steve, “Wood Waste Recovery Grinds Out New Success”, PP. 64-69.

,April1990,

&pt. 37. Donovan, Christine T., “Recycling Wood Wastes Offers New Opportunities”, Y&tdgeAee, 1988, pp. 143-144. l
38. Donovan, ChristineT.,‘Wood Waste Reeoveryand Processing”, 84-92. 39. Gitlin, Lisa, “Integrating Wood into the Recycling Loop”,

,March 1991,pp. ,June 1991, pp. 58-63.

-

40. Goldstein, Nora, “Demolition Contractor Becomes Recycler”, BkGyde, January 1992. 41. Gubbels, Dale and Ellen O’Meara, “An overview of post-consumer wood waste recovery options”, ResourceRecvcline, April 1992, pp.68-70. 42. O’Brien, Kathleen, ‘Wood Waste Recycling Options”, BioCvcle.May 1991, pp. 82-86.
I

43. Spencer, Robert, ‘Whittling Away at Wood Waste”, B,hcy&, January 1992, pp. 52-53. 44. Woods, Randy, “A Crisis is Building”, WasteAPe, 1992, pp. 26-36. January
,

45. Woods, Randy, “Riding the C&D Tide”, Eask&, . Page 36

April 1992, pp. 119-128.


				
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