Section Map of Canada PAGE General Canadian Information Canada is

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					                    Section 3
3.1 Map of Canada
                                                                                      PAGE 60-61
            3.2 General Canadian Information
Canada is the second largest country in the world covering an area of nearly ten million square
kilometers. The country is made up of ten provinces and three territories. Canada is a vast
nation with a wide variety of geological formations, climates and ecological systems. It has rain
forests, prairie grasslands, deciduous forests, tundra, mountains, and wetlands. Canada has
more lakes and inland waters than any other country. It is known for its scenery, which attracts
millions of tourists each year. Canada is bordered by the USA to the south, the Arctic Ocean to
the north, the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east.

Although Canada is the second largest country in the world, its population is only about 32
million people. This is because the North of Canada, with its harsh Arctic and sub-Arctic
climates, is sparsely inhabited. Most Canadians live in the Southern part of the country. More
than three-quarters live in urban areas. French and English are the official languages, and at
one time most Canadians were of French or English descent. However, diversity increased with
a wave of immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries that brought in people from
many European nations. This trend continues into the 21st century. Canada is one of the few
countries in the world that still has significant immigration programs. Since the 1970s, most
immigrants have come from Asia. Canada welcomes between 220,000 and 245,000 newcomers
each year. Approximately 32,000 are refugees.

Canada has impressive reserves of timber, minerals, and fresh water, and many of its industries
are based on these resources. Many of its rivers have been harnessed for hydroelectric power,
and it is self-sufficient in fossil fuel. Industrialization began in the 19th century and a significant
manufacturing sector emerged, especially after World War II (1939-1945). Canada’s resource
and manufacturing industries export about one-third of their products. While Canada’s
prosperity is built on the resource and manufacturing industries, most Canadians work in
service occupations, including transportation, trade, finance, personal services and
government.

Canada’s indigenous peoples (original inhabitants) are often called First Nations or Indians,
Natives, Aboriginals, or Métis. Métis people emerged out of the relations of Indian women and
European men. While the initial offspring of these Indian and European unions were individuals
who possessed mixed ancestry, the gradual establishment of distinct Métis communities,
outside of Indian and European cultures and settlements, as well as, the subsequent
intermarriages between Métis women and Métis men, resulted in the genesis of a new
Aboriginal people – the Métis.

The name Canada comes from a word meaning “village” or “community” in one of the
indigenous Iroquoian languages. Indigenous peoples had developed complex societies and
intricate political relations before the first Europeans, the Vikings, arrived in the 11th century.
The Vikings soon left, but more Europeans came in the 16th century and were made welcome
because they brought manufactured goods and traded them for furs and other native products.
However, the Europeans settled down and gradually displaced the indigenous peoples over the
next 250 years. This process of dispossession has left a legacy of legal and moral issues that
Canadians have been addressing for nearly 20 years already. European settlers came in a series
of waves. First were the French, followed by the English, and these two groups are considered
the founding nations. France lost its part of the territory to Britain in a war in 1760, but most of
the French-speaking colonists remained. Their effort to preserve their language and culture has
been a continuing theme of Canadian history.

Modern Canada was formed in 1867, in an event that Canadians call confederation, when three
colonies of Britain merged to create a partially independent state of four provinces. Since then,
six more provinces and three territories have been added. Canada achieved full independence
in 1931, but continues to belong to the Commonwealth of Nations, a voluntary association of
countries with ties to the United Kingdom. Canadians celebrate Canada Day on July 1st.

John A. Macdonald was Canada’s first prime minister, and was recognized for his efforts in
bringing about Confederation. His role in creating Canada, and the realization of his dream to
build a transcontinental railway, has fixed his place as a nation-builder in Canadian History.
                                                                                   PAGE 62-64
                3.3 GENERAL IMMIGRANT
                      INFORMATION
Permanent Resident: A person who has acquired permanent resident status and has not
subsequently lost that status.

There are three major classes of immigrants:

   1. Family Class
   2. Refugee and Designated Class
   3. Independent Immigrant Class, including assisted relatives.

Canada’s immigration system is based on the following principles:
• that families be united
• that Canada keep its promise to help refugees resettle
• that Canada’s needs for specific types of workers be met partially through immigration
• that all people be judged on the same basis regardless of their race, color, religion or sex

PERMANENT RESIDENT CARD

A Permanent Resident Card is an identification document issued to all new permanent
residents by Citizenship and Immigration. This practice has been in place since June 28, 2002.

If an individual was a permanent resident prior to June 28, 2002, he or she needs to apply for a
Permanent Resident Card, before traveling outside of Canada. For more information on how to
get a Permanent Resident Card, contact Citizenship and Immigration at 1-888-242-2100 or the
local settlement agency. Permanent residents, who live in another country for 3 years during a
five year period, may lose their status.

SPONSORSHIP

To be able to help a relative immigrate to Canada, the sponsor must be a Canadian citizen or
permanent resident, and at least 18 years of age. Relatives can be brought to Canada in two
                     ways:

                       Family Class or close family members, spouse or common law, conjual
                       partner, parents or grandchildren and never-married children, orphaned
                       brothers, sisters, nephews, nieces, grandchildren under 22 and never-
                       married, or any other relative if no other Family Class relatives can be
sponsored, or if the sponsor has no close relatives in Canada.
To sponsor a Family Class member, contact the Mail Service Immigration Centre toll-free, 1-
888-242-2100. The sponsor will have to sign an “undertaking of assistance”, which means that
the sponsor promises to provide shelter, care and financial support to those they sponsor.

Proof that the sponsor can do this either alone or with the help of family already in Canada may
be required. Support can be from one to ten years.

Independent Immigrant Classes are those not listed under Family Class. They are assessed
under a point system. To be approved, they must:

•   get at least one point from occupation unless employment has been arranged by the applicant.
•   get at least one point for job experience
•   meet other immigration requirements

To adopt a child with no parents, the applicant must receive approval from the country where
the child lives, and from Saskatchewan Social Services (Department of Community Resources
and Employment). The child is eligible only if he/she has no parents or anyone to take care of
him/her, lives outside Canada and is not a Canadian citizen or permanent resident.

REFUGEE SPONSORSHIP

To be able to sponsor a person who is a refugee, the sponsor needs to make sure the person is
a refugee recognized by UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) or any other
referral agency. Refugees can be sponsored in the following manner:

•   JAS - Joint Assistance Sponsorship
•   Group of 5: five individuals who are Canadian citizens or permanent residents. These
    individuals are required to support the sponsored refugee for the duration of the sponsorship.
•   SAH (Sponsorship Agreement Holders): SAHs are groups that have signed an agreement
    with Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Constituent groups are groups that are formally
    recognized by the SAH to sponsor refugees.
•   Community Sponsorship

Individuals recognized by United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) can be
sponsored to come to Canada in several ways. In many communities, faith groups and other
community members assist individuals to sponsor their relatives. In order to sponsor, you may
be asked to assume some of the responsibilities of providing for the sponsored person(s). To
learn more about sponsorship, contact your local settlement agency or Citizenship and
Immigration Canada.

Deportation

Deportation happens to those who break the laws of Canada, including the Immigration Act, in
a major way. Deportation means the individual can never re-enter Canada unless given written
authorization by the Minister of Immigration & Citizenship. Some reasons for deportation are:
•   a person is convicted of certain criminal offences committed before coming to Canada as a
    permanent resident,
•   not complying with terms and conditions determined at entry,
•   a person took part in an attempt to overthrow the government by force,
•   a person was found guilty of a crime in Canada which resulted in a prison sentence of six
    months or more or could have been imprisoned for 10 years or more,
•   a person lied or was found to have used false documents to gain admission to Canada.

There are two options other than deportation:

1. Persons may be issued a departure order under certain circumstances. This order requires
   the person to leave Canada within 30 days, and does not bar re-admission to Canada in the
   future. If the person fails to leave Canada within 30 days, the order then becomes a
   deportation order.

2. People may be given an exclusion order if they are inadmissible. They will not be allowed to
   enter Canada for one year without written authorization from the Minister in charge.

Permanent residents have the right to appeal a deportation decision to the Immigration Appeal
Division.

LEAVING CANADA FOR A LONG TIME

Permanent residents, who leave Canada for more than 3 years in a 5 year time period, may lose
their status.
                                                                                       PAGE 65
            3.4 CANADIAN GOVERNMENT
Federal government offices and the Parliament Buildings are located in Ottawa. Many
countries have embassies there as well. Ottawa is the capital city of Canada and is located in
the province of Ontario.

Canada has three levels of government, each elected by the people through a democratic
voting process. The Federal government is responsible for issues at the national level including
foreign policy, postal services, currency, immigration and citizenship. The leader of the Federal
government is the Prime Minister of Canada. However, Canada’s sovereign is a monarch, the
Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The Governor-General
and ten Lieutenant Governors represent the Queen in Canada. Canada’s constitution
guarantees equality under the law to all of its citizens. Powers of the Federal and Provincial
governments are spelled out separately under the constitution, but over the past 50 years they
have increasingly cooperated in programs that provide a wide range of social services
.
There is constitutional separation of powers between the provinces and the Federal
government that is continually adapting in order to best meet the needs of Canadians.
Provincial or Territorial governments are responsible for matters such as education, health and
highways. These levels of government are headed by Premiers.

The third level of government is Municipal, and it is responsible for local issues such as building
regulations, parks and recreation, libraries and fire protection. The person in charge of these
areas is the Mayor. Each community has its own Mayor.

There are four major political parties in Canada, each represented in the Federal and Provincial
governments and opposition parties. They are the Liberal Party, Bloc Québécois, New
Democratic Party and the Conservative Party of Canada.
                                                                                   PAGE 66-68
                3.5 CANADIAN CURRENCY
Canadian money consists of dollars ($) and cents (¢). There are 100 cents in one dollar ($1.00).
The coins available in Canadian money are: 1 cent (penny), 5 cents (nickel), 10 cents (dime), 25
cents (quarter), 1 dollar (also called a Loonie), and 2 dollars (also called a Toonie).

Paper money or bills are available in the following denominations: $5, $10, $20, $50, $100.
Money in the form of coins and bills is called “cash”. Most foreign money can be exchanged at
a bank or a trust company. These financial institutions provide services for saving money,
writing and cashing cheques, lending money, money orders, traveler’s cheques and paying bills.
Most banks pay interest to people who have accounts in their banks, and also charge interest to
those who borrow money. Interest rates depend on the bank, and the current rate is
established by the Bank of Canada.

Many people have accounts with financial institutions. The two most common accounts are
savings accounts and chequing accounts.

SAVINGS ACCOUNT

A savings account is used to save money. Interest is paid on the balance. The bank provides its
customers with a statement book to record all deposits and withdrawals. Money can be put in
or taken out at any time. Some savings programs only allow money to be taken out at certain
times.

CHEQUING ACCOUNT

A chequing account is used for writing cheques to buy things such as food and clothing, and to
pay utility bills such as telephone, electricity, water and heat. (These items can also be paid for
in cash.) It is important to record all deposits and cheques written. These accounts can be in
an individual’s name or in two names, such as a husband and wife. This is called a joint
account.

If a cheque is written and there is not enough money in the account, it is cheque fraud. Cheque
fraud is illegal and it also may result in criminal charges or a fine of at least $25.00.

OPENING AN ACCOUNT

Canadian banking is most likely going to be different than what most immigrants are used to.
To open an account, the client needs to go to the “New Accounts” desk at a bank and talk to
the teller or bank employee. Identification will be required such as: Social Insurance Number or
a Health Card. Just because a person goes to one bank does not mean that is where they have
to bank. If an individual does not receive good service that person should not feel obligated to
stay there; everyone is allowed to walk out and choose a different bank if they wish.

BANK HOURS

Different banks have various hours that they are open. Each bank will have its hours posted on
the door or window. On certain days, such as Thursdays and Fridays, they are open longer.
Very few banks are open on Saturday.

BANK (Debit) CARDS

A client may apply for a bank card and a personal identification (PIN)
number at many financial centers. This card allows the client to use
banking machines or automatic teller machines (ATM). These
machines are located outside the bank and are open 24 hours a day.
Bank personnel will show you how to operate the machine. There is a
service charge for many banking services such as writing cheques and
using the ATM. The bank card will have a (PIN) number which is very important to keep private.
Do not tell anyone the number and when using the ATM, and try to cover the key pad when
entering the code.

LENDING

Credit is very important in Canada. Credit is often how a person makes big purchases and builds
credit by getting small loans (to start) and paying them off promptly. This is how people
eventually buy a car or home. Financial institutions lend money to clients for the purchase of
furniture, cars, houses and other things. To receive a loan, the client must apply and prove
he/she is capable of repaying the money, plus interest. The loans officer looks at how long the
person has been working, how much money he/she makes, and other personal factors before
making a decision.

SENDING MONEY ABROAD

A bank will help send money to another country. This can be done by
transferring money from one account to another, a money order, telex,
mail payment order or a bank draft. The bank teller will help decide
which is best. Money orders can also be purchased at the Post Office.
Do not send cash in the mail.

BUYING ON CREDIT

If not able to get a loan from a bank (and do not be upset if denied, it is hard to get a loan for a
very first time), then it is recommended to get a credit card for a limit of no more than $500.00
or so. Put purchases on this card and then pay it off promptly at the end of each month when
the bill statement is received. But it is recommended to only purchase things the person can
afford with the card. If the individual cannot afford the item, save up for it and purchase it with
cash; do not use a credit card.
Buying on credit is the same as borrowing money. Many companies and banks have plastic
                           credit cards which can be applied for and used in place of cash. This
                           money must be paid back and all companies charge interest. Some
                           companies have higher interest rates than others, and different
                           terms. Sometimes the entire balance must be paid within 30 days,
                           other times a minimum payment is requested. If the money owed is
                           not paid back, the company which owns the credit card can take
some of the borrower’s possessions, or takes him/her to court to get the money back. Even a
missed payment goes on record. A bad credit rating will make it very difficult to obtain financial
help in the future for anything.

If a credit card gets lost it is important to notify the credit card company as soon as possible.
Someone who found is or stole it can use that card and the owner of the card will be held
responsible for paying any charges. The number written across the front of the card is what is
most important and people can use that card to steal from the owner without even having the
card, but having the number.

Once the client has established and understands the meaning of a credit card, the client should
still keep the card and not cancel it because you need it for any telephone set-up purchases,
online purchases or hotel stays. If a person ever does destroy any documents, cards or personal
information, do not just throw it away, but destroy it either in a paper shredder or by cutting it
up. Fraud everywhere, and everyone should always protect themselves.

CREDIT UNIONS

What is a ‘Credit Union’? A credit union is a type of banking institution very common in
Saskatchewan – most towns and villages have a credit union where the local residents do their
banking.

Becoming a Credit Union Member is easy. Find a credit union in the community and fill out a
membership form and open an account. Credit Unions are financial institutions that offer most
of the same services that traditional banks do but are locally owned and governed, and usually
make extra efforts to reinvest into the community.
                                                                                    PAGE 69-70
        3.6 CANADIAN CITIZENSHIP &
              SASKATCHEWAN
      IMMIGRANT NOMINEE PROGRAM
CITIZENSHIP
Once a person arrives in Canada, there are steps which must be taken to become a permanent
resident of this country:

       1. Obtain a work permit
       2. Obtain Landed immigrant Status
       3. Obtain Permanent Residency

After a certain period, a newcomer to Canada can then apply for permanent citizenship.

When a permanent resident has lived in Canada for three years, he/she can apply for Canadian
Citizenship. This status provides several privileges including the right to vote in all elections and
run as a political candidate. It also gives the right to freely enter and exit, or remain in the
country.

Once citizenship is applied for, and the appropriate identification photographs and applications
have been submitted, the applicant will write an exam that assesses their general knowledge of
Canada. This test is given by Citizenship and Immigration Canada. If the applicant passes the
examination, he/she is notified and asked to appear in a Citizenship Ceremony to take the Oath
of Citizenship along with other new Canadians.

Applications and study materials are available by calling 1-888-242-2100 or online at
www.cic.gc.ca.

For assistance completing forms or other information related to Citizenship, contact Sheri
Wiebe at your local settlement agency at (306) 682-3069.

SASKATCHEWAN IMMIGRANT NOMINEE PROGRAM
Due to the labour shortage in the province of Saskatchewan, the government created a
program called the Saskatchewan Immigrant Nominee Program (SINP). The purpose of this
program is to help employers obtain skilled workers from other countries. Businesses that are
currently using this program include: transportation companies, hog producers, manufacturers
and meat processing companies, just to name a few.
The SINP works through the Government of Canada embassies and consulates around the
world and does not engage the exclusive services of any agencies or representatives in any
jurisdictions. SINP applicants may choose to engage the services of an immigration consultant
or not, however, no immigration consultant has or will be allocated an immigrant quota from
the Province of Saskatchewan.

There are several categories of service in the SINP:

       Skilled Workers:
       This category is for skilled people, professionals or managers who have a full-time,
       permanent job offer from a Saskatchewan employer. It is divided into three sub-
       categories: Skilled Workers/Professionals, Critical Occupations and existing Work
       Permit.

       Family Members:
       This category is for immigrant families living in Saskatchewan who want to help their
       family members live and work in the province. Supporting family members must provide
       settlement assistance to applicants and their dependents, which may include financial
       support.

       Entrepreneurs:
       This category is designed to help entrepreneurs establish their businesses in
       Saskatchewan. We have Business Immigration Officers available to help you through
       every step of the process.

       Farm Owners/ Operators:
       This category is for individuals with proven experience in farming and substantial capital
       available to invest in a farming operation that intend to purchase and operate a farming
       operation in Saskatchewan.

       Health Professions:
       This category allows internationally-trained health professionals, who have been
       working in Saskatchewan for at least six months under a temporary work permit, to
       apply for landed immigrant status under the SINP. It is divided into three sub-categories:
       physicians, nurses and other health professions.

       Long Haul Truck Drivers:
       This category allows Saskatchewan trucking firms to bring workers to the province for
       occupations requiring a high school diploma or on-the-job training under Service
       Canada’s Temporary Foreign Worker policy.

       Student:
       This category allows students who have graduated from a recognized, Saskatchewan
       post-secondary educational institution and worked for at least six months for a
       Saskatchewan employer under a CIC post-graduation work permit in a field related to
       their schooling to apply for landed immigrant status under the SINP.
For more information about the Saskatchewan Immigrant Nominee Program, contact the
Saskatchewan Immigration Branch at 306-798-7467 or email www.immigration.gov.sk.ca

				
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