AAMR ad hoc Committee on Adaptiv

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					             AAIDD
Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale


- Marc J. Tassé, Schalock, Balboni, Bersani, Duffy,
   Scherba de Valenzuela, Spreat, Thissen, Widaman, &
   Zhang.




           American Psychological Association
                  116th Annual Convention
                   August 14 – 17, 2008
      Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale
    Giulia Balboni, Ph.D.            Julia Scherba de Valenzuela, Ph.D.
  Università della Valle d'Aosta           University of New Mexico
   Hank Bersani Jr., Ph.D.               David M. Thissen, Ph.D.
   Western Oregon University
                                      University of North Carolina - CH
   Sharon A. Duffy, Ph.D.
University of California-Riverside       Keith F. Widaman, Ph.D.
                                        University of California-Davis
  Robert L. Schalock, Ph.D.
      Hastings College                     Dalun Zhang, Ph.D.
     Scott Spreat, Ed.D.                   Texas A&M University
     Woodland Center for
     Challenging Behaviors
Why do we need another AB scale?
      Adaptive Behavior Scales

• Adaptive Behavior Assessment Instruments
  – 1935: N = 1 (Vineland Social Maturity Scale)

  AAIDD introduces AB in definition 1959
  – 1979: N > 200 (Meyers, Nihira, & Zetlin, 1979)
  – 2008: N > 400 measures of adaptive behavior
 Assessment of Adaptive Behavior
Purpose of Adaptive Behavior Measures?

“The adaptive behavior approach was originally
   intended to encourage one to look at the
   individuals with an eye toward remediation
   and prescriptive assessment, rather than
   merely labeling and classifying.”

                               – Nihira (1999; page 8).


       => Diagnosis of intellectual disability
       => Planning services & supports
Why do we need another AB scale?
Why do we need another AB scale?



    => Diagnosis of intellectual disability
    => Planning services & supports
Defining Features of the DABS

• Exclusively diagnostic – focus on cut-off;

   TODAY: There are 4 adaptive behavior instruments
   appropriate => diagnosis of intellectual disability.

    Vineland-II
    ABAS-II
    SIB-R
    ABS-SE
Defining Features of the DABS

• Exclusively diagnostic – focus on cut-off;

• Short-precise assessment instrument;
Defining Features of the DABS

• Exclusively diagnostic – focus on cut-off;

• Short-precise assessment instrument;

• Tailored to the AAIDD tri-partite
  definition of adaptive behavior; =>
    Adaptive Behavior: What is it?

“Adaptive behavior is the collection of conceptual,
  social, and practical skills performed that have been
  learned by people in order to function in their
  everyday lives.”

                           - Luckasson et al. (2002; page 14)
  Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale

Social skills:
  interpersonal skills, responsibility, self-esteem,
  wariness/naïveté, follow rules, etiquette, social
  problem solving.
Practical skills:
  activities of daily living, occupational skills,
  safety, healthcare, travel.
Conceptual skills:
  language, functional academics, self-direction,
  money management, time concepts.
Defining Features of the DABS
• Expand upon higher order social adaptive
  skills:
   – Gullibility/Naïveté
   – Avoid Victimization

=> Consulted experts in the field to assist us in
  writing item stems:
• Avoids relationships that are hurtful or exploitative.
• Recognizes whom to trust when making an important
  decision.
• Recognizes when someone if trying to manipulate them.
• Can tell when someone is lying to him/her.
Defining Features of the DABS

• Exclusively diagnostic – focus on cut-off;

• Short-precise assessment instrument;

• Tailored to the AAIDD tri-partite
  definition of adaptive behavior;

• No “maladaptive” behavior scale;
 Defining Features of the DABS
• Use Item Response Theory:
  – Scale development/refinement
  – Item administration (tailored testing)
  Defining Features of the DABS
• Cultural / geographic / linguistic sensitivity or
  bias:
   – Cross-cultural US Experts (African-Americans,
     Hispanic-Americans, Asian-Americans, Native-
     Americans) =>
      •   Repairs minor damage to clothing (e.g., tear, missing button).
      •   Gets off the bus or train at the correct stop.
      •   Orders items by telephone or internet.
      •   Uses a knife to cut food.
      •   …
             AAIDD
Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale
Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale

Age: 4 – 21 years old

Administration:
  – Semi-structured interview
  – Face-to-face: Interviewer  Respondent
    Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale
Interviewer Qualifications:

• Completed at least a Bachelor’s degree;
• Has several years of direct work experience with people with an
  intellectual disability or closely related developmental
  disabilities;
• Has previous assessment experience;
• Examples of individuals who can potentially serve as
  interviewers are:
   – psychologist, social worker, counselor, teacher, graduate
     student, etc.
    Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale
Selecting Respondents:

The respondent providing the information for completing the
  DABS should know the individual very well and have had the
  opportunity to observe this person on a daily or weekly basis,
  preferably in a variety of settings, and over an extended period
  of time.

Respondents should be adults and may be selected from family
  members, friends, teachers, employers/colleagues, or staff
  personnel.

The individual whose adaptive behavior is being assessed is NOT
  considered an appropriate respondent (i.e., no self-report).
          DABS: Rating System
“0”   No – rarely or never does it.
“1”   Yes – does it with reminders or assistance but
      rarely or never independently.
“2”   Yes – does it sometimes independently – but
      sometimes needs reminders or assistance.
“3”   Yes – does it always or almost always
      independently – never or rarely needs reminders
      or assistance.
“NS” No Score.
          DABS: Rating System
“NS” = No Score:

No Score – person has a physical impairment that
 impedes performance of this skill.

No Score – lack of opportunity due to cultural, gender,
 and/or geographic/regional factors.

No Score – lack of opportunity due to environmental
 constraints.

No Score – respondent has no direct knowledge of
 individual’s typical performance.
Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale

Standardization item pools:
  – Conceptual ~ 94 items
  – Practical ~ 86 items
  – Social ~ 80 items
            DABS: Sample Items
CONCEPTUAL SKILLS:
(communication)
• Follows verbal directions.
• Communicates ideas through oral, sign, or written
   language (includes assistive technology).
(money concepts)
• Plans how his/her money will be spent.
(time)
• Uses clock or other timepiece to determine when it is
   time to do something (e.g., go to school/work, eat, or be
   home).
           DABS: Sample Items
SOCIAL SKILLS:
(inter-personal)
• Stays on the topic in group conversations.
• Introduces self to others.
(gullibility)
• Questions others when he/she is told something that
   may not be true.
• Recognizes signs that someone is trying to exploit him/
   her.
           DABS: Sample Items
PRACTICAL SKILLS:
(activities of daily living)
• Uses the restroom.
• Dresses appropriately depending on the occasion.
(occupational skills)
• Completes work assignments.
(maintains safe environment/safety)
• Properly stores dangerous household cleaning products.
• Shows safety awareness when crossing streets (e.g.,
  checks for traffic before crossing streets).
    Standardization of DABS
• Normalization - 4 to 21 years old –
  typically developing:
  – US Census
     • Race/ethnicity
     • Education levels
     • Geographic representation
                 DABS
• SCORES:

 – Conceptual:    M = 100; SD = 15
 – Social:        M = 100; SD = 15
 – Practical      M = 100; SD = 15
 FULL SCALE       M = 100; SD = 15
    Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale
             Closing Remarks
• Consistent with AAIDD Diagnostic Manual;
• Diagnosis;
• Brief but precise;
• Recent norms based on general population;
• Standardized measure of adaptive behavior (4 to
  21 years old);
• Based on most current research and psychometric
  science;
• Reduce the number of culturally/geographically-
  biased items.
Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale

                  Marc J. Tassé, Ph.D.
   Florida Center for Inclusive Communities – UCEDD
               University of South Florida


          Email: mtasse@fmhi.usf.edu



             American Psychological Association
                   116th Annual Convention
                     August 14 – 17, 2008

				
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