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									                                 TEACHING UNIT

                                 Looking at
                             ‘Symbols of power’

                               An interactive resource
                    pack which includes a visit to Torbay museum
                         (or an online distance learning visit)
What does this pack include?
1. A set of 6 lesson plans (half a term):

- Each lesson plans follows on from the previous and is designed to focus on students’ understanding of the concepts of power and
- The lesson are tailored for all ages – year 7 through to 11, KS3 and KS4
- An overview of the lessons is as follows:

-   Lesson 1: Revision of Democracy in the UK and the concept of power in the British context
-   Lesson 2: Looking at types of power and governance: Military, Democratic, Religious (Theocratic), Monarchic, Autocratic.
-   Lesson 3: Case studies and group work on historical/modern examples of each of the above (pre-museum preparatory lesson)
-   Lesson 4: Museum visit (or for distance learning, visit the museum’s website) and guidelines – looking at ‘Objects of Power’
-   Lesson 5: Museum follow up – production of pieces of work on ‘Objects of Power’ (online/digital documents)
-   Lesson 6: Presentation of work in class and online/via ICT

2. School and museum guidelines
Links with the Citizenship national curriculum:

The sequence of lessons link directly with many aspects of the Citizenship national curriculum:

- the key characteristics of parliamentary and other forms of government (1.d)
- the world as a global community (1.i)
- think about topical political, spiritual, moral, social and cultural issues, problems and events by analysing
  information and its sources
- justify orally and in writing a personal opinion (2.a)
- use their imagination to consider other people's experiences and be able to think about, express and explain
  views that are not their own (2.b)
- reflect on the process of participating (3.c)

What are the core questions/aspects to this sequence of work?

- How is power gained? (By force, through hereditary right, through divine right, democratically etc…)
- How do people/groups in maintain power?
- What are the symbols/objects/icons of power in different contexts?

What are the core learning objectives for pupils?
Knowledge and Understanding:
- To understand the variety of different types of government which exist today
- To contrast these against historical examples so that students can see the changing nature of power
- For pupils to understand how there are as many types of government today as in the past

Developing skills of participation and responsible action:
- For students to work collaboratively, making group decisions and producing work which is reflective of this collective ethos

Developing skills of enquiry and communication:
- For students to think about and research modern and historical examples of the different types of power and their moral,
  political, economic and social implications
- To produce and present a piece of ICT based work sourced from a visit to a museum, research on the internet and other forms of

Lesson 1: Democracy and Power in the UK
Learning objectives:
 To understand what makes the UK a democracy.
 To understand that there are problems with the UK democracy; it is not a perfect system.
 To prepare students for the next lesson and ultimately for the museum visit.
Lesson outline: (NB. This lesson assumes students already have a basic knowledge of the UK Parliament and democracy in the UK).
Introduction: Organisation = WHOLE CLASS; Time = 15 minutes.
Teacher shows the class a quick snippet from Prime Minister’s questions in which someone gets a humorous put down. Teacher briefly questions the class on PMQs to
check knowledge and understanding.
Episode 1: Organisation = PAIRS; Time = 35 minutes.
Teacher explains that some people from the United Nations have just arrived in the UK on a democracy inspection. In the class approx 5-6 of the students should be
inspectors and the rest should be given role play cards for different characters. Students are then divided into 5-6 groups each of which contains:
one inspector; one government politician; one opposition politician; one ethnic minority representative; one women’s representative; one school pupil; one
environmentalist; one wealthy businessman/woman; one non-native who comes from a different system of government.
The debate should last roughly 25-20 minutes and during this the teacher can circulate joining in, either as a devil’s advocate style character or just to check learning
progress and encourage each pupil to have a chance to speak.
The inspector then has to discuss with these different characters in a debate format, what they think or know about democracy in the UK today. The inspector must
make notes to feed back to the class at the end. Students use their role play cards with the information provided and add anything extra they feel necessary.
Plenary: Organisation = GROUPS; Time = 5 minutes
The Inspectors can then feedback what they have learnt about the state of democracy in the UK to the class as a whole, guided by the teacher.
Homework (optional): Students have to write about how our democracy can be improved and what they learnt from discussing different people’s point of view about to
state of UK democracy.

Resources Needed:

• UN Democracy Inspector’s Prompt Cards and individual role play prompts

Resources for lesson 1:

You are a United Nations Democracy Inspector and have been sent to the UK to check that everything is running democratically. It is
your job to interview selected people in their groups (you must chair the conversation and make sure that everyone has a chance to
say what they think). You can ask each question to each group member and make notes on the worksheet:

The following questions may help you although if you like you can ask your own ones as well:
1. Is the UK totally democratic?

2. Can you give me an example of democracy in action?

3. Did you vote in the last election? Why? Why not?

4. Do you trust politicians? Why? Why not?

5. What would you like to change about UK democracy?

Use this work sheet to make notes from each person:

The government politician thought:

The opposition leader thought:
The ethnic minority group representative thought:

The women’s representative thought:

The school pupil thought:

The environmentalist thought:

The wealthy businessman/woman thought:
The foreigner/non-native person thought:

You are a local government politician (male). Use the information below to tell the inspector what you think about the state of
democracy in the UK.

- You think that UK democracy is fair and equal.
- You were elected with a small majority (100 votes) but feel that people trust you and believe you will do what they want
- You make sure that everyone knows what you are doing in parliament by producing a weekly newsletter telling your constituents
(local people who live in your constituency) everything that happened in the week
- You hold weekly meetings so that people can tell you any problems there are with local services – police, hospitals, schools etc…
- You believe that you truly represent your local people because you were born in the area and went to a local school

You are a local opposition leader (female). Use the information below to tell the inspector what you think about the state of
democracy in the UK.

- You think that UK democracy is quite fair but sometimes unequal.
- At the last elected you weren’t elected because you lost to the local government politician by 100 votes. You feel that this is fine,
although nearly 50 % of the local people voted for you and so they think that their views are not represented in parliament.
- You are constantly campaigning on local issues, and have sent many letters to the local government politician but he’s never
- You believe that you have a good chance of being elected next time because people are a bit disappointed with the government
-You want the voting system to change to become more proportional so that you have a better chance of being elected next time.

You are a local ethnic minority representative. Use the information below to tell the inspector what you think about the state of
democracy in the UK.

- You think that UK democracy is fair and equal to most people however your ethnic group is not represented in parliament.
- You are British and were born in the local area but sometimes people think that you are from abroad, and when the government
politician was campaigning he didn’t come and talk to your group
-Because of this you think that your views are not represented and you don’t have much power.
- You hold regular meetings with the local opposition leader and are looking forward to the next election because you think he/she is
going to win.
- You want the voting system to change so that it is more proportional and so that smaller political groups can have a greater say.

You are a women’s representative. Use the information below to tell the inspector what you think about the state of democracy in
the UK.

- You think that UK democracy is mostly fair but unequal on women.
- You wanted to be a politician but found it difficult because all of the other candidates were men. Also, in parliament there are only
126 female MPs out of 646 in total – you don’t think this is truly democratic.
- Over 50 % of the UK population is female, but with less than 20 % of the MPs being female this is not right.
- You want the voting system to change and for parties to be more open to women being politicians.
- You think that UK democracy is good, but could be a lot better. You want the next government to encourage women to participate
and become politicians.

You are a school pupil. Use the information below to tell the inspector what you think about the state of democracy in the UK.

- Your parents tell you that UK democracy is fair and equal, but you can’t vote and don’t see how politicians can do the things you
want them to.
- You don’t know whether to trust politicians because you have never met one in person and would like to see them come into
school to talk about their job.
- You are interested in politics but a lot of your friends say they don’t care – perhaps the government could do more to tell young
people about the importance of voting

You are an environmentalist. Use the information below to tell the inspector what you think about the state of democracy in the UK.

- You think that UK democracy is unfair and unequal.
- People should have a right to protest against things they don’t want and the last time you were involved in a protest against the
destruction of a local park you were arrested by the police.
- You think that democracy is about everyone having an equal right to be heard and to speak and that this doesn’t always happen in
the UK.
- You want the local politicians to come and speak to your group so that they can hear what you have to say, but every time you
write a letter or send an email there is no reply.
- But, you know that the UK is a lot better than some other countries and are happy to be living here – you feel quite free to express
You are a wealthy businessman/woman. Use the information below to tell the inspector what you think about the state of
democracy in the UK.

- You think that UK democracy is fair and equal.
- You have been running your own business for a long time and are happy that politicians speak to you and your colleagues about
the things you think are important.
- You have voted in every election since you were 18 and feel that the results are fair and are happy with the work of your local MP.
- You don’t think the voting system should change because it means that the government in power is strong and has authority.
- You think that people in general are happy and see the UK as a model democratic country.

You are a refugee/immigrant. Use the information below to tell the inspector what you think about the state of democracy in the

- You think that UK democracy is fair and equal.
- You were born in a country where nobody had the right to even vote because a dictator told everyone what to do.
- When you were young you saw people who protested be taken away by the police and they didn’t return home.
- Your parents were very poor and didn’t have an opportunity to vote for someone who could represent them.
- Nobody knew anything about what the government was doing, but here in the UK, you can watch the news, read newspapers or go
on the internet to find out what the government is doing and why.
- You think that people who live in the UK are very lucky to have such freedom.
- BUT you do feel isolated and left out sometimes, even though you are a resident now, and are not sure how much politicians think
about you and other people like you.
- You would like to see more communication between politicians and immigrant/refugee groups.
Lesson 2: Types of Government
Learning objectives:
 To improve pupils’ knowledge and understanding of the different types of government and how power operates in these political systems.
 To get students to consider what it might be like to live under another form of government and appreciate that democracy is not the only system of government in
     the world.
 To get students to form an opinion and be able to justify the opinion in writing, orally or both.
 To prepare students for the museum visit and next lesson.
Lesson outline:
Introduction: Organisation = WHOLE CLASS; Time = 5 minutes.
As students come into the class the theme from Channel 4’s Big Brother plays; on the board it says “Big Brother is watching you!” Teacher questions the class to elicit
information about TV’s Big Brother and then Orwell’s Big Brother.
Episode 1: Organisation = INDIVIDUALLY or PAIRS; Time = 15 minutes.
Students read a short account from George Orwell’s 1984 and answer the questions: What kind of government is being described? What are the advantages of this kind
of government? Has this kind of government ever existed? What does it feel like to be Winston Smith?
Episode 2: Organisation = WHOLE CLASS then PAIRS; Time = 25 minutes
Students brainstorm all the different types of government that they know. Teacher writes them on the board on a line ranging from “no freedom” to “total freedom”.
However, the line is not labelled and at this stage it will probably not be clear to the students exactly what the line shows. Teacher gives out “Types of Government”
worksheet and students refer to it as they complete the questions using a dictionary or encyclopaedia online. The higher learning worksheet focuses on “power” and
what it must be like to live under each type of government.
Plenary: Organisation = WHOLE CLASS; Time = 15 minutes.
Students (or pairs of students) are given a label with a form of government. Teacher reads out a list of questions such as which type of government is the most free (at
this point refer back to line on board and explain/debate)? Which type of government is able to provide the strongest law and order? Students have to arrange
themselves in a line accordingly. Depending on class numbers it may be necessary to have more than one line/set of labels.
Homework (optional): None.

Resources Needed:
•Music from Big Brother TV show.
•Short passage from George Orwell’s 1984.
•Types of Government Worksheet - A worksheet outlines the key aspects of the four crucial different types of government to be covered in the scheme of
work (see resources) -
Resources for lesson 2:

Look at the variety of different types of government below and using a dictionary or online encyclopaedia write a description of
each one in pairs/groups:







Now, in pairs choose one of the types of government that you have just looked at and write down what you think it must be like
to live under that system:

Type of government = ____________________________

What would it be like to live under that system for: school children?

What would it be like to live under that system of government for: adults?

Lesson 3: Preparatory lesson before museum visit (or distance learning lesson)
Learning objectives:
 Improving upon pupils’ knowledge and understanding of different types of government and the concept of power through case studies
 Encouraging students to read and summarise information as group, debating and discussing key points
 Making links between historical and modern examples of types of governance – how power changes and/or doesn’t change over time
 Working effectively within a group context with each pupil able to take part orally and through written work
 Preparing students for the following museum visit through a discussion about objects of power
 Improving students awareness of the variety of types of governance that exist in the world today (link to geography)
Lesson outline:
Introduction: organisation = WHOLE CLASS time = 10 minutes
Prior to students arriving, the teacher puts flashcards (see resources) – Military, Monarchy, Democracy, Theocracy (Religious), Autocracy- on each table. Students are
asked to sit down on the group tables in mixed groups and look at the whiteboard (either interactive or not). Teacher then reveals the name of a country which is one of
these categories. Students have 1 minute to discuss and decide what type of government they think the country has. They then hold up the card they think applies.
Feedback and debate within whole class and then teacher reveals answer on the board (either via PowerPoint or in writing). Continue this for 6-7 examples.
Episode 1: organisation = GROUP WORK time = 40 minutes
Students remain on tables/in the same group and each table is given a case study pack (see resources) –these relate to each aspect of power and governance covered so
far. Each individual within the group must complete the writing scaffold (see resources), but this should be a culmination of a short group discussion on what aspects of
the case study they need to answer the questions. Each group is given 8 minutes to discuss and write. After 8 minutes the group puts the case study pack back into the
envelope and passes it to the next group (arrange the tables in a circle if poss.). The activity continues in 8 minute cycles until all of the case studies have been covered.
Each student should then have a full writing scaffold.
Episode 2: organisation = WHOLE CLASS time = 5-10 minutes
Teacher elicits feedback on each case study from each group, asking for a different member to offer an answer to each scaffold question. For example, the group was
had Monarchy last nominate one person to talk about one aspect of one case study (historical) and another for the modern. Work is then handed in to be marked and
students are given homework.
Homework (optional): Students should research into a country of their choice either online or in a library and write a short paragraph about what objects/methods the
rulers (be they democratic, military, religious etc…) use to maintain their control. (For example in a democracy you could argue that the ruling party uses persuasion and
the media to try to maintain support from the electorate).
                   Case Study: Monarchy
Look at the two examples of monarchic power. One is present (modern) and the other

Monarchy = a form of government in which a monarch, usually a single person, is the head of
state. In most monarchies, the monarch holds control and their position for life. There are
currently 31 monarchs in the world now. Monarchy is one of the oldest forms of government
and originates from the leadership of tribal chiefs. Many monarchs once claimed to rule by
divine right.

In your group complete the accompanying worksheet and then take it with you to the next
                              Historical: King Henry VIII (8th):
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland,
from 22 April 1509 until his death. He became King because he was the son of the previous monarch Henry VII
(this is called hereditary power where you are King because of your family right)

Henry VIII is famous for having been married six times. He was perhaps the most powerful of any English

Many significant pieces of legislation were passed during Henry VIII's reign. They included the several Acts
which severed the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and established the king as the
supreme head of the Church in England.

The cruelty and tyrannical (aggressive and obsessed with power) nature of Henry became more and more
apparent as he advanced in years and failed in health; the number of executions in this reign amounted to

Henry is traditionally called one of the founders of the Royal Navy

Henry VIII was the first English monarch to regularly use the style "Majesty", though the alternatives
"Highness" and "Grace" were also used from time to time.

In 1535, Henry added the "supremacy phrase" to the royal style, which became "Henry the Eighth, by the
Grace of God, King of England and France, Defender of the Faith, Lord of Ireland and of the Church of England
in Earth Supreme Head".
       Modern: The Sultan of Brunei
       Brunei is located on the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coastline with the South China
       Sea it is completely surrounded by the state of Sarawak, Malaysia. Brunei, the remnant of a very
       powerful sultanate, regained its independence from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984.

       Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah of Brunei, whose title has passed within the same dynasty since the fifteenth
       century, is the head of state and head of government in Brunei. The Sultan is advised by several councils
       and a cabinet of ministers although he is effectively the supreme ruler. The media is extremely pro-
       government and the Royal family retains a venerated status within the country. There is no elected
       legislative body. In September 2004, the Sultan convened an appointed Parliament which had not met
       since independence in 1984, although it lacks any capacity beyond advising the monarch.

       Brunei has been given "Not Free" status by Freedom House – an organisation which looks at the freedom
       of the media (newspapers, T.V stations, and the internet); press criticism of the government and
       monarchy is rare.

Case study: Theocracy (Religious power)
Look at the two examples of theocratic (religious) power. One is present (modern) and the
other historical.
Theocracy = a form of government. Theocracies are governed by ruling priests (religious
leaders). For believers, theocracy is a form of government in which divine power (religious)
governs either in a personal incarnation (someone who claims to be ‘god-on earth’) or, more
often, via religious institutional representatives (i.e.: a church), replacing or dominating civil
government. Theocratic governments pass theonomic laws. The word theocracy originates
from the Greek theokratia, meaning "the rule of God".
                           In your group complete the accompanying worksheet and then
                           take it with you to the next table:

                           Historical theocracy: Japan
                           Japan was a theocracy until it was defeated in World War II when Emperor Hirohito was forced to deny in the
                           Ningen-sengen - the traditional claim that the Emperor of Japan was divine, and a descendant of Amaterasu
                           (the sun goddess).
Emperor Hirohito (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from
December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989

On December 25, 1926, Hirohito assumed the throne upon the death of his father Yoshihito.

Officially, the Japanese imperial constitution gave full power to the emperor. Article 4 said, for example, that "The Emperor is the head of the Empire,
combining in Himself the rights of sovereignty (power)” while, according to article 6 "The Emperor agrees on laws and orders them to be proposed and
passed" and article 11, "The Emperor has the supreme command of the Army and the Navy.

                                                     Modern theocracy: Iran

                                                     Iran became a theocracy following the Iranian revolution and Iran-Iraq war (1979-1988). The Iranian
                                                     Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution) transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah
                                                     Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (see picture), the
                                                     leader of the revolution and founder of the Islamic Republic.
The Supreme Leader (Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini) is considered as the ultimate head of state and government. He is responsible for supervision of "the
general policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran".

The Supreme Leader is Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, controls the military intelligence and security operations; and has sole power to declare

The heads of the judiciary, state radio and television networks, the commanders of the police and military forces and six of the twelve members of the
Council of Guardians are appointed by the Supreme Leader.

                                    Case Study: Military
Look at the two examples of military power. One is present (modern) and the other
Military = Military has two meanings, the first being that it refers to soldiers and soldiering.
In its second sense, it refers to armed forces as a whole. Over the years, military units have
come in all shapes and sizes and have been used for varying purposes. Having militant power
means you can utilize it as a force. Through force a governing body is able to form a military
dictatorship. A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power
resides solely with the military.

In your group complete the accompanying worksheet and then take it with you to the next

                                                                    Historical: Greece
                                 Greece is a country in Southeastern Europe, situated on the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula. It
                                 borders Albania, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north and Turkey to
                                 the east.

                                 After the Second World War and liberation from Nazi Germany there was political unrest in Greece
                                 between communist and non-communist forces. A civil war broke out between the Democratic Army
                                 of Greece (Communist) and the elected government army led by Hellenic Army and lasted until 1949.
                                 During the 1950’s and 1960’s experienced economic growth with the aid from U.S loans.
However in 1965 a period of political unrest took place which led to a coup d’etat on the government and King Constantine II on April 1967. In their place a
US supported military junta (An executive body that comes to power after a Coup) known as the Regime of Colonels was established under Colonel George
Papadopoulos. In the following years many people protested, however they were arrested and in some cases tortured by members of the regime. Some
politicians were forced to take refuge in other European countries. King Constantine attempted a counter coup but failed, he then had to exile to Rome in
December 1967.

In 1973 Papadopoulos launched a failed attempt to liberalize, under the premiership of Spiros Markezinis. In November 1973 the Athens Polytechnic
Uprising sent shockwaves across the regime, and a counter coup led by Brigadier Dimitrios Loannides prolonged the junta until July 20, 1974. On that day,
Turkey invaded the predominately Greek island of Cyprus, allegedly to protect the island's Turkish minority from a junta-sponsored coup d'etat. The
developing crisis led to the collapse of the Regime of the Colonels on July 23, 1974.

                                        Modern: Burma
                                        Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar is the largest country by geographical mainland Southeast Asia. Burma is
                                        bordered by China on the north, Laos on the east, Thailand on the south east, and Bangladesh on the west, India
                                        on the northwest and the Bay of Bengal on the southwest.

                                    Burma was part of the British Empire from 1886-1948. On 4th January 1948 the nation became an independent
                                    republic, named the Union of Burma with Sao Shwe Thaik as the first President. How ever democratic rule ended in
                                    1962 when General Ne Win led a military coup d’etat (A sudden overthrow of a government through illegal means
                                    and replacing high level figures) where he ruled for 26 years. In 1988 unrest over economic problems and
government oppression led to demonstrations all over the country known as the 8888 Uprisings. Security forces under General Saw Maung ma ssacred
many people. He staged another Coup d’etat and set up the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) where in 1989 a People’s Assembly
elections were set up. In May 1990 the first elections in over 30 years took place and the National League for Democracy (NLD) won, however the SLORC
refused to give way.

Since 1992 the organisation has been led by Than Shwe and is now renamed the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). Through forced labour the
government have put the people of Burma under harsh living conditions many demonstrations have been led. Most recently on 19 th September 2007
several hundred monks staged a protest march in the city of Sittwe. However security became extremely heavy and resulted in many deaths and injuries.
On the 28th September internet access was cut as journalists were warned not to report the protests. On the 5 th October 2007 access was restored.

                                                Case Study: Democracy
Look at the two examples of democratic power. One is present (modern) and the other

Democracy = a form of government in which decisions about what the government does are
taken by the people themselves or by politicians who the people have elected. Democracies
where people elect politicians (representatives) to form the government are called
“representative democracies”.
Democracy means more than just letting the people vote for politicians. Features of a
democracy include: human rights like freedom of speech; a tolerance of people with
different points of view; many different political parties; and laws which are fair to everyone.

There are over one hundred democracies in the world today. However, democracy is not a
new idea; it has its roots in ancient Greece.
In your group complete the accompanying worksheet and then take it with you to the next

                                                                                Historical: Athenian Democracy
                                                         The word democracy is derived from the Greek word demokratia which means people-power.

                                                         Around two and a half thousand years ago, Greece consisted of many small communities self-
                                                         governing communities, of which Athens was one.

                                                         In Athens government decisions were made by the citizens. Citizens attended the Assembly
                                                         where decisions about what the government should do were made. It varied over the years, but
                                                         by the time of Aristotle (a famous philosopher) the Assembly might meet forty times a year and
                                                         typically 5,000 citizens would turn up to vote. This is an example of “direct democracy” – every
                                                         citizen has a vote on every issue. Can you see the difference between this and a “representative
                                                         democracy” like the USA?

The Athenians thought that electing officials was undemocratic since rich people could use their money to get elected. Therefore government officials
were selected by drawing lots.
However, some people argue that Athens was not a democracy at all, because only citizens were allowed to vote in the Assembl y, and only men could be
citizens! Women weren't allowed to vote, nor were foreigners or slaves (yes, even in a “democracy” they had slaves back then!). There were only about
30,000 citizens in a population of 250,000.

Another unusual feature of Athenian democracy was the practice of “Ostracism”. It was like a reverse election. If 6,000 citizens voted to ostracise you then
you were sent away from Athens (exiled) for ten years!

                                    Modern: The United States of America
                                    The United States of America is the most powerful country in the world. It was born on July 4 th 1776 when Great
                                    Britain's American colonies made their famous “Declaration of Independence” from Britain, which was at that time a

                                    In 1789 the USA adopted a constitution which set out the powers that each part of the government would have. The
                                    main parts of the government are the President (currently George Bush Jnr – pictured), the Congress (which is like the
                                    UK House of Commons and House of Lords) and the Judiciary. The Constitution has strict rules about what each part of
                                    the government can do, for instance only the Congress can declare war or put up taxes, the President can not.

                                    The President is elected for four years. The upper house of the Congress is called the Senate and it is elected for six
                                    years; the lower house, called the House of Representatives, is elected for two years. All Americans can vote in all

                                    The Constitution also contains a “Bill of Rights” which guarantees certain rights for all the people. These rights include
the right to freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from torture and, perhaps most famously, the freedom to carry a gun!

The United States has a federal system of government. It is made up of 50 states such as California, Texas and Alsaka. Each of the states is like a mini-
democracy and can make its own laws unless these conflict with the laws of the United States government. Many of the states, like California where
Arnold Schwarzenegger is the governor, hold referendums in which all the people can vote to decide what to do about a particular issue. For example in
November 1996 the people of California decided in a referendum that cannabis should be legalized but only for medical use.
Writing Scaffold for Lesson 3:
Complete this worksheet answering all the questions for each example

Monarchy: Historical

    1. Who is in power?

    2. How did they gain power?

    3. How do they maintain power?

Monarchy: Modern

    4. Who is in power?

    5. How did they gain power?
  6. How do they maintain power?

Complete this worksheet answering all the questions for each example

Military government: Historical

  7. Who is in power?

  8. How did they gain power?

  9. How do they maintain power?

Military power: Modern

  10.     Who is in power?

  11.     How did they gain power?
  12.     How do they maintain power?

Complete this worksheet answering all the questions for each example

Democratic: Historical

  13.     Who is in power?

  14.     How did they gain power?

  15.     How do they maintain power?

Democratic: Modern

  16.     Who is in power?

  17.     How did they gain power?
  18.      How do they maintain?

Complete this worksheet answering all the questions for each example

Theocratic (religious): Historical

  1. Who is in power?

  2. How did they gain power?

  3. How do they maintain power?

Theocratic (religious): Modern

  1. Who is in power?

  2. How did they gain power?
  3. How do they maintain power?

Flashcards resources for lesson 3:

            Military Power           Religious power (Theocratic)
          Democratic power                                                        Monarchic power (Kings/Queens

Lesson 4: Museum visit (for distance learning see separate lesson plan)
Learning objectives:
 students examine and explore power and governance represented through symbols and objects in the museum
 working in groups students debate and make collective decisions on a range of possible choices
 students understand that museums are ‘alive’ and are interested by artefacts because they have a relevance today as well as historically
 students choose, photograph and draw, through discussion and compromise, three artefacts which represent different aspects of power based on three criteria:
1. If you wanted to acquire power what artefact would you choose? Why?
2. If you wanted to maintain power what artefact would you choose? Why?
3. If you wanted to show you were in power/powerful, what object would you choose? Why?
Lesson outline:
Introduction: organisation = WHOLE CLASS time = 20 minutes
Students arrive at the museum and are directed to the lecture theatre. They are told to sit down quietly and museum staff welcome them. Students should have been
informed at the end of the last lesson that they would be working in the same groups as the lesson before (6-8 pupils per group). As a whole class the museum
representative/teacher explains that they are going to be searching for, drawing and photographing objects in the exhibition which they think represent each of the
questions above. He/she then shows them two examples of previous work – one exemplary, one poor. Students are given 2 minutes on each to write down on a piece of
paper discussing with the person next to them which one is the best and why, what is bad about the other one? Feedback for 5 minutes, each pair turns and discuses
with another what is good/bad about the examples.
Episode 1: organisation = GROUPS OF 6-8 time = 45 – 60 minutes
Students are told to assemble in their groups from the previous lesson and are then given a digital camera. With each camera they are given sheet outlining how to use it
and the rules (not to drop it, throw it or misuse in any way – any pupil doing so will have to stay with the teacher and won’t be able to participate etc…). They are then
led upstairs to the exhibition and told that they have 45 minutes to work as a group and takes pictures of, draw and make notes on various artefacts which answer three
questions on their writing sheet (see resources) which each student must complete. Teacher walks around and monitors work, encouraging students when possible to
make as detailed notes as possible for each picture they take in order to be able to better complete the tasks in lessons 5 and 6. At the end of the activity, students
reconvene in the lecture theatre. Students may break for lunch at this point (if they arrived in the morning)
Episode 2: organisation = GROUPS OF 6-8 time = 20 minutes
Once reassembled students upload their photos onto laptops/computers where they can download and burn their images onto a CD. Prior to doing this, the teacher
visits each group (and perhaps a member of the museum staff) to ensure that students have taken appropriate photos. If not the museum will have a backup CD which
contains images of a variety of artefacts and their information to ensure that each group leaves with a sufficient amount of resources to complete the tasks in the follow
up lessons. Once this is completed that students thanks the museum staff and leave.

Worksheet for museum visit:

Using the spaces below, make notes on the artefacts that you photograph and draw them as well (in
case the photos don’t come out).
You must include as much information as possible. It is a good idea to ask the museum staff to give you
extra facts about each object. Don’t forget to work as a group and decide collectively on which
artefacts you want to choose.

1. If you wanted to gain power, which object would you choose?
Make notes on the artefact here:                         Draw the artefact here:
1. If you wanted to maintain power, which object would you choose?
Make notes on the artefact here:                         Draw the artefact here:

1. If you wanted to show you were powerful, which object would you choose?
Make notes on the artefact here:                         Draw the artefact here:
Lesson 5: Museum follow up- production of work.
Learning objectives:
 Encouraging students to analyse the collected data from the museum and to compile a detailed example of work.
 Improving pupils’ skills to work effectively within a group and to discuss opinions on the concept of ‘objects of power’ from the museum.
 For pupils to use the internet as a source of research in conjunction with their own work to present a piece of work.
 Improving pupil’s ability to present work using online materials and other ICT resources.
 Giving pupils the opportunity to justify orally their choice to others by forming clear and concise opinions.

Lesson outline:
Introduction: organisation = WHOLE CLASS time = 10 minutes
When pupils return from the museum they must assemble themselves into the groups they were in during their collection of data. The teacher can arrange tables accordingly before
hand. The teacher must then make sure that pupils have all their work from the museum visit this includes any photographs, detailed accounts and drawings taken. For those who do not
have sufficient resources to complete the task the teacher can give a copy of the backup cd from the museum to each group. Most of the material will be on CD, including photos and
additional info, so the teacher ought to reserve the computer room unless the classroom is equipped with pc units sufficient for 6-8 different groups. Just before beginning the activity
the students are directed to the museum’s website where they can view an example of the work they are expected to produce. This can be downloaded as a template, or given to the
school on CD when at the museum itself.
Episode 1: organisation = GROUP WORK time = 40 minutes
Students remain in the same group as they were during their museum visit. The pupils then must show, discuss and analyse all the data collected from the museum and decide as a group
the most effective way of illustrating their findings. This aspect requires the pupils to use their knowledge on the objects of power from previous lessons. As well as using all their
resources from the museum pupils can also access the internet to support their findings giving them the opportunity to research using ICT. The pupils must then try to present their
findings by using online/ICT methods e.g. a power-point presentation or a simple web page based on the example design provided. This is a Microsoft publisher document but can be
edited in either publisher or word. The teacher can circle groups to observe progress and help those who need it.
Episode 2: organisation = WHOLE CLASS time = 5-10 minutes
If pupils have completed the task they can save their work and the teacher can give them an additional (pre-prepared) activity on the nature of power to start, which they will be asked
about next lesson. For those who have not completed the task they will be given an opportunity to do so during the next lesson. If pupils wanted they could set themselves individual
targets for homework which can be decided within the group – e.g. research on the internet, editing pictures or looking in books in the library.
Homework (optional): For those who have not completed the task they can have the chance to save their work to disc, email documents or stay behind after school if internet access is
not available at home.

Lesson 6: Presenting work on ‘Objects of Power.’
Learning objectives:
 Enabling students to present their findings to others in a finalised format.
 For pupils to reflect on their knowledge gained during the previous lessons and be able to answer questions on the concept of power.
1. In relation to the case studies do you think the nature of power changes over time?
2. Do you think it is important to resolve conflict? If so by what means would you do this?
3. Do you feel that democracy is important in our society? Discuss.
Lesson outline:
Introduction: organisation = WHOLE CLASS time = 10 minutes
The class could reassemble in the computer room again so that pupils who have been set homework or for those who need to complete the tasks can do so. Once the
pupils are settled they are put into their groups again so that they can finalise the presentation and save it to disc and if possible publish on the school intranet (this may
require some liaison with the ICT department – having a member of staff present who is experienced in webpage design and production) Once everyone has finished the
pupils can go back into class.
Episode 1: organisation = GROUP WORK time = 40 minutes
Once back in class the pupils in their groups will be selected by the teacher to come to the front and present their findings they can use the data projector to illustrate
this (they will either have their project saved as a document on the school intranet or published as a webpage to be viewed externally/internally. Each group will take it
in turns to present their ideas to the class by illustrating their findings orally in conjunction with their ICT presentation. Whilst these ideas are presented the other
students are encouraged to make notes on
1. What were the main findings of the presentation?
2. Would they do anything differently add/remove parts?
3. Did they think it was a good presentation?
This allows for peer to peer assessment of the work and enabling the students to be critical of pieces of work and justifying their decision. This can also initiate a debate
between groups as they now have the sufficient amount of knowledge on the subject to do so.
Episode 2: organisation = WHOLE CLASS time = 5-10 minutes
Once every group has had a chance to present their findings the teacher can then select those that are a higher standard and present them during a Primary Inset Day
for children or a Parent’s Evening at school (this can organised in conjunction with the museum or separately with parents/local primary schools).

Guidelines for School

The following section contains key guidelines for all parties involved:

The School:
- The sequence of lessons that run before the actual museum visit are designed to tie in with Citizenship at KS3/KS4, and could thus
be used for varying levels although the material is designed for Year 8-9.

- Whilst this pack forms half a term of work, the museum visit could be conducted at any point providing the students have a solid
understanding of power and governance and they ways in which these are gained, maintained and exhibited (through
objects/iconography etc..)

- The museum visit should last no longer than a half-day, this is to ensure that transport is available and that the pupils do not miss
too much time off their other subjects

- The school will need to arrange with the museum the availability of digital cameras for each group to use – either providing them
or asking the museum to loan the cameras during the visit.

-Where possible, the school will need to bring some laptops and CDs to burn the groups’ photos onto, although this could be
arranged with the museum beforehand

- Students must be reminded to behave respectively and not to run, shout and jump around the exhibits.

- Lunch can be eaten at the museum; pupils could bring packed lunches, the school could provide them or if you contact the museum
beforehand they may be able to arrange catering.

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