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LARC 353 550 History of Modern Landscape Architecture

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					LARC 353 / 550: History of Modern Landscape Architecture
Winter Quarter, 2009
Instructor: Streatfield & Way
T.A.: Watson

                     LECTURE NOTES: THURSDAY 29th JANUARY
                               and TUESDAY, 3rd FEBRUARY


EUROPEAN MODERNISM - 1900-1940


CUTURAL

The Arts, especially Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Music, and Literature, exhibited dramatic
attempts to create new ways of perceiving and transforming reality, which expressed the Modern
World. The visual arts explored new concepts of space and the use of new materials. Most were
ideologically committed to a rejection of the past. Artists were also associated with radical
political movements that challenged capitalist ideas.

The Scandinavian countries differ from the larger and wealthier European countries in a number
of significant ways.

    •   Non-aristocratic tradition. While many Scandinavian countries had kings and
        aristocracies, great extremes of wealth and forestry did not exist.

    •   The Industrial Revolution came late to Scandinavia. Crafts in general, and building
        crafts in particular, remained strong and vital for a much longer period, and were little
        threatened by the rise of mass-produced goods.

    •   Unlike many larger European countries, Scandinavian countries adopted
        Neo-Classicism during the nineteenth century, but did not embrace the Gothic Revival.

    •   The very long tradition of respect for Nature culminated in the nineteenth
        century tradition of Northern Romanticism.

THEORY
Art - Painting and Sculpture

        Cubism - Pablo Picasso
        Futurism - Marcel Duchamps, Boccioni
        Constructivism - Vladimir Tatlin
        "The New Reality" - Naum Gabo and Antoine Pevsner
        Surreal ism-Joan Miro
        Abstract Expressionism - Wassily Kandinsky
        De Stijl- Piet Mondriaan
Architecture and Planning

       Modern Architecture was dominated by the Bauhaus School, Dessau, Germany. This
       school provided education for all visual artists and craftsmen, except landscape
       architects. The system was based on teaching ‘objective design.’ Rejection of regional
       or local issues, together with any sense of the past.

       Germany
                Bauhaus School, Dessau, 1926 (Arch.: Walter Gropius)
                Siemenstadt Housing, Berlin, 1929-31 (Arch.: Walter Gropius, Hugo
                       Haring and Hans Scharoun; L.A.: Leberecht Migge)
                German Pavilion, International Exposition, Barcelona, Spain, 1929
                      (Arch.: Mies Van Der Rohe)

       France


                Immeubles Villes Study, 1922 (Arch.: Le Corbusier)
                Voisin Plan Proposal, Paris, 1923 (Arch.: Le Corbusier)
                Villa Savoie, Poissy, 1929 (Arch.: Le Corbusier)

       Netherlands

                Schroeder House, Utreeht, 1924 (Arch Gerrit Rietveld)


Landscape Architecture

       Germany
                Stadtpark, Hamburg, 1909 (L.A.: F. Schumaker)
                Youth Park, Berlin, 1916 (L.A.: Leberecht Migge, and M. Wagner)
                Working Gardens, Schoneberg Siedlung, Berlin 1920 (L.A.: L. Migge)
                "Green Manifesto,' Self-Sufficient Siedlung 1918 (L.A.: L. Migge)
                Volkspark Rehberge, Berlin, 1927 (L.A.: Erwin Barth)

                Romerstadt, Frankfort-am Main, 1929 (L.A.: L. Migge; Arch. and
                Planner: Ernst May)
       France
                Garden, Villa Noailles, Hyères, 1923 (L.A.: Gabriel Guevrekian;
                       Sculptor: Jacques Lipschitz; Arch: Rob Mallet-Stevens)
                Gardens, Exposition des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, 1925 (L.A. and Arch.:
                       Rob Mallet-Stevens; L.A.: Gabriel Guevrekian)
          Garden, Vicomte de Noailles, St. Germain-en-Laye, 1926
                 (L.A.: André Vera)
          Jean Tachard Garden, near Paris, c.1929 (L.A.: Pierre Legrain)

England

          Christopher Tunnard's Gardens in the Modern Landscape, (1938) the first book
          of modernist theory on Landscape Architecture, was very influential in the
          United States.

          • Functional
          • Asymmetrical
          • Oriental
          • Art and Ornament
          • Regional



Finland
          Villa Mairea, Noormarkku, 1937-1938 (Arch. and L.A.: Alvar Aalto)

Sweden
          Skogskyrkogarden, Stockholm, 1932-1937 (Arch. and L.A.: Gunnar
          Asplund and Sigurd Lewerentz)

Denmark
      G. N. Brandt Garden, Ordure, Copenhagen 1914 (L.A.: G. N. Brandt)
          Svastika, Rungsted, Denmark 1925 (L.A.: G. N. Brandt)
          Mariebjerg Cemetery, Mariebjerg, 1926-36 (L.A.: G.N. Brandt)
          Project for Country Garden, Charlottenborg, 1919 (L.A.: C. Th. Sørensen)

          Project for House of the Future 1929 (Arch Arne Jacobsen; L. A.: C. Th.
                  Sørensen

				
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