Sediment Basin 350 by fjwuxn

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									                                                                                                                    350-1



                             NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE
                                     CONSERVATION PRACTICE STANDARD


                                                  SEDIMENT BASIN
                                                               (No.)

                                                           CODE 350



                                                                       sediment source by the installation of erosion-
                                                                       control measures to keep soil and other material
                                                                       in place or where a sediment basin offers the
                                                                       most practical solution to the problem.


                                                                       CRITERIA
                                                                       Planned work shall comply with all federal, state,
                                                                       and local rules and regulations.
                                                                       Capacity. The capacity of the sediment basin
                                                                       shall equal the volume of sediment expected to
                                                                       be trapped at the site during the planned useful
DEFINITION                                                             life of the basin or the improvements it is
                                                                       designed to protect. The sediment storage
A basin constructed to collect and store debris or                     volume may be determined by using the Revised
sediment.                                                              Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and gully
                                                                       erosion rates with an appropriate delivery ratio or
                                                                       by using other accepted sediment predictive
PURPOSE
                                                                       procedures. Where it is determined that periodic
This practice may be applied as part of a                              removal of debris will be practicable, the capacity
conservation management system to support                              may be proportionally reduced.
one or more of the following purposes:                                 The design sediment yield to the basin shall be
     To preserve the capacity of reservoirs,                          at least that required by the applicable local,
      ditches, canals, diversion, waterways, and                       state and federal law, rule, or regulation. As a
      streams.                                                         minimum, sufficient capacity to store 67 cu. yd.
                                                                       for each disturbed contributing acre should be
     To prevent undesirable deposition on                             provided.
      bottomlands and developed areas.
                                                                       The capacity of the sediment basin shall be
     To trap sediment originating from                                measured to the elevation of the crest of the
      construction sites.                                              principal spillway or emergency spillway, if there
                                                                       is no principal spillway.
     To reduce or abate pollution by providing
      basins for deposition and storage of silt,                       Principal Spillway. The minimum capacity of
      sand, gravel, stone, agricultural wastes, and                    the principal spillway will be sufficient to
      other detritus.                                                  discharge the temporary water storage in
                                                                       72 hours or less.

CONDITIONS WHERE PRACTICE APPLIES                                      A principal spillway consisting of a vertical pipe
                                                                       or box-type "riser" joined watertight to a pipe
This practice applies where physical conditions                        "barrel" that will extend through the embankment
or land ownership preclude treatment of a                              and outlet beyond the downstream toe of the fill

                                                                                                                NRCS, TN
    Conservation practice standards are reviewed periodically, and updated if needed. To obtain the
    current version of this standard, contact the Natural Resources Conservation Service.                   October 2002
350-2



shall be provided. The upper half of the riser will    conservation cropping system, conservation
be perforated, with 1/2" diameter holes spaced         tillage, and crop residue management.
8 inches vertically and 10 - 12 inches
                                                       Where possible, the basin should be configured
horizontally, to provide for a gradual drawdown
                                                       to enhance sediment deposition. This can be
after each storm event.
                                                       accomplished by using flow deflectors, inlet and
Comparable alternative drawdown (or                    outlet selection, and by adjusting the length to
dewatering) methods may be used provided they          width ratio.
serve the above-intended purpose, which is to
                                                       Make traps readily accessible for periodic
trap sediment and provide protection against
                                                       sediment removal and other necessary
overtopping from subsequent runoff.
                                                       maintenance. Plan locations for sediment
Embankment. The design of dams, spillways,             disposal as part of trap site selection. Clearly
and drainage facilities shall be according to          designate all disposal areas on the plans.
NRCS conservation practice standards Pond
                                                       In preparing plans for sediment traps, it is
(Code 378) and Grade Stabilization Structure
                                                       important to consider provisions to protect the
(Code 410), or according to the requirements in
                                                       embankment from failure from storm runoff that
NRCS Technical Release (TR-60) Earth Dams
                                                       exceeds the design capacity. Consider
and Reservoirs, as appropriate for the class and
                                                       nonerosive emergency spillway bypass areas,
kind of structure being considered.
                                                       particularly if there could be severe
Temporary basins having drainage areas of              consequences from failure. If a bypass is not
5 acres or less and a total embankment height of       possible and failure would have severe
5 feet or less may be designed with less               consequences, consider alternative sites.
conservative criteria if conditions warrant. The
                                                       Sediment trapping is achieved primarily by
embankment shall have a minimum top width of
                                                       settling within a pool formed by an embankment.
4 feet and side slopes of 2 horizontal to 1 vertical
                                                       The sediment pool may also be formed by
(2:1) or flatter. An outlet shall be provided of
                                                       excavation or by a combination of excavation
earth, pipe, stone, or other devices adequate to
                                                       and embankment. Sediment-trapping efficiency
keep the sediment in the trap and to handle the
                                                       is a function of surface area and inflow rate.
ten-year frequency discharge without failure or
                                                       Installations that provide pools with large length
significant erosion.
                                                       to width ratios reduce short circuiting and allow
Safety. Provisions shall be made for draining          more of the pool surface area for settling. This
sediment pools, if necessary for safety and            optimizes efficiency.
vector control. Fencing and other safety
                                                       To improve the effectiveness of the basin, it
measures shall be installed as necessary to
                                                       should be located to intercept the largest
protect the public from floodwater and soft
                                                       possible amount of runoff from the disturbed
sediment.
                                                       area.
Protection. Disturbed areas shall be
                                                       The minimum length of flow through the trap
established to suitable erosion-resistant
                                                       should be 10 feet, and the minimum length to
vegetation as soon as practical after
                                                       width ratio should be 2:1. If site conditions
construction. Seedbed preparation, fertilizing,
                                                       permit a greater travel distance through the
seeding, and mulching shall be in accordance
                                                       basin and greater length to width ratio, the water
with NRCS conservation practice standard
                                                       quality benefit provided by the sediment trap will
Critical Area Planting, Code 342. Where it is
                                                       be enhanced. The average trap storage depth
necessary, topsoil may be stockpiled and spread
                                                       should be a minimum of 2 feet to prevent
over disturbed areas to facilitate restoration of
                                                       resuspension of sediments.
productivity.
                                                       For cropped fields, embankment orientation and
                                                       crop row direction should be approximately
CONSIDERATIONS
                                                       perpendicular to the land slope to support
Sediment basins should be part of a resource           contour farming. The design should support
management plan including such practices as            farmability by limiting short point rows or sharp
terraces, grassed waterways, contouring, a             curves. Field boundaries and row lengths should
NRCS, TN
October 2002
                                                                                                350-3



also be considered in planning basin location       OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
and row direction.
                                                    A site-specific operation and maintenance
Effects on streams and wetlands must be             (O&M) plan shall be provided to the landowner.
considered. Mitigation may be required where        The O&M plan shall include a provision that the
water is diverted or degraded for downstream        sediment basin will be inspected after each
uses.                                               significant rainfall and needed maintenance
                                                    performed. The O&M plan shall include
Due consideration shall be given to good visual     maintenance requirements for the embankment,
resource management.                                checking capacity, sediment removal, vegetative
                                                    cover, and maintenance of inlets and outlets.
Operation safety of vehicle and farming
equipment should be considered when selecting       When sediment storage is full, accumulated
cut and fill slopes.                                sediment must be removed or the basin must be
                                                    redesigned and modified to restore capacity.
This practice may adversely affect cultural
resources. Planning, installation, and              Vegetation shall be maintained to prevent sheet
maintenance must comply with GM 420, Part           and rill erosion or gullying of the embankment.
401.                                                Trees and woody cover generally create
                                                    problems on embankments and should be
                                                    controlled.
PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS
Plans and specifications for installing sediment    REFERENCES
basins shall be in keeping with this standard and
shall describe the requirements for applying the    NRCS Conservation Practice Standards
practice to achieve its intended purpose. The         Critical Area Planting, Code 342
plans shall include as a minimum:                     Grade Stabilization Structure, Code 410
                                                      Pond, Code 378
1. Location of the sediment traps.                  NRCS General Manual 420, Part 401
2. Size of basin including width, length, and       NRCS TR-60, Earth Dams and Reservoirs
   depth.                                           RUSLE

3. Cross-section of the embankment.
4. Profile through the spillway(s).
5. Location of emergency spillway, if used.
6. Graduation and quality of rock.
7. Vegetative requirements.
8. Type of outlet structure.
9. The installation, inspection, and
   maintenance schedules with the responsible
   party identified.




                                                                                          NRCS, TN
                                                                                       October 2002

								
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