Ergonomics Awareness Education (PowerPoint)

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					Ergonomics Awareness
      Education

        NDSCS
Employees and Supervisors
By the end of this presentation you
will be able to:
  1.   Define ergonomics and its benefits


  2.   Identify work activities that can lead to
       injury


  3.   List examples of ergonomic principles
       that reduce risk of injury
By the end of this presentation you
will be able to:

  4. Participate in your company’s
       ergonomic efforts


  5.   Identify parts of the body that get
       injured at work

  6.   Recognize and report signs and
       symptoms of injury early
NDSCS Ergonomics

Promotes employee involvement and
  participation together with employers
  to analyze and fix hazards

    You play an important part…
…You can play an important part

 You may be asked to participate in:
   Analyzing jobs for hazards
   Finding solutions to these hazards
   Evaluating the success of the solutions


 Later, you may…
   be given job specific training on proper use of
   solutions
   keep in touch with ergonomics efforts through
   department meetings.
Definition of ergonomics

 Ergonomics means
“fitting the job to the worker”

  “Ergonomics is the science and practice of
    designing jobs and workplaces to match
      the capabilities and limitations of the
                  human body.”
Ergonomics at Work
Benefits of Ergonomics

 Ergonomics helps to prevent injuries
 Ergonomics has other benefits
   Improved quality of work
   Improved quality of life
   Reduced fatigue and discomfort
Injuries and Risk Factors
 What are Work-related Musculo
 Skeletal Disorders (WMSDs)?


 Common types and symptoms of
 injury


 Causes and prevention of injury
What are Work-related Musculo
Skeletal Disorders (WMSDs)?
 Also known as:
   Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs)
   Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSIs)
   Overuse injuries
 Soft tissue injuries
 Usually develop gradually, but
 sometimes can appear suddenly
 Can be serious, if not taken care of
 early
What are some of the symptoms
of WMSDs?

 Discomfort      Burning

 Pain            Swelling

 Numbness        Change in color

 Tingling        Tightness, loss
                 of flexibility
What causes WMSDs?

Risk Factors
   Awkward Postures
   High Hand Force
   Repetitive Motions
   Repeated Impacts
   Heavy, Frequent, or Awkward Lifting
   Moderate to High Hand-Arm Vibration
Risk Factors

Risk of injury depends upon:

    Duration   (how long)
    Frequency (how often)
    Intensity  (how much)
    Combinations of risk factors
Risk Factors

Duration
   usually need hours of exposure before
   risk factors become a concern

   Can be all at one time or cumulative
   over the day
Risk factors for WMSDs
   Neutral Postures

                                                Head level


                                                             Shoulders
                                                             relaxed
                                   Elbows at sides
                                                             Low back
                              Wrists straight
                                                             supported




                            Feet supported




 Standing neutral posture         Seated neutral posture
Risk factors for WMSDs
   Hands over head or
   elbows above shoulders
             For more than 2 hours per day
Risk factors for WMSDs
   Neck bent more than 30°




      For more than 2 hours per day
Risk factors for WMSDs
   Back bent more than 30°




      For more than 2 hours per day
Risk factors for WMSDs
    Squatting




      For more than 2 hours per day
Risk factors for WMSDs
    Kneeling




       For more than 2 hours per day
Risk factors for WMSDs
    Wrists bent
Reducing awkward postures
   Miscellaneous Solutions

 Change workstation heights & display
 heights
 Tilt or rotate the work
 Use platforms
 Bring items within easy reach
 Pause to stretch
Risk factors for WMSDs
     High hand force
 A power grip can be 5 times stronger
 than a pinch grip



                   =
Risk factors for WMSDs
     Gripping with the whole hand

  10 lbs. of weight or force for more than 2 hours per day
Other Risk Factors

 Your grip strength decreases when
 you:
    Bend your wrists
    Pick up slippery items
    Wear poorly fitting gloves
    Have cold hands
Postures to Avoid and Reduce
Chance of Injury
 Pick objects up from the bottom using
 whole hand
 Attach handles or use lift tools
 Build up handles on small tools to reduce
 grip force
 Pick up smaller loads
 Use power tools instead of hand tools
 Keep tools in good working order
Postures to Avoid and Reduce
Chance of Injury
 Use clamps to hold onto work
 Place items on carts rather than carrying
 Put down a tool when not actually using it
 Use lighter tools or tool balancers
 Use two hands
 Keep your wrists straight
Use tool balancers
Reducing repetition
 Arrange work to avoid unnecessary
 motions
 Let power tools and machinery do the work
 Spread repetitive work out during the day
 Take stretch pauses
 Rotate task with co-workers if possible
 Change hands or motions frequently
Postures to Avoid and Reduce
Chance of Injury
 Intensive keying
    For more than 4 hours per day




     Spread keyboard work throughout the day
     Use macros for common functions
     Take stretch pauses
     Improve your posture and move around as
     much as possible
Postures to Avoid and Reduce
Chance of Injury
 Heavy, frequent or awkward lifting
   Lifting 75 lbs. once per day
   Lifting 55 lbs. more than 10 times per day
Reduce Chance of Injury
 Reducing heavy lifting
  Take smaller loads at one time
  Use mechanical assistance - handtrucks, carts,
  hoists, conveyors
  Get help from a co-worker
Reduce Chance of Injury

 Frequent lifting
   Lifting more than 10 lbs.,
     more than twice per minute,
     for more than 2 hours per day
   Use mechanical assistance
   Slide objects instead of lifting them
   Rotate lifting tasks with co-workers if
   possible
Reduce Chance of Injury

   Awkward lifting
     Lifting more than 25 lbs. above the
     shoulders, below the knees or at arms’
     length more than 25 times per day


   Reducing awkward lifts
     Store items where you won’t have to bend or
     reach to lift them
     Use rolling stairs to get items down from
     high shelves
EYE STRAIN
 Dry Burning Eyes
 Blurred Vision
 Delayed Focusing
 Altered Color
 Perception
 Headaches
 Neck Pain
EYE STRAIN SOLUTIONS
 Place monitor in front of you,
 not off at an angle.
 Set contrast/brightness –
 reduce glare
 Increase/decrease lighting –
 use task lighting
 Color or print (black print on
 white is the best)
 Dust/Clean Screen.
EYE STRAIN SOLUTIONS
 Avoid “turtle
 necking” and blink
 often
 Move document
 holder closer to
 monitor
 Avoid looking to
 the side and down
ERGONOMIC AIDS FOR OFFICE
SET UP
 Adjust height of work surface for
 standing workers
 Place most used task materials
 within nearest reach zone
 Prioritize materials according to
 reach zones
 Improve housekeeping
ERGONOMIC AIDS FOR OFFICE
SET UP
 Organize storage areas to minimize
 hazardous lifting
 Avoid leaving items on the floor, not
 even temporarily
 Organize work and work area to
 avoid awkward postures
 Request help with heavy, bulky, or
 awkward lifting tasks
ERGONOMIC AIDS FOR OFFICE
SET UP
 Provide regular equipment checks
 and maintenance
 Repair or replace damaged
 equipment
 Assure the most natural body
 positions are being used
 Eliminate clutter
ERGONOMIC AIDS FOR OFFICE
SET UP
 Take and properly use rest breaks
 Do not rest wrists on sharp or
 hard edges
 Place mouse within easy reach
 Blow dust from mouse ball cavity
 and wash ball with mild soap and
 water
ERGONOMIC AIDS FOR OFFICE
SET UP
 Top of the VDT should be no higher
 than eye level
  Bifocal wearers may wish to have
  monitor somewhat lower
 Use “soft-touch” when
 keyboarding
 Locate VDT to minimize glare
ERGONOMIC AIDS FOR OFFICE
SET UP
 Keep VDT screen clean and free from
 dust
 Reduce excessive light, especially for
 computer work
 Do not cradle phone on the shoulder –
 get a hands free headset
 Organize work and area to minimize
 bending and squatting
ERGONOMIC AIDS FOR OFFICE
SET UP
 Plan work to break up extended periods
 of repetitive motion tasks
 Use screen hoods or glare guards to
 minimize glare
 Maintain natural “s” curve of your
 spine
 Support lower back
 Keep feet supported on floor or use a
 foot rest
OFFICE SET UP

 Proper Seating:
   The height of your seat and position of
   your backrest should be adjustable.
   Chair should be on wheels so you move.
   Arm rests on the chair, though optional,
   are often helpful
OFFICE SET UP

 Table Height:
   Average height of 27 to 29 inches above
   the floor is recommended.
   If table adjusts, set your 90 degree waist
   height in your chair, then adjust your
   table so that your elbow makes a 90
   degree angle when your hands are on
   the keyboard.
OFFICE SET UP
 Elbow Angle:
   With hands resting comfortably at the
   keyboard and your upper arms vertical,
   measure the angle between your
   forearm and your upper arm (elbow
   angle).
   If less than 90 degrees, raise the seat of
   your chair.
   If greater than 90 degrees, lower the
   seat.
OFFICE SET UP

 Waist Angle:
   Elbows at 90 degrees, measure the
   angle between your upper legs and your
   spine (waist angle). This too should be
   90 degrees.
   If less than 80 degrees, your chair may
   be too low and your knees too high.
   Or alter the position of the backrest or
   adjust your own posture.
OFFICE SET UP

 Feet:
   Elbows and waist at 90 degrees, your
   feet should rest comfortably on the floor.
   If they don’t, adjust your chair and table
   height.
   If table isn’t adjustable and your feet
   don’t comfortably reach the floor, a
   raised foot rest can help.
EXERCISES FOR PREVENTION
 To increase circulation, use exercises while
 in the workplace such as:
   Body Stretch
   Side Bends
   Upper Body Twists
   Shoulder Shrugs
   Finger Stretch
   Wrist Stretch
   Thumb Stretch
   Finger Squeezes

 These can be done at the start of a work shift and
   following meal breaks, during work to release
   tension, after prolonged sitting or standing, and
   when you feel stiff.
EXERCISES FOR PREVENTION
OFFICE SET UP
What can I do?
  Recognize and report
  symptoms early:
    Pain is persistent, severe or worsening
    Pain radiates
    Symptoms include numbness or tingling
    Symptoms keep you from sleeping at night
  Why is it important to report
  symptoms early?
    Chronic injuries sometimes lead to disability,
    even surgery
    Early treatment more successful
What can I do?
 GET INVOLVED IN ERGONOMICS
  Look at jobs and help identify problems
  Come up with solutions
  Work with solutions
  Take part in training
  Take responsibility for changing the way
  you do your job
  Help to make sure efforts are successful
Five key points to remember
1 Ergonomics can help you on your job
2 Risk factors can be reduced and WMSDs
  prevented

3 You can help your company put
  ergonomics changes into place

4 WMSDs can happen in jobs with risk
  factors

5 Reporting symptoms early is important
ERGONOMIC LINKS
 OSHA.gov: Checklists, Work
 Process, Environment and Positions
   http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/compu
   terworkstations/checklist/html
   http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/compu
   terworstations/workprocess.html
   http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/compu
   terworkstations/positions/html
   http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/compu
   terworkstations/wkstation_enviro.html
ERGONOMIC LINKS

 Office Organix: Office Evaluation
   Answer questions on your own set up
   and then it gives you recommendations.
   http://www.officeorganix.com/questionb.
   htm
                                  DIPLOMA
           07

NDSCS                        ERGONOMICS TRAINING

                                 PRESENTED BY
                                    NDSCS


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