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					   SOCIAL ISSUES IN MANAGEMENT
                  Summer 2000 Newsletter

      HAPPY SUMMER                               putting these sessions together from the
                                                 many fine papers that were submitted. I
                                                 took some chances in combining certain
I hope you’re all enjoying your summer           papers. The results should be lively.
and preparing to convene this coming             We are excited to co-sponsor eight
week in Toronto. This newsletter has             symposia with other divisions this year.
important information if you’re coming           Three of these are featured as
to Toronto, and other interesting                "showcase" symposia. Showcase
information if you’re not. Be sure and           sessions are specially selected based
check out the curriculum report by               upon their breadth, quality, and
Duane Windsor. Enjoy your reading and            timeliness. Our showcase topics
hope to see you in Canada. The Fall              include sessions on bribery (chaired by
SIM Newsletter will be coming out in             Duane Windsor and Kathy Getz), on
October, so keep the news coming.                ethics in conflict and negotiation
                                                 (chaired by Bruce Barry), and on
Brad Agle, SIM Newsletter Editor                 stakeholder collaboration (chaired by
                                                 Sandra Waddock).

SEE YOU IN TORONTO                               The format for interactive paper sessions
                                                 is changing this year to encourage more
                                                 dialogue and integration around the
       Jeanne Logsdon                            session theme. Melissa Baucus will
     SIM Program Chair                           facilitate a session of 5 papers on
                                                 "Macro Perspectives on Social Issues"
The SIM program at the Academy of                on Monday at 12:20. Diane Swanson
Management meeting offers some of                will facilitate a session of 6 papers on
the best research in the business-and-           "Individual and Organizational
society/business ethics field today.             Perspectives in SIM Research." All
You will be delighted at the diverse             interactive paper sessions are being held
topics and quality of the presentations, I       in the Royal York Hotel. Special thanks
promise. The entire program is available         to Melissa and Diane for accepting the
online at                                        challenge to facilitate in the new format.
http:\\www.aom.pace.edu/meetings/2000
. Let me share with you some of the              One paper submitted to SIM was
highlights.                                      accepted in the "shared interest" track,
                                                 and I want to call your attention to it.
SIM has eight division paper sessions            The paper is entitled, "Convention,
this year. Topics span the spectrum              Legitimacy, and Identification in
from corporate social performance to             Cultural Industries," authored by
business ethics to stakeholder theory,           Anastasios Karamanos and Chong Ju
from macro issues to micro, from                 Choi from Cambridge University.
theoretical to empirical. I enjoyed              Congratulations to them. (Incidentally, I


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   SOCIAL ISSUES IN MANAGEMENT
                      Winter 2000 Newsletter

can't explain why only one of the many           meeting. I look forward to seeing all of
papers I nominated was deemed to be              you there.
sufficiently shareable. I think SIM
offers fresh and important perspectives          DON'T FORGET ...
on many topics of broad interest in the
Academy. Let's see if we can do better           1) YOUR PASSPORT -- Most of us
in this category next year.)                     will be crossing a border to attend the
                                                 conference in Toronto. Be sure that you
Two events of special interest to SIM            know the rules for you to get into
members are scheduled for Monday.                Canada and to get back to your home
One is our theme session on corporate            country. Check with the Canadian
accountability, described in a companion         Embassy.
article. The other is the annual
presentation of the Best MBA Paper on            For U.S. citizens and permanent
Corporate Citizenship, which is                  residents, a passport is quite useful to re-
organized by the Center for Corporate            enter the U.S. Don't forget to check the
Community Relations at Boston College.           expiration date – right now! If you don't
This session occurs from 6 to 7 p.m. on          have a current passport, you will need
Monday evening and concludes the                 (a) a photo ID, (b) your birth certificate,
official SIM Monday schedule.                    AND (c) a baptismal certificate or voter
                                                 registration card to get back into the U.S.
Tuesday's special SIM events include the
provocatively titled address by the              2) HOTEL RESERVATIONS
division chair, Jeff Lenn, beginning at          Remember that most SIM sessions will
3:40. The always hilarious and fast-             be held in the Sheraton Centre Hotel.
paced business meeting begins at 4:45.           The Royal York, the other headquarters
Note the slightly earlier times for these        hotel, is within 15 minutes walking
events from previous years. Finally we           distance. Shuttles will travel between
party from 6:30 to 7:30.                         the hotels every 10 to 15 minutes but do
                                                 stop operating in the early evening.
But don't forget Wednesday's sessions.
Remember that at least 30% of all the            3) SAVE A BUCK -- If you are coming
papers must be presented on Wednesday,           into Toronto by air and expect to take
so the schedule is full until 2 pm.              the airport shuttle, don't forget the
Attendees at the last SIM session will           discount coupon on the last printed page
receive a little something special for the       of the conference program.
trip home.
                                                 4) EXCHANGE RATE is currently
This brief overview just scratches the           about $.68 US to $1.00 Canadian.
surface in describing all the interesting
events that will occur at the Toronto            5) NEWCOMERS -- A special welcome
                                                 to you if this is your first time at the


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                    Winter 2000 Newsletter

Academy and at the SIM Division. Be               SPECIAL SESSION ON
sure to come to the Research Workshop                CORPORATE
on Saturday evening and to the Welcome
                                                   ACCOUNTABILITY
session at 8 am on Monday so that we
can begin to know you.
                                                  The Academy theme for the 2000
                                               meeting is "A New Time." I chose
6) PAPER PRESENTERS -- Help out
                                               corporate accountability as the basis for
your session chair and your discussants
                                               the SIM theme session and asked Len
by sending a copy of your paper to them
                                               Brooks from the Clarkson Centre for
NOW. Yes, you can make some minor
                                               Business Ethics at the University of
changes to it, but your discussants are
                                               Toronto to organize the session. The
especially eager to have something in
                                               result is spectacular. Thank you, Len.
hand. Addresses are available through
the Academy website, or contact me if
                                               Look for the session titled ''Corporate
you cannot locate the chair or
                                               Accountability Comes of Age: Social
discussants for your session.
                                               Auditing and Reporting in the 21st
                                               Century." It is on Monday, beginning at
7) NO POWERPOINT presentations
                                               4:10 in the Dominion Ballroom South at
can be accommodated. We are
                                               the Sheraton Centre.
decidedly low-tech in the A-V area.
Overhead projectors will be available in
                                               We are very pleased to have Simon
each room.
                                               Zadek present his perspectives on
                                               emerging international auditing
8) The Academy WEBSITE is getting
                                               standards. Mr. Zadek directs the
more user-friendly all the time. And
                                               Institute of Social and Ethical
it is quite informative too. When in
                                               Accountability in London and is an
doubt, check it out at
                                               internationally recognized leader in
http:\\www.aom.pace.edu.
                                               social auditing. The second speaker,
                                               Eileen Kohl Kaufman from the Council
9) The program is done, but CONTACT
                                               on Economic Priorities Accreditation
ME if you have questions. My phone
                                               Agency, will discuss the SA 8000
number is 505-277-8352, and email
                                               standards that apply to global suppliers.
address is jlogsdon@unm.edu.
                                               Priscilla Boucher from VanCity Credit
                                               Union in Canada will then discuss trends
………………………………………….
                                               in voluntary corporate reporting and her
                                               company's experience in preparing its
                                               report.

                                               Two experts on accountability issues
                                               will serve as discussants on the general
                                               topic and the presentations. They are



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  SOCIAL ISSUES IN MANAGEMENT
                    Winter 2000 Newsletter

David Nitkin from EthicScan Canada              Tom Jones and Andy Wicks were co-
and Kim Davenport from Bell South.              winners of the Dean's Faculty Research
Len Brooks will chair the session.              Award for 1999 at the University of
                                                Washington. Tom has also been named
Corporate accountability is coming of           Interim Chair of the Management and
age, and we need to learn more about            Organization Department for 2000-2001.
current initiatives. See you at this
valuable session.
                                                Report on the SIM Curriculum
  SATURDAY EVENING                              Development Committee,
       SESSION                                  1999-2000

     Anne Buchholtz                             Duane Windsor, Co-Chair (Rice
    Research Committee                          University) Contact
                                                <odw@rice.edu>
We are pleased to report that York
University Professor Wes Cragg, the             The other CDC members are: Virginia
Chair/President of Transparency                 Gerde (University of New Mexico,
International Canada, has agreed to be          co-chair), Brad Agle (University of
our keynote speaker on Saturday                 Pittsburgh), Nancy Bodie (University of
evening. Transparency International is "a       Illinois at Chicago Circle), David
non-governmental organisation                   Fritzsche (Pennsylvania State University
dedicated to increasing government              Great Valley), Michael Goldsby
accountability and curbing both                 (University of Southern Indiana), and
international and national corruption."         Joseph Petrick (Wright State
For more information, please see TI's           University).
web site at:
http://www.transparency.de/index.html           During 1999-2000, the CDC has
                                                undertaken a study of how schools
                                                address the AACSB accreditation
Ed Epstein is now serving on the                standards concerning what can be
Board of Directors of AACSB- The                characterized broadly as the non-
International Association for                   economic environment of business. The
Management Education. This is believed          1974 AACSB revision of accreditation
to be a SIM first.                              standards placed "SIM" type coursework
       ..............                           prominently in the common body of
David Deephouse was recently approved           knowledge: "To provide students with
for promotion to Associate Professor            the common body of knowledge in
with tenure at Louisiana State                  business administration, programs shall
University, starting in Fall 2000.              include in their course of instruction the
        .............                           equivalent of at least one year of work


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   SOCIAL ISSUES IN MANAGEMENT
                      Winter 2000 Newsletter

comprising the following [core] areas            Steven Wartick published "Business and
[including]: (b) a background of the             Society/Business Ethics Courses:
economic and legal environment as it             Twenty Years at the Crossroads,"
pertains to profit and/or nonprofit              BUSINESS & SOCIETY 34.1 (April
organizations along with ethical                 1995) 51-89. The article is a report both
considerations and social and political          on (1) a 1989-1990 CDC survey of 150
influences as they affect such                   SIM division members (98 usable
organizations." In April 1991, the               responses) constituting a representative
accreditation language was effectively           sample, and (2) examination of 11
"softened" so that while "Both                   previous studies (mostly, but not
undergraduate and MBA curricula                  exclusively, survey approaches),
should provide an understanding of               including the 1979 Buchholz study
perspectives that form the context for           conducted in conjunction with AACSB.
business" (including ethical and                 Collins and Wartick concluded: "The
global issues, the influence of political,       study reveals that business
social, legal and regulatory,                    schools/programs experienced a period
environmental and technological issues,          of growth in business and society
and the impact of demographic                    offerings between 1973 and 1986
diversity on organizations), in direct           [corresponding to the 1974 AACSB
contrast undergraduate foundation                revision], but a decline between 1986
and graduate core curriculum standards           and 1990 [immediately followed by the
effectively specify coverage of                  1991 AACSB revision] at both the
particular functions or disciplines              undergraduate and graduate levels."
excluding non-economic environment.              Collins and Wartick attribute the growth
The situation may be viewed as                   phase to the 1974 AACSB revision: "the
inherently dangerous to "SIM" courses.           1974 revision of AACSB Curriculum
                                                 Standard IVb to include the phrase
In general, the objectives of the current        'ethical considerations' must surely have
CDC study are to develop (1) a baseline          prompted several schools to add a
of information for assessing the current         Business and Society/Business Ethics
situation and evaluating future trends in        course or to shift the course from an
the handling of core requirements set by         elective to required status." The
each school, (2) assess the views of             AACSB also sponsored regional summer
deans on the present AACSB "SIM"                 conferences and faculty workshops to
accreditation standard, and (3) develop a        encourage Business and Society course
sense of the range of topics currently           development. Collins and Wartick
covered in "SIM" courses (required or            concluded: "The number of schools
elective).                                       offering a separate Business and Society
                                                 course has leveled off at about two thirds
It has been a decade since the last major        on both the undergraduate and graduate
survey effort. Denis Collins and                 levels, but less than half of these schools
                                                 require the course." The study found


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   SOCIAL ISSUES IN MANAGEMENT
                     Winter 2000 Newsletter

that "Of the undergraduate programs,             faculty/research, and the future of
67% offered a separate Business and              Business and Society).
Society course, 48% required the course,
and 26% offered it as an elective. Of the        The 1999-2000 CDC has undertaken a
graduate programs, 67% offered a                 different approach based on the recently
separate Business and Society course,            developed availability of (1) website
42% required the course, and 28%                 program information now supplied by
offered it as an elective." The study            virtually all AACSB-accredited schools
found relatively little difference between       in often readily identified format,
private and public schools overall.              and (2) published business school
Past studies have also generally found a         rankings (now issued by US NEWS &
wide range of specific course                    WORLD REPORT, BUSINESS WEEK,
types and faculty types teaching in the          and the FINANCIAL TIMES of
area. Collins and Wartick summarize              London). The rationale is to develop a
the general implication as follows: "In          reasonably convenient methodology by
the aggregate, it appears that 20 years          which curricular developments can be
after the establishment of the area [SIM         monitored over time in the future from a
Division founded 1971], Business and             baseline database. Curriculum can now
Society still suffers from an identity           be tracked by school. The purpose is not
crisis."                                         to substitute for previous methods
                                                 (which can be replicated in the future),
The key problem confronting future               but rather to identify a monitoring
studies is the large number of business          methodology that is low dollar cost and
schools now in operation worldwide.              can always be operated periodically.
Any study (except at serious cost of             Accredited school websites are directly
money and effort) must be a limited              accessible through the AACSB website
representative sampling process, and             which provides direct linkages. (Non-
therefore can identify only widespread           accredited school websites can generally
changes in curricular approach.                  be accessed through commercial
(The change must already have occurred           websites providing lists of business
to be detectable in a sampling                   schools.) Most websites now provide a
methodology.) Not only are there                 reasonably understandable description of
undergraduate and graduate programs,             graduate and undergraduate program
there has been a proliferation of program        requirements for students. Websites
formats (full-time, executive, weekend,          typically provide some school mission
part-time, global). The 1989-1990 CDC            statement, and with moderate navigating
process also covered a wide range of             an email linkage to the dean. A short
topics. The survey instrument included           survey instrument of 8 questions is
41 questions (background information,            electronically transmitted to dean's
Business and Society curricula/course            offices, with a request that the responses
content, Business and Society                    be entered onto the electronic format and
                                                 then returned via reply procedure to the


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   SOCIAL ISSUES IN MANAGEMENT
                     Winter 2000 Newsletter

sender. (The instrument elicits                   become fairly universal.) Second,
curriculum information on                         additional exemplar schools are being
undergraduate programs.) Even low                 identified. Religiously affiliated
response rate should yield a reasonably           institutions often have an ethics or
representative sample of dean's views on          values requirement of some sort. Other
the present accreditation standard.               known exemplar schools include
                                                  American, Boston College, Boston
In order to fast track key information            University, Clark Atlanta, George
assembly, an expanding scope approach             Washington, Kansas State, New Mexico,
has been used. First, "top tier" schools          Virginia Tech, and Wright State.
were addressed. The rationale is that in          Third, "other accredited" schools outside
academic debates over curriculum                  the "top tier" set are also being
changes, benchmarking to prominent                accessed at the graduate level initially.
and (also exemplar) schools is vital              There are currently (April 2000)
information. The 1998 US NEWS and                 390 AACSB-accredited schools (371
BUSINESS WEEK "top tier" U.S.                     U.S., 7 Canada, 2 Mexico, and 10
ratings include 58 schools. (There                outside North America). Of this set, 28
is no implication here concerning the at          are undergraduate accreditation only
best dubious scientific validity                  (7%), 25 graduate accreditation only
of these journalistic rating approaches.          (6%), 337 have both undergraduate and
They are simply a widely circulated               graduate accreditation (86%); and 149
reputational affecter watched by                  also have accounting accreditation
administrators, faculty, and students --          (which is not given separately). No
for a variety of purposes.) Attention was         current information suggests that
focused in this set of 58 schools on full-        non-accredited schools are
time MBA (or equivalent) and EMBA                 systematically different in approach.
(or equivalent) programs. The second              Annually, there are newly accredited and
phase of the effort was to extend the             reaccredited schools. The set is much
analysis of full-time MBA (or                     smaller to scan for possible changes in
equivalent) programs to all accredited            curricular practice than the entire set of
AACSB schools. The reasoning behind               accredited institutions. Hence it may be
this approach is that, in contrast to the         possible to detect how the AACSB
situation in the 1970s and 1980s, when            process treats the implementation of the
accreditation was not particularly a              1991 standard, because it is in precisely
critical consideration, the rating services       this smaller set of schools that the
dating from roughly the late 1980s                standard is currently evaluated. (Schools
effectively require accreditation for             are reaccredited every decade.) In
inclusion. Accreditation is a                     March 2000, 9 schools were newly
spreading industry standard, and                  accredited (worldwide) and 19 were
AACSB now accredits globally.                     reaccredited; in April 2000, an additional
(Non-accredited schools can be studied            8 schools were reaccredited. (These
by the same approach as websites


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   SOCIAL ISSUES IN MANAGEMENT
                     Winter 2000 Newsletter

numbers specifically exclude new
accounting accreditation information.)           Information for "other accredited"
                                                 schools (outside the "top tier") is
The principal conceptual difficulty is (as       being analyzed currently. Information
in prior survey based studies) the proper        for 47 "other accredited" schools has
classification of courses. For this              already been classified for Alabama,
preliminary report, the designation              Alaska, Arkansas, California,
"SIM" course is adopted so as not to             Colorado, Connecticut, and Delaware
imply necessary consistency with the             (processed in alphabetical order)--
"Business and Society" designation used          located in different regions of the U.S.
in the Collins and Wartick study. "SIM"          (Most, although not all, of these 47
course included business and society,            schools are public institutions.) Nearly
(general) environment of business, legal         half of these schools had some form of
environment or business law (the latter          identifiably "SIM" requirement broadly
generally not appearing in the "top tier"        defined at the graduate level. Another
schools), ethics, and public policy              34% of the schools had some form of
approaches. The results in the "top tier"        more narrowly legal environment or
set of schools are (appreciating the             business law course requirement. Only
definitional difficulties) somewhat              17% of the schools had no identifiable
stronger than the Collins and Wartick            "SIM" or legal course. In a very broad
overall finding for graduate programs.           sense, commitment to the non-economic
Using a reasonable "SIM" definition,             environment of business or management
just under two-thirds of full-time MBA           is arguably even more extensive in this
programs (n = 58) and just under 60% of          particular subset of schools than in
EMBA programs (n = 47) require                   the 58 "top tier" schools. Relative to the
something substantive in the "SIM" area.         "top tier" schools, however, the
                                                 proportion of "other accredited" schools
A significant difference between full-           with identifiably "SIM" requirements
time MBA and EMBA programs is,                   dropped somewhat, due to the role of
however, readily apparent. In the full-          more legal content courses. A scan of
time programs, only 2 schools specified          various "other accredited" schools
solely what amounts to a purely legal            suggests further that a significant
course. In the EMBA programs, 10                 proportion make use of "prerequisite" or
schools (about one-fifth) specified solely       "foundation" requirements that permit
what amounts to a purely legal course.           BBA graduates to waive certain parts of
Since EMBA programs typically are                the MBA core curriculum. The
more core relative to elective courses           approach often cites a "common body of
due to weekend operation, some schools           knowledge" (pre-1991 AACSB
with no significant "SIM" coursework in          language) that includes business law (or
the full-time MBA program adopt a                legal environment of business).
stronger "SIM" position in the EMBA
program.


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  SOCIAL ISSUES IN MANAGEMENT
                    Winter 2000 Newsletter


NEW WEBMASTER
For the past several years Phil Cochran
has maintained both the SIM and IABS
websites. Recently he asked for
volunteers to take over the SIM site.
Ron Roman of the University of
Pittsburgh graciously agreed to
do so.

Ron's new SIM site is now up and
running. It has information on the
upcoming AOM conference in Toronto
as well as the latest SIM newsletter.
Ron will update the site on an on-going
basis. If you have information that
you would like to have posted on the
web site, email Ron Roman at
Ron.Roman@EthicalBusiness.org. You
can visit the site either through the
AOM web site
(http://www.aom.pace.edu) or directly
(http://www.pitt.edu/~rorst6/sim/SIMma
in.htm).

A hearty thank-you to Phil and to Ron!




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