Bluetooth Wireless Technology prepared by: Hossam El-moshrify Introduction. Why We use Bluetooth. Frequency Allocation. Bluetooth Network Topology. Overview of the Bluetooth Protocol Architecture. Error correction code in Bluetooth. Bluetooth & other Wireless technologies. Conclusion. Bluetooth Birth Q: What is Bluetooth? A: Connect without cables Q: What does it do? A: Cable replacement & wireless ad hoc connectivity Q: To whom is it intended? A: Mobile users Q: Where does the name “Bluetooth” come from? A: Harald Blaatand/ Scandinavia Q: Who is Bluetooth? A: The Bluetooth SIG. The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) Nine Promoters Founders Y2K Additions And over 2000 additional SIG members What is Bluetooth Good For? No Wires! In the home On the move Personal Area Networking (PAN) Enabling a collection of YOUR personal devices to cooperatively work together Locality sensitive services Visibility and access to additional resources, but only when they are within range and useful to you Bluetooth @ Home Digital Camera NO WIRES Computer Scanner Inkjet Printer xDSL Access Point Home Audio System PDA Cordless Phone Cell Phone Base Station MP3 Player On the Move Car Audio System PDA Cell Phone Headset Pay Phone & Access Point MP3 Player Hotel Phone Laptop & Access Point Bluetooth in Computer Products Computer devices Computer applications • Laptop computers • Peripheral connectivity – Printers • PDAs/HPCs – Scanners • Desktop PCs – Video projectors • Broadband access • Network access points – Broadband access points – Packet radio cellular phones – Ethernet/xDSL/cable • File synchronization • Printers – Calendars • Scanners – Contact management • Video projectors • File transfer – VCards – MP3 – Digital pictures Bluetooth in Telephone and Consumer Products Telephone devices Telephone applications • Cellular handsets • Hands free use • Wireless headsets • File synchronization • PSTN access points – Calendars – Payphones – Contact management – Hotel/home phones Consumer applications Consumer devices • File transfer • Digital cameras – MP3 • MP3 audio players – Digital pictures • Home audio systems • Peripheral connectivity – Keyboard/mouse/remote – Printer Bluetooth system is based on a low cost short range radio-link which enables devices to communicate wirelessly via short range radio link. The Bluetooth is a universal radio interface on the GHz frequency band facilitating wireless Globally 2.4 communication of data and voice in stationary and mobile environments. This chip is tiny, low-power consuming and can be easily imbedded in existing electronic devices. Strength of Bluetooth 1- Cheap Initial costs $ 20 Future target $ 5 2- Tiny It is only 10.2 *14* 1.6 mm. Easy implementation. 3- low-power consumption Bluetooth radio consumes less than 3% of the power compared to that of modern mobile phone . 4- It works all over the world Operates on ISM radio band. -Unlicensed band. 5- Supports point-to-point & point-to-multi-point communication. 6- High Security - It allows authentication & encryption. - Protection against interference. 7- High speed . - Current speed up to 1 Mbps (723.2 Kbps) 30 300 3 30 300 3 30 300 3 30 300 Hz Hz kHz kHz kHz MHz MHz MHz GHz GHz GHz Voice VH SH EH ELF Frequency VLF LF MF HF UHF F F F 890 MHz TV GSM ISM UHF 470 812 960 MHz MHz MHz 2.4 GHz Ad hoc client/server topology, 8 active & up to 256 parked devices per piconet. 1 master per piconet “speaking” to slaves via TDM. Multiple piconets up to 13 per scatternet. Bluetooth Addressing The following device addresses are used in a Bluetooth system: BD_ADDR AM_ADDR PM_ADDR AR_ADDR The master uses AM_ADDR to address each active slave in the piconet How Bluetooth Works Operational States D Master F N Active Slave M Parked Slave* Standby* P O * Low power state J I Q C In the beginning D F N H G M A P B O E K J L I Q C Inquiry Discovering Who’s Out There Note that a device can be “Undiscoverable” D F N H G M A P B O E K J L I Q C 10 meters Paging Creating a Piconet D F N H G M A B P O E K J L I Q C 10 meters Paging A Simplistic Illustration D F N H G M A B P O E K J L I Q C 10 meters Expanding a Piconet (1) D F H N G M A B P O E K J L I Q C 10 meters Parking D F H N G M A B P O E K J L I Q C 10 meters Expanding a Piconet (2) D F H N G M A B P O E K J L I Q C 10 meters Scatternets D F H G M N A B O P E K J L I C Q Advanced Scatternets D F H N G M A P B O E K J L I Q C Bluetooth 8 Applications RFCOMM/SDP/TCS/SDP L2CAP HCI Link Manager Link Controller Baseband 1 Radio BaseBand and LM The Baseband defines packet formats, physical and logical channels and the different modes of operation which support the transfer of voice and data. Audio is needed to transfer voice. The bluetooth specs follow the GSM recommendations. The Link Manager (LM) is specified software that handles link authentication, piconet management, and link setup and configuration. HCI and L2CAP The Host Controller Interface (HCI) provides a common interface between the Bluetooth host device (Laptop) and the Bluetooth module. The Link Layer Control and Adaptation (L2CAP) is specified to provide a common base for data communication. L2CAP distinguishes between the higher level protocols, and segments and re-assembles packets. RFCOMM & SDP RFCOMM is a simple transport protocol which emulates the serial ports and used for example in a laptop to printer connection. RFCOMM provides compatibility with legacy applications that uses the serial port. The Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) allows applications to discover which services are available and to determine the characteristics of these services Complete Protocol Stack A number of other protocols are available for different applications, for example: OBEX (Object exchange protocol) used for file transfer. TCP/IP used for internet applications. AT commands to support user terminal control. For example, entering a PIN for Authentication Timing & sync. SCO & ACL links. ERROR CORRECTION CODE in BLUETOOTH Forward Error Correction (FEC) - 1/3 rate 2/3 rate. Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) The packet header is always encoded using 1/3 rate FEC. The payload can either be uncoded or encoded using 1/3 or 2/3. by a shortened Hamming code (10,15) code ARQ SCHEME: DM, DH and the data field of DV packets are transmitted and retransmitted until acknowledgement of a successful reception is returned by the destination (or timeout is exceeded). A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is added to the packet to determine the payload is correct or not. The ARQ scheme only works on the payload in the packet (only that payload which has a CRC). The packet header and the voice payload are not protected by the ARQ scheme. Conclusion • Bluetooth technology is the best for (PAN). • The Bluetooth is a universal radio interface on the • Globally 2.4 GHz frequency • Supports point-to-point & point-to-multi-point communication • Cheap ,Tiny, low-power consumption , High Security , High speed . • 1 master per piconet “speaking” to slaves up to 7 • Multiple piconets up to 13 per scatternet.
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