Chapter 10 and 11 Test Review ____ 1. After the Mexican War, the United States gained a large amount of land as the result of a(n) cession ____ 2. What was the belief that the United States had the right to expand to the Pacific Ocean? Manifest Destiny ____ 3. In 1850, the U.S. Congress approved popular sovereignty, which gave territories the right to do what? Decide be a slave or free state ____ 6. Where did Mexico say the southern border of Texas lay before the Mexican War? Nueces River ____ 7. What important job did Major Benjamin McCulloch’s Texas Rangers perform during the Mexican War? gathering information for the American army ____ 8. Which battle of the Mexican War was fought north of the Rio Grande? Palo Alto ____ 9. What was a major issue for the governors of Texas until it was settled in the 1850s? debt ____ 10. List the accomplishments of Governor Elisha Pease? promoting the construction of railroads establishing the permanent school fund lowering the state debt ____ 11. About how large was the population of Texas in 1860? 600,000 people ____ 12. What Texas border was set by the U.S. Congress in the Compromise of 1850? Western border ____ 13. Many people in the United States believed in manifest destiny, which was the right to do what? For the United State to expand to the Pacific Ocean (sea to shining sea) ____ 14. What was the policy of giving people in territories the right to decide whether to allow slavery called? Popular Sovereignty ____ 15. Which group was prevented from voting under the constitution of 1845? Women, African Americans, and Native Americans ____ 16. What offices did Houston and Rusk hold in the first state government of Texas? members of the U.S. Senate ____ 17. What area did both Mexico and the United States claim before the Mexican War? The area between the Rio Grande and the Nueces River ____ 18. In the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, what did the United States give Mexico in return for large amounts of land in the west? $15 million, plus an extra $3.25 million for debt ____ 19. What two issues did Elisha M. Pease focus on while governor? education and paying off the public debt ____ 20. Which party dominated Texas politics in the 1840s and 1850s? Democratic Party ____ 21. How did Texas use most of the money it received for giving up its claim on New Mexico? To pay of its debt ____ 22. What did Native Americans believe about the land? The land belonged to the whole group, not one individual ____ 23. Why did Texas set up reservations for Native Americans? to try to end Indian raids ____ 24. What was the factor that most attracted people to come to Texas? Cheap land ____ 25. Why did the government of Texas want the land developed? to make the value of land go up ____ 26. Why did more people come to Texas after it became a state? They felt they would be better protected from Indian raids ____ 27. What states made up the Upper South? Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee, Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina ____ 28. Where did a great majority of immigrants to Texas came from? the United States ____ 29. The immigrants from the Lower South generally started cotton plantations in what area of Texas? the Gulf coast. ____ 30. By 1860, African Americans made up about what percent of the population? 30 percent ____ 31. William Peters used his empresario contract to settle the area near what present-day city? Dallas ____ 32. How did Johann Friedrich Ernst encourage people to move to Texas? He wrote letters praising Texas ____ 33. What was the largest German community in Texas? New Braunsfels ____ 34. How did Henri Castro help the French settlers he brought to Texas? He bought them tools and supplies they needed ____ 35. Some immigrants came to Texas after a failed revolution in what country? Poland ____ 36. Compared to the rest of the United States, how was land different in Texas? It was cheaper ____ 37. What happened in 1837 that led many Americans to come to Texas? The Panic of 1837, depression in the United States ____ 38. Why did Texas stop giving empresario contracts in 1844? Many Texans objected to giving away large amounts of land ____ 39. What was life like for most of the immigrants from the Upper South? They were poor farmers. ____ 40. List all of the states in the Lower South. South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas and Louisiana ____ 41. In the 1840s and 1850s, what happened to the population of African Americans in Texas? It rose quickly ____ 42. Whose letters helped convince Germans to come to Texas? Johann Friedrich Ernst ____ 43. What event happened before some Germans settled on the Fisher-Miller land grant? made a treaty with the Comanches there ____ 44. German settlers clashed with other Texans over what issue? slavery ____ 45. Why did thousands of Mexicans come to Texas in the late 1800s and early 1900s? A revolution in Mexico Short Answer INTERPRETING GRAPHS Study the time line below. Then answer the questions that follow. 46. Why did Texas have to write a new constitution in 1845? It needed a state constitution to join the United States. 47. What conflict were the events of 1846 and 1848 part of? the war with Mexico 48. What is the connection between the Compromise of 1850 and the money the legislature set aside to build public schools? The legislature used the money given to Texas in the Compromise of 1850 to fund the building of schools 49. What happened to most Native Americans who lived in Texas? They were forced to go to Oklahoma in 1859 50. What event caused the election of the first state government of Texas? Texas wrote a new state constitution 51. What two agreements affected the borders of Texas? Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Compromise of 1850 52. How did the Compromise of 1850 affect Texas? It set the western borders of the state and resulted in Texas being given $10 million. 53. What events affected Native Americans? 1854: Texas sets up Indian reservations; 1859: Indians are forced out of Texas to Oklahoma. ANALYZING PRIMARY SOURCES Read the following passage, which states the four objectives of the Adelsverein. Then answer the questions that follow. To improve the lot of the working class who are without employment, thus controlling their [growing poverty]; To unite the emigrants by giving them protection through this Association in order to ease their burden by mutual assistance; To maintain contacts between Germany and the emigrants, and to develop [seagoing] trade . . .; To find a market for German craft in these settlements, and to provide a market in Germany for products of these colonies. 54. How did the members of the Adelsverein think the plan would help the working people of Germany? It would give them jobs and help them avoid growing poverty. 55. The second objective promises to protect the settlers. Do you think the Adelsverein could meet that promise? Why or why not? Possible answer: no, because the people of the Adelsverein were too far away and did not know anything about Texas 56. What business goals are included in the objectives? The members of the Adelsverein wanted to carry out trade between Germany and the colonies. Goods produced in each place would be sold in the other. Essay ANALYZING PRIMARY SOURCES Read the following passage, which states the four objectives of the Adelsverein. Then answer the questions that follow. To improve the lot of the working class who are without employment, thus controlling their [growing poverty]; To unite the emigrants by giving them protection through this Association in order to ease their burden by mutual assistance; To maintain contacts between Germany and the emigrants, and to develop [seagoing] trade . . .; To find a market for German craft in these settlements, and to provide a market in Germany for products of these colonies. 57. How important were business concerns in the plan to bring German settlers to Texas? Possible answer: Business concerns were very important. The objectives included establishing trade and creating markets in which to sell goods produced in Germany and in the colony. 58. Which objective suggests that Germany was going through a period of economic hard times? How do you know? the first objective, because it mentions that the working class is suffering from unemployment and poverty 59. What help did the Adelsverein promise the settlers in the second objective? It promised to protect them, keep them united, and offer them assistance CRITICAL THINKING 60. Summarizing What group had the right to vote when the state constitution of Texas was written? What groups did not have this right? The only group that could vote were adult white males over 21. Women, African Americans, and Native Americans could not vote. 61. Making Generalizations How were Tejanos treated in Texas during the period of early statehood? Possible answer: They suffered prejudice. Some had their land taken away, even if they had helped fight for independence. Some fought back. 62. Analyzing Information What was the status of women during early statehood? Possible answer: Women had some rights, such as the right to own property and the right to approve the sale of property by their husbands. They did not have the right to vote, however. 63. Identifying Cause and Effect What were the causes of the war with Mexico? The belief in manifest destiny led the United States to believe that it had a right to Mexico’s lands. Mexicans grew angry over the annexation of Texas. The border dispute in Texas set off fighting. 64. Summarizing What were relations like between Anglo Texans and Tejanos? Possible answer: Many Tejanos suffered prejudice. Some had their land taken away, even if they had helped fight for independence. Some fought back. Some were treated with honor, and some were even elected to public office. 65. Summarizing What actions did Texas take to give land away? The government gave land to anyone who wanted it, although later the law was changed to say that people had to live on the land for three years. Texas also began using empresario contracts again, but that policy ended in 1844. 66. Contrasting How did the people who emigrated to Texas from the Upper South and the Lower South differ? Emigrants from the Upper South tended to be poorer. They were farmers and did not own slaves. Those from the Lower South were often wealthy plantation owners who did own slaves. 67. Recognizing Points of View Why did African Americans try to escape to Mexico? Life as an enslaved person was harsh. Slaves had no freedom to direct their own lives. Escaping to Mexico was one way of gaining that freedom. Mexico was nearby and did not allow slavery. It was harder to recover slaves if they escaped to another country. 68. Identifying Causes and Effects What conditions caused changes in the number of Mexicans living in Texas from 1800 to the early 1900s? Because of mistreatment there, few Mexicans came to Texas in the mid-1800s. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, revolutions in Mexico led thousands to come to Texas. 69. Recognizing Points of View Travel conditions to Texas were poor, and the work to build a new home there was difficult. Despite these problems, thousands of people came to Texas. Why? Possible answers: They came because they thought they could build better lives in Texas, where land was cheap and good for farming. 70. Analyzing Information Why did thousands of African Americans come to Texas? What were their lives like? They came involuntarily because they were enslaved. Their lives were difficult, often with hours of hard labor on cotton plantations.