Summary by maclaren1




                                    JUNE 28, 2007

Introduction: The Funding Agencies for Large Colliders (FALC) appointed a subgroup
to coordinate and report on potential technology applications that may result from the
ILC R&D program. Initial discussions at the FALC in Feb 2007 identified 11 potential
global applications. (see attached P. Grannis presentation of Feb. 7, 2007 at the Beijing
GDE meeting). Subsequently, the three global regions involved in the ILC; Asian,
Americas, and European, were asked to assess additional applications for the
technologies included in the ILC’s R&D program. Each region agreed to prepare their
individual regional application assessments by the end of June 2007, which will then be
combined into a global document by Fall 07.
This report focuses on potential industrial, military and commercial applications in the
Americas region. A report on the potential applications in the scientific and research
fields in the Americas region was prepared by Uday Varadarajan of the USDOE. For
copies of this report, contact Dr. Varadarajan at

Scope: This report identifies potential commercial, industrial and military applications
for technologies within the ILC R&D program in the Americas region. Potential market
applications are projected beyond those required to meet the component manufacturing
specifications, quantity and schedule required for the 500 GeV ILC. The scope of the
effort is defined within the following ILC technology and schedule requirements:

        A- Technologies: Key technologies included in this study are defined as those
within the scope of the ILC R&D program over the next three years. Additional “off the
shelf” components which currently meet ILC requirements for the machine were not
included; it was assumed that these components will be available commercially to meet
the programmatic needs of the ILC. The ILC key technologies were divided into the
following four general categories.

    1. RF Units & Cryomodules: 613 Superconducting radiofrequency (SCRF) RF
       units containing 3 cryomodules, each in turn containing 8 or 9 cavities are
       required for the ILC main linacs. Additional cryomodules are required for the
       damping rings. These key components require a total of 16088 superconducting
       cavities meeting the 35 MV/m ILC criteria. The ILC R&D in this area is focused
       on achieving this performance while lowering the production costs of SCRF
    2. RF Power and High Availability Electronics: The ILC requires 613 RF power
       units to supply the precision timed pulsed power to each RF unit. These power
       units include power supplies, modulators, switching devices, instrumentation and
       controls. While such components are currently in commerce within the

       international marketplace, they require additional R&D and design to meet the
       high pulse power and high reliability criteria required for the specified 85% ILC
       availability criteria.
    3. Precision Alignment Systems: The ILC requires laser wire and other types of
       precision beam precision measurement and alignment devices that maintain beam
       alignment integrity at the micron level over several kilometers during operation.
    4. Imaging detectors and associated high speed instrumentation: The proposed ILC
       detector design contains four concentric layers of particle sensors, each with a
       unique set of parameters and associated hardware. Sensors close to the beam
       interaction points are highly sensitive and precise while those in the outer layer
       require large areas and are less precise. Alternative approaches to these sensors
       are currently being investigated in the detector R&D program. Cost will be a
       major driver in the decision process, for example the outer layer, the Hadron
       Calorimeter, requires an area of 3000-5000 m2 of sensors.

   B-Schedule: The commercial availability of the above key technologies has been
   derived from the ILC program plans and is divided into the following two periods:

           1-Near Term (beyond 2010): The international ILC R&D will have developed
           the key technologies to the workable prototype stage to validate their technical
           specifications and prepare regions for the bid to host phase by the end of
           2010. Therefore the initial commercial market entry point for key ILC
           technologies will be post 2010. Specifically, production facilities to
           manufacture RF units and cryomodules in quantities required for the ILC
           installation schedule will not be available at this time and a relatively high
           amount of labor will be required to produce them, therefore individual
           component costs should be relatively expensive.

           2-Far term (beyond 2015): Assuming the ILC completes site selection process
           by 2012, industry in all three regions will initiate the design and construction
           of manufacturing facilities for the key technologies in 2013. Production
           quantities, with their associated lower costs and supporting infrastructure
           should be available by 2015, allowing for the lead time necessary to construct
           facilities and set up tooling. ILC components, especially RF units and
           cryomodules, should be available in larger quantities and at significantly
           lower cost post 2015, which should open up additional applications that were
           limited by cost competitiveness.

ILC Technology Applications:

During the course of this effort, the following sources were used to identify the potential
industrial, military and commercial applications for the ILC key technologies:

    1. A search of selected literature
    2. Interviews with government, national laboratories (JLab, SLAC and Fermilab)
       and private sector experts
    3. A survey of the 31 LCFOA members
    4. ILC technology applications workshop held on May 15 for 28 persons from
       industry, government, laboratories and universities

In many cases an application for a key ILC technology was suggested by multiple
sources. A description of applications for each of the four key technology areas follows.
An overview of the potential applications for each of the four key technologies is
provided first, followed by a listing of potential applications. In the case of RF units and
cryomodules, specific applications are listed by near term (post 2010) and far term (post
2015) time frames. A ranking or prioritization for these applications has not been
included, that is outside the scope of this initial effort. However it is necessary next step
to initially quantifying R&D economic benefits beyond the ILC program.

                                RF Units and Cryomodules

Many applications for particle accelerators were identified; however economic factors
from competing technologies are major issues in penetrating the commercial and
industrial marketplace. High performance applications such as accelerator waste
transmutation (AWT) and X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL) have potential since these
applications require high power and can take significant advantage of the ILC’s 35MV/m
cavity performance. The balance of system cost also favors larger scale applications
utilizing high performing cavities. However, cargo container inspection may benefit
from higher power/ higher performance for obtaining the throughput needed with
compact devices. Other applications of SCRF linear accelerators in non-scientific areas
include medical treatment, radioisotope production, materials and surface processing, and
military applications. For lower powered machines, such as for medical applications, the
ILC technology has to compete with other lower cost, lower performing SCRF cavities,
warm cavity technology, and other particle accelerator methodologies such as cyclotron
technology. Therefore, it appears that near term, post 2010 early uses for ILC 35 MV/m
cavity performance machines may be limited to a few large scale machine applications
while other, potentially larger quantity far term applications, may open up for production
scale, lower cost, quantities for these units. Also, many commercial applications do not
need to specify the ILC cavity criteria of 35 MV/m; lower gradients are sufficient and
reduce balance of system and operating costs. Electron beam applications dominate the

Near Term (Post 2010):

CW proton beam accelerators can be used for transmutation of nuclear waste and spent
reactor fuel. It should be noted that the Indian and Japanese governments are investing in
R&D for an energy amplifier which could also be used for this application.

Free Electron Lasers (FEL) incorporating energy recovery linacs have several
    The FEL user facility at DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory’s (JLab)
       primary user is the U.S. Navy. The Navy has interest in material science
       applications such as surface hardening of propellers.
    FEL light can be used to produce carbon nanotubes on a graphite target.
       Transition Electron Microscopy at JLab indicates tube dia. (~1.4 nm) and small
       bundle size (~12 nm) can be produced.
    FEL light can produce amorphized steel surfaces providing 3x improvement in
       corrosion resistance.
    FEL light can create nitride coatings on metal surfaces. Commercial plasma
       method requires vacuum to work. Competing laser methods do not produce the
       same quality coatings
    FEL light can be used to deposit metal or organic coatings on essentially any
       desired surface. Many different coatings possible. No competing method is
       available for organics application.
    FEL light can be used to micro machine and micro engineer components from
       ceramics, glasses, etc. Applications for miniature satellite turbine propulsion
       turbines have been demonstrated in a collaboration between Aerospace Corp. and
    FELs are being studied for land mine detection and neutralization systems.
    FELs can be applied to thin film deposition for photovoltaic cell manufacture

FELs are also being evaluated by the U.S. Navy for shipboard self defense. The Navy is
developing all electric ship propulsion systems for new ship classes which will readily
have ample power for directed energy shipboard missile defense FEL systems. The Navy
is also interested in high efficiency, compact shipboard cryogenic system for SCRF FEL

The Canadian aerospace sector is looking for a 3-dimensional X-ray system to inspect
bonding sections of carbon fiber aircraft components. X-ray laser sources would provide
the required high resolution required while minimizing exposure.

High power electron beams can be used in cargo container inspection. The additional
energy will reduce the time required in interrogating the container for contraband

Far Term (Post 2015)

FELs with tunable wavelengths to excite or break chemical bonds have potential
applications in the chemical process industry.

High power laser beams backscattered from intense electron linacs may lead to
commercial monochromatic X-ray beam facilities for use in medical and materials
science applications.

High voltage particle accelerators have applications in the destruction of chemical bonds
for hazardous waste treatment and neutralization. They also have potential applications to
break down large volume sludge into smaller pieces during pretreatment with municipal
sewage treatment facilities

Pulsed high voltage, high power sources can be used as lightning simulators.

Particle accelerators can be incorporated in radiation effect testing facilities for electronic
components and systems.

Compact linear accelerators would help facilitate nondestructive testing. One way to
reduce the size of accelerators is to increase the frequency from S band to X band (3 GHz
to 10 GHz, respectively). Radiographic examination of pipe welds in petrochemical
plants is one application discussed at the recent International Vacuum Electron Device
Conference. A sheet beam device would help reduce the overall size of the accelerator.

High power electron beams can be applied to radiation food sterilization. Inexpensive
high power electron beams, that will conceivably be available in the long term, may be
used to energize chemical polymerization processes.

Medical treatment applications with protons and light ions are currently dominated by
commercial cyclotron technology. Cyclotron costs have been significantly reduced and
are performing well for these applications. Cyclotron technology is also used to produce
short lived medical isotopes on medical sites. SCRF technologies may only compete
when key hardware is in the long term ILC production phase, post 2015, when cost
should be significantly lower for these components and when higher energies are required
for new radio nuclides. Also some radio nuclides require 50-100 MeV to produce,
putting them beyond the range of most commercial cyclotrons.

Research in British Columbia projects the fabrication on Nano structures in the 100 to
200 nm level by applying pulsed digital technologies. Mass production will require
accelerator-masking techniques to produce parts by the billions.

                        RF Power and High Availability Electronics

While these components are required to meet the overall reliability of the ILC, they have
broader applications beyond the field of particle accelerators such as military systems,
radar, lightning generators, and high electric field units. A strong electronic industry
manufacturing base currently exists in the U.S., which should have the capacity to
produce the ILC required hardware on schedule. This is also the case for the ILC electro
magnets, both conventional and superconducting. The 85% machine operational
availability criteria for the ILC require an R&D program to reengineer several RF power
components within the RF power supply system. While performance criteria can be met
with existing hardware, this hardware falls significantly short of the MTTF requirements

of the ILC, consumes large amounts of power and is relatively costly. This reengineering
to modularize these components and add redundancy to critical subsystems within
intelligent platform designs will result in a new generation of marx modulators, power
supplies controls, high power sheet beam klystrons and instrumentation and RF wave
distribution systems developed under the ILC R&D program to become available post
2010 for other applications:

Note: It appears that industry in the Americas can rapidly respond to the market
requirements for these components so the listing below does not differentiate between
near and far term applications

The USAF has shown interest in intelligent electronic platforms for agile radar systems
including pulse to pulse switches. Additional applications include secure communications
systems and military systems testing for radiation effects.

The controls and instrumentation in the ILC R&D program are modeled on advanced
telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) as developed by the Industrial
Computer Manufacturers Group (PICMG). Advances due to ILC R&D may have wider
uses within the telecom industry

These ILC technologies have applications within other major science projects and R&D
programs such as ITER, LCLS and XFEL.

                            Beam Alignment Instrumentation

The ILC precision alignment criteria require the development of systems to automatically
(robotically) maintain machine beam alignments over several kilometers of linacs. The
R&D program is investigating using laser beams as a straight edge to measure and
automatically correct alignment offsets at the 150 nm level. The technology behind these
precision alignment systems has potential application in the following areas:

Ground motion detection systems for early warning of seismic activity

Maintaining alignment and safety of rail and maglev high speed transportation systems

Hexapods with precision flexure strut alignment fixtures have potential applications in
nano manufacturing processes

            Detector Components and High Speed Data Acquisition Systems

With the ILC detectors requiring arrays approaching 5000 m2, cost becomes a significant
driving factor. These lower cost detector modules which can operate with machine
produced particle sources or natural radiation have additional applications in areas such
as cargo container inspection systems. Four basic concepts are integrated into the current
ILC detector design. Each concept has a set of applications depending on the cost and
resolution required. Manufacturing capability appears to be available in the US.

Imaging detectors for scanners: Four basic concepts are integrated into the current ILC
detector design. Each concept requires less resolution and increasing detector area as the
distance from the beam interaction point increases.

Low cost large area detector elements in outer ring have potential applications for
containerized cargo inspection from stimulated activity by x-ray excitation or by using
cosmic rays as a natural radiation source.

The precision timing measurements within the pixel detectors can be made at the 200
picosecond level enabling focal plane detectors for electron and X-ray microscopy, single
molecular spectroscopy and high speed light-imaging detection and ranging applications.

Potential stealth surveillance applications are possible if these low cost sensors are
incorporated into building construction wall components.

Conclusion: The international R&D community is expected to invest close to $1B in
R&D of ILC technologies in the 10 year period through 2010. The commercial, military
and industrial applications of these enabling technologies are wide spread. Major market
penetrations are possible once production facilities are in place by 2015. For each
application two questions must be answered in the positive; first what are the
specifications of the application and second will the ILC developed technology compete
favorably with other systems and technologies current employed in that application. The
diversity of potential applications identified in this process indicates that the investment
in the ILC will have additional payoffs in the economy. The industrialization of these
technologies within the Americas’ industrial base will help our hi-tech industries grow
within an ever increasing competitive global marketplace.

Attachment: Paul Grannis Feb 7 presentation at the ILC GDE Meeting in Beijing

   1. Use of high gradient linear accelerators based on ILC technology in broader
      societal applications – medical treatment, radioisotope production, electronics
      fabrication, nuclear waste transmutation …

    2. High gradient superconducting rf for science
        SCRF can be applied for new facilities in other science areas – free electron
lasers,    energy recovery linacs, neutron sources, and high intensity proton or ion
accelerators. These will stimulate new advances in biology, chemistry, materials science,
nuclear physics, astrophysics, neutrino studies, environmental science …

    3. RF superconductivity science
        Advance understanding of rf superconductivity/material science. Develop new
materials, new information on surface metallurgy, processing methodology, new
fabrication methods.

   4. High power RF systems
       Develop more efficient, reliable RF power systems (modulators, klystrons); new
more efficient rf power distribution methods.

    5. High intensity storage rings
        High intensity, small phase space beams for ILC damping rings with improved
understanding of non-linear and collective effects and their mitigation. Fast kickers for
injection/ejection; pulse compression schemes.

     6. Nanometer scale beam instrumentation
        New instrumentation capable of measuring nanometer or micrometer sized beam
position, profile – higher order mode monitors, laser wires, X-ray synchrotron devices,

    7. Large scale metrology and alignment
        Robotic survey systems for real-time, dynamic, micrometer-level alignment over
kilometer scales. Feedback systems for restoring alignment. Remote alignment systems
for large devices (magnets, cryomodules, etc.). Improved mitigation of vibration and
ground motion.

    8. Sources
        New technology for electron beam sources, time programmed lasers, photo-
cathodes, electron gun technology, low-emittance high-current electron sources,
undulators for intense photon production, high intensity Compton backscattering
polarized positron beams.

    9. Accelerator simulations
       Development of new cradle-to-grave simulations codes for study of beam
transport in the presence of collective effects, wakefields, element misalignment, ground
motion. Advanced modeling of electromagnetic structures

   10. Particle detector instrumentation
        Finely segmented pixel detectors for general imaging applications in medical,
security, materials scanning. New detector technologies such as thinned silicon pixels,
GEMs, Micromegas etc.

   11. Further development of GRID computing through distributed computing, data set
       New applications of artificial learning techniques for decoding complex


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