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2007 AP® ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Section II Time – 90 minutes 1. Read the Fremont Examiner article below and answer the questions that follow. CITY COUNCIL SWEAGE VOTE Last night the Fremont City Council, Ramos noted that the upgrade was by a 4 to1 vote, approved an upgrade needed to protect the water quality of of the town’s sewage treatment plant, the Fremont River. A local which currently discharges one environmental science, Dr. Goodwin million gallons of treated wastewater advised the council members that into the Fremont River daily, will be sewage treatment plants may solve a upgraded from primary to secondary water quality problem, but they create treatment next year. Councilperson a solid –waste problem. (a) Identify ONE component of the sewage that is targeted for removal by primary treatment and ONE component of the sewage that is targeted for removal by secondary treatment. (b) For EACH of the pollutants that you identified in part (a), describe how the pollutant is removed in the treatment process. (c) Explain how sewage treatment plants create the solid waste problem that Dr. Goodwin mentioned in the article. (d) Two common methods of disposing of solid waste from sewage treatment plants are transporting it to a landfill or spreading it onto agricultural lands. Describe an environmental problem associated with EACH of these methods. (e) The final step in sewage treatment is disinfection. Identify ONE pollutant that is targeted during disinfection and identify ONE commonly used method for disinfection. (f) Identify ONE United States federal law that requires monitoring the quality of the treated sewage that is discharged into the Fremont River. 2003 AP® ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Section II Time – 90 minutes Directions: Answer all four questions, which are weighted equally; the suggested time is about 22 minutes for answering each question. Write all you answers on the pages following the questions in the pink booklet. Where calculations are required, clearly show how you arrived at your answer. Where explanations or discussion is required, support your answers with relevant information and/or specific examples. 1. Read the Fremont Examiner article below and answer the questions that follow. Worm Invasion A researcher studying the ecology of accumulation of slowly decomposing the deciduous forest outside of leaves. Dr. Tate explained that “the Fremont has made an alarming leaf litter is critical to the survival of discovery. While taking an inventory local species of forest plants.” Dr. Tate of the species present on the forest has found the Asian worms, unlike floor, Professor Peter Tate discovered their indigenous cousins, consume the many earthworms of an Asian species entire layer of leaf litter in a single not previously known to live in this season. He said, “This sets the stage area. The Asian worm, unlike native for the takeover by invasive exotics worms, have voracious appetites. such as Japanese stilt grass.” Dr. Tate The forest floor is home to a myriad of and other scientist are exploring species that live in the leaf litter, strategies for the control of the Asian which is composed of several years’ worms. (a) support Dr. Tat’s assertion that “the leaf litter is critical to the survival of local species of forest plants.” (b) Describe THREE abiotic changes that would be likely to result if the exotic worms consumed all the leaf litter in a single year. (c) For one of the changed you identified in part (b), explain how the change could set the stage for the takeover of Japanese stilt grass or other exotic species. (d) Design a controlled experiment to determine whether the worms, in fact, do change the forest ecosystem. Identify the environmental factor you will measure, and include the specific hypothesis you will test and the data you will collect.
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