Agricultural land use the Agro-M

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					 Agro-MAPS: Mapping sub national
land use statistics on a global scale

            H. George, I. Verbeke and S. Corsi
              Land and Water Division, FAO

                   Wye City Group Workshop on
 Statistics on Rural Development & Agricultural Household Income
                      ROME, 11-12 June 2009
                                                           H. George, FAO
   Agro-MAPS
     • Origins & key characteristics
     • Value addition
   Land use issues and rural development
   Selected land-use applications
    • Development of land-use indicators
    • Mapping & characterization of land-use
   Concluding remarks
                                               H. George, FAO
            Agro-MAPS: Origins
LU information needed for specific global applications
   IFPRI -- Impacts of new technologies; nutrient balances, ..
   SAGE -- Climate change; human impacts on ecosystem services, ..
   FAO -- Land degradation, farming systems, early warning, ....

Informal Consortium (Agro-MAPS)
   Meetings (2002; 2003); pool data holdings
   CIAT (joined in 2003); IRRI, ILRI – major contributions
   Funding: within existing programs; MEA (core indicator data set)
   FAO contributions: coordinated through interdepartmental
    working group (SPATL)

                                                                H. George, FAO
                       Key Decisions

   Focus on food crops; globally/ regionally
    important; most recent data; time series?
   Production, Harvested area; Crop yields
   Geo-referenced; admin 1 and 2
   Global coverage, largest countries
   Pool existing data holdings & published
    sources (e.g. Ag census)                           FAOSTAT – 57 countries

   Harmonize data (codes; units; but no
    corrections); include reference to data
   No long-term commitments!

OPPORTUNITY: Seek partners to develop synergies
for further improvements ---data gathering, content,
formats, harmonization, long-term development, ...     Agro-MAPS – 5690 units
                                                                     H. George, FAO
   Challenges of implementation
Data Compilation/ Harmonization
 Multiple sources (± metadata)                 SAGE
 Ambiguities (-, ., 0, blank, NA, ..)
  Boundaries (variations - extent,

  names, codes – SALB, FIPS,                    FAO
  NUTS, GAUL, ad-hoc, ..)                              IFPRI
 Crop codes

Data access/ dissemination
 CD-ROM (2006)
 Web site development (interactive,
  850 Mb data) & distributed update
  data vs boundary info, ..)
                                                        H. George, FAO
Region 1   Ariana                  TUN001001       44    1994     031     2100
Region 1   Ben Arous (Tunis Sud)   TUN001002       44    1994     031     1700
Region 1   Tunis                   TUN001003       44    1994     031     300
Region 2   Bizerte                 TUN002001       44    1994     031     6000
Region 2   Nabul                   TUN002002       44    1994     031    17300
Region 2   Saghuan                 TUN002003       44    1994     031     2800
Region 1   Ariana                  TUN001001       44    1994     051     1900
Region 1   Ben Arous (Tunis Sud)   TUN001002       44    1994     051     1500
Region 1   Tunis                   TUN001003       44    1994     051     400
Region 2   Bizerte                 TUN002001       44    1994     051     5400
Region 2   Nabul                   TUN002002       44    1994     051    18600
Region 2   Saghuan                 TUN002003       44    1994     051     3400

                   Match codes appearing in
                       tables and maps

                                                                                 H. George, FAO
   Boundaries: A X-cutting issue
CHALLENGE: compile & distribute all aggregated data and
their corresponding boundary maps

   FAO                        IFPRI

•Different boundaries from different sources
•Differences reported for different crops; year;
•Disputed Boundaries
                                                   H. George, FAO
             Status: Data coverage
 134 Countries - 92% of the
  world land surface covered
 Some data without maps
 Updates/corrections (via
  publications; collaborators;
  projects, .. public feedback
                                         130 – admin 1
          Region     Crops     Years
 Africa               72     1981-2008
 Asia                 20     1970-2001
 Europe               18     1975-2001
 Near-East in Asia    72     1984-2001
 LAC                  45     1984-2001
 North America        26     1970-2002
 Oceania              30     1982-1997    59 - admin2
                                                H. George, FAO
             Status: Data quality

Agro-MAPS                                                   > FAOSTAT


                                                            < FAOSTAT

    •Use „metadata‟ to consult original sources
    •Develop better indicators for data sharing
                                                            H. George, FAO
   Web-based LU info system

                                   Web site enhancements
                                     • rapid update;
                                     • best resolution display
                                   Derived info products to
                                    support applications
                                     • major crop combinations
Interactive display BY REGION        • raster versions
                                                      H. George, FAO
                     On-line query

Find best matching shapefiles!

                            % Data displayable
                                                 H. George, FAO

         Download options
•CSV, dbf, ..
•All statistical data (by country, region)
•All statistical data for a specific query
•Shapefiles (except Europe)

                                              H. George, FAO
 Site updates & adjustments
Site Administrator only
  Rapid update
   • datasets,
   • layers
All Users
  Adjust parameters
   • crop combination tools

                              H. George, FAO
Generate a CD of the site

                            H. George, FAO
    Locally important crops
                                          Burkina Faso
Preview time series data BY COUNTRY

  Data sources                        Important crops

                                                Burkina Faso
                                                         H. George, FAO
      Agro-MAPS: Added value
   Global compilation of sub national data
     • versus national aggregates – FAOSTAT
     • global analyses & perspective studies
     • geographic targeting within countries
   Geo-referenced formats
     • vector; raster for easier integration with user
       applications (under development)
   Derived information – LU characterization
     • indicators on rural development issues
     • locally important crops or crop groups -> LU
       systems mapping
                                                         H. George, FAO
Land issues & Rural Development
 LU changes to combat food insecurity & poverty

 High bioenergy demand & indirect LU changes

 Land scarcity

 Large scale cropland acquisitions

 Climate change impact on land suitability and use

 Increasing urbanization

 Highly variable food prices; trade

 land degradation (including forest)

 sustainability of agro-ecosystems/ biodiversity

 food versus environmental tradeoffs
                                                      H. George, FAO
    Development of LU Indicators
   Percent changes
     • crop production; per capita production
     • area harvested; per capita area harvested
     • yields (NB: influences due to management; rainfall)
     • yield gap
   Proportions
     • harvested area to total suitable area (NB: differs from
       arable land to total land area)
     • harvested area to cropland area (i.e. cropping intensity)
   Differences
     • Potential vs Actual yields (e.g. field trials, Agro-MAPS)

                                                         H. George, FAO
Yield gap – sorghum (kg/ha) - BFA

 YIELD GAP -- Difference between potential yields and actual yields
 available from Agro-MAPS.

                                                                  H. George, FAO
             Yield gap map
           (sorghum, Kg/ha)
Yields from field trials versus yields from Agro-MAPS

                                                For geographic
                                                targeting of
                                                regions where
                                                productivity gains
                                                are possible

                                                          H. George, FAO
 Harvested vs suitable area

Harvested area   Highly suitable area

                                    H. George, FAO
Harvested vs suitable area

                         H. George, FAO
Harvested vs total cropland
Harvested area   total cropland area

                                   H. George, FAO
                     Cropping intensity
Harvested area to total cropland (i.e. cropping intensity)

It is useful for estimating future food production under given conditions of the availability of land suitable for
cropping and population growth

                                                                                                         H. George, FAO
      Land use systems mapping
• Distinct geographic assemblages of
   i. the natural resources base,
   ii. current land use and management, and
   iii. the socio-economic setting
• Facilitates „territorial‟ vs. sectoral
  policies & planning
• Global  sub national scales                Farming
                                              systems &

                                                          H. George, FAO
Locally important crops

•Set of crop(s) having the highest relative percentages of total harvested
area which together just exceed a predetermined threshold percentage
(75%) of the total harvested area for each administrative unit.
•“Mixed‟ label if the number of crops is greater than 4 (user selectable)
National LU systems mapping                                                                     Senegal

   RESOURCE BASE                             ENTERPRISE                     SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT
  (production conditions)             (use of resources – land use)          (explanatory factors – influence
                                                                            land use management practices)
 AEZ suitability                      crops & management                    population density

 soil; climate; terrain               livestock & management                infrastructure (access to
                                                                            advisory services;
 land cover                           fishing & management                  markets)
                                                                            land availability


    Agro-MAPS data
                                        farming systems map              ± indicators to suit end-user needs
                                                                         •land tenure, plot characteristics
scale independent framework                                              •orientation/intensity of production
                                                                         •prices/ subsidies, credit access
 created by spatial integration of relevant data for each of the 3
 major land-use characteristics with the aid of geographic information
 systems as well as with input of expert local knowledge
                                                                                                    H. George, FAO
LU systems & attributes

LADA -- National land degradation assessment - Senegal
LU systems & degradation
   % area affected by land degradation
         Agro-MAPS: User survey
Climate change
•GIS-based cropland GHG inventory for Burkina Faso and Tanzania
•C sequestration calculation
•MSc research project aiming to upscale the emissions of the ozone depleting gas
methyl bromide
•research on carbon sequestration in croplands

Land-use (policies; assessment; planning)
Land use assesment in calculating arid and semi arid land area in Kenya
Plantation planning
Comparing yields between SSA and LA
Biofuels policies impact on land use
For presentation of sugarcane production ares under cultivation and yield in India
For research Purpose- Land-livestock planning on country scale
Data Preparedness for response to emergency
seminar on food security

Academic and scientific
Modelling exercise on water use
Research on Crop Growth Modeling
biofuels research
Change in indigenous land practices since 1950
                                                                                H. George, FAO
       Agro-MAPS: User survey
Environment analyses and management
Geospatial analysis for evaluating North American and European Union ecological
areas for pesticide dissipation studies project
Ecological Region analysis North America and EU
Establish GIS database for environment management

Investment and marketing
Investment research
Preparing analyses for sales department
Size markets in Argentina and Brazil
soyabean production in Madhya Pradesh research
researching oil palm industry in DRC
Gain understanding of African agricultural imports/exports to assist my work in
Mozambique as a volunteer consultant to sustenance farmers
food production and consumption in asia

                                                                             H. George, FAO
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           Concluding remarks
   Agro-MAPS: ready access now
    • to sub national LU data (vs national aggregates)
    • derived information, on global scale
   Facilitates development of
    • LU indicators of relevance to MDG1 and 7 issues in
      rural development
    • LU systems maps allowing a territorial vs a sectoral
      approach to policy formulation and planning
   Info gaps remain
    • time series data; no data for some countries
    • seeking collaborative arrangements for future sub
      national LU data compilation (not just statistics)
                                                     H. George, FAO