Botswana by decree


									   Strategic Performance
Management at the University
        of Botswana

Keynote Presentation at the 5th Colloquium
   on Performance Evaluation of Library
Personnel – University of Vera Cruz Ana in
  Mexico - 16th to 18th September 2007

        Prof. Amos Thapisa
               About Botswana
• The Republic of Botswana has
  a total area of 600,370 km².
• It is the world's 45th-largest
  country (after the Ukraine) &
  about the same size as Texas in
  the USA.
• It is a landlocked nation in
  Southern Africa bounded by
  Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe,
  and South Africa.
• It is the largest exporter of
  gemstone diamonds in the world
  with an annual output of 15
  million carats.
• a large beef exporter to the
  European Union.
        Economic Stability
• Botswana was one of the
  20 poorest countries in the
  world at independence.
  Today, it is considered the
  richest non-oil producing
  country in Africa.
• It graduated from a low
  income country to middle
  income with a per capita
  income of P9 359.
• The economy growth has
  enabled Government to
  increase resources for its
  development budget -
  1999/2000, development
  budget was P3.450 billion.
                 High Class Tourism

• The Okavango Delta is
  the largest inland delta
  on Earth. Instead of
  flowing into the sea, the
  annual flood of fresh
  water flows inland,
  spreading over 15
  000km² of the Kalahari
  sand in a maze of
  lagoons and channels.
Land of Colourful Sunsets &
  The University of Botswana

• Founded in 1964 as the
  University of Basutoland,
  Bechuanaland and Swaziland
  with 180 students
• Inaugurated as UB in 1982

Current figures
• Overall total of 15,710
  students and 2,217 staff
• Six faculties
          Our Strategic Foundations
•   Our Vision: To be a leading
    academic centre of excellence in
    Africa and the world.
•   Our Mission: To advance the
    intellectual and human resource
    capacity of the nation and the
    international community
•   Our Values:                         1.   VISION               2. MISSON
    Students learning: an
    environment which ensures that
    learning is the central focus of
    students´activity ….
•   Academic Freedom: upholding the
    spirit of free and critical thought
    and enquiry…
•   Academic Integrity: expressed in
    creativity, objective analysis,
    experimentation, critical thought
                                                      3. VALUES
  Launch of the UB Performance
      Management System

• Launched in June 2004 in 4 phases
  – Diagnosis, Gab Analysis and Project Plan:
    Development of a Project Plan and assessment
    of the institution’s readiness for a new
    programme (2004)
  – Overall Design Principles - Identification of Key
    Design Issues and policy formulation –
    Production of PMS Policy statement (2004)
  – Detailed Design Principle Phase - Translating
    Policy into detailed design for implementation
    & production of the PMS Manual and Staff
    Training Programme Development (2005 ) and
  – Implementation – Staff training and Pilot
    implementation. (2006)
   Objectives of the UB Performance
         Management System

1. enhance institutional efficiency, and
   productivity to more effectively achieve
   institutional objectives.
2. align employees’ work objectives with
   institutional goals, vision, mission and
3. develop job competencies and skills in
   order to ensure employee preparedness
   to deliver on institutional objectives.
4. ensure employees´full participation in
   the formulation of institutional
   objectives as enunciated in the strategic
   plan, “Shaping our Future”.
  Stage 1: Formulate Strategic Plan

                                          • State vision,
              Improve     1        Plan
                                            mission and
Environment             Managing          • Define core
   Scan                                     business,
                                            mandate and
       Evaluate                           • Identify success
                          Act             • Develop key
                                          Phase 2
                    Stage 2: Setting Divisional or
                        Departmental Goals
                  Improve                Plan

 Business                     Managing
Environment                    Centre

                                                                        • Set Divisional or
                                Act                                       Depart. goals;
                                                                        • Set Divisional or
                                                    2         Plan
                                                                        • Coordinate
                                                Division or
                                                                        • Monitor
                                                Performance               performance;
                                                                        • Review
                                                                          outcomes; and
                                                    Act                 • Review
Phase 3                                                       Phase 4
                         Stage 3:Individual Performance:
                              1                               2
                  Improve              Plan      Improve                      Plan

                                                                                                  • Set individual
 Business                   Managing                         Managing
Environment                  Centre                        Project & Unit
                            Strategy                       Performance

                                                                                                    performance targets;
                                                                                                  • Provide performance

                                                                                     To Phase 4
                                                                                                  • Monitor individual
                                                                                                  • Trouble-shoot
                                        Managing                                                  • plan effective performer
                                        Individual                                                  development; and
                                                                                                  • Assess individual


                                                                                             Phase 4
                   Stage 4: The Performance Review

                              1                               2
                  Improve                Plan    Improve                      Plan

                                                           Project & Unit                                     • Review performance
                                                                                                                against depart and
                            Strategy                       Performance


                                                                                                                individual targets;
                                                                               Improve                 Plan

                                                                                                              • Plan new team and

                                                                                                                individual targets;

                                                                                                              • Communicate the
                                                                                                                consequences of
         Improve                                                            Plan
                                                                                                                good or poor
                                                                                                                performance to
                                                                                                                teams and
                                        Managing                                                                individuals.
                                       Consequence                                                            • Provide rewards


                                                Act                         Employment
     Strategic Alignment
• Alignment is a process of linking the
  vision/mission of the institution with the
  challenges it has to meet, the priorities it is
  pursuing, business direction it wants to take,
  strategies available to it, and the goals it wants
  to achieve with team and individual performance.
• There is need to integrate available information
  and communication technologies (ICT) such that
  their implementation achieves stated institutional
  objectives or expected results.
• Supervisors and supervisees jointly identify
  common goals and objectives which correlate to
  the strategic goals of the institution, thereby
  ensuring “goodness of fit”.
PMS Drives the Core Business

                          PMS as Part of CORE BUSINESS

                                   PLANNING                  Leadership/

             MACRO            Vision, Mission, Values              VC
             (Overall)       - Institutional Objectives

                             Institutional Broad Goals
                                   - Priority Areas               DVCs

                               Management Plans
                             Goals, Objectives, Targets           DEANS

                               Operational Plans
                           Goals, Objectives, Targets,
                         Resources, Processes Measures

                             Individual Operational Plans
            MICRO        Objectives, KPAs –KPIs + Measures        STAFF
                               Activities, Consequences

 Source: (Sekhwela, 2007 PMS in UB – Presentation to Senior Management)
       Elements of Performance

1.   Planning for performance
2.   Managing performance
3.   Reviewing performance
4.   Rewarding performance
5.   Individual Development
 Planning for performance
1. Supervisors and supervisees jointly identify
   common goals/objectives which align or correlate
   with the higher goals (Key Performance Areas) of
   the institution.
2. Goals, objectives, targets, Key Performance
   Indicators (KPIs), and competencies are jointly
   discussed and agreed to during face-to-face
   meetings with direct supervisors.
3. Formal written Performance Agreements (PAs) for
   each employee/supervisee.
4. Critical Success Factors (CSFs), which are the
   most important aspects of the service from a
   stakeholders’ point of view are defined at this
5. Meaningful performance standards that make the
   institution most successful and that customers
   (students, parents and sponsors) care most about
   and not necessarily those things that the deans
   and directors want are defined.
         Managing performance
• All employees are expected to implement their
  agreed objectives and Key Performance
  Indicators (KPI).
• They are expected to monitor and manage their
  own performance with the assistance of their
  respective supervisors.
• Supervisors provide motivation by advising and
  removing obstacles in the work environment.
• They provide opportunities for joint problem
  solving and make available the necessary
  resources, coaching and training.
• Key Performance Areas (KPAs) and objectives are
  weighted out of 100 so that appropriate emphasis
  is placed on the most important things.
• Each KPA may have several objectives which are
  also weighted
        Reviewing Performance
• The performance review involves a determination of
  how well the agreed goals/objectives/KPIs have been
• All agreed upon elements of performance; objectives,
  behaviours/values, and competencies are assessable .
• Problem areas are identified and corrective measure
• Ensure that appropriate behaviours or values have
  been applied – use 360° evaluation.
• For example, to what extent are teamwork, customer
  focus, creativity and innovation are being employed?
• Ensure that technical or managerial competencies
  specific to jobs exist for the evaluation of
     Rewarding Performance
• Pronounce at the outset that performance would
  carry consequences. This meant that employees
  would be rewarded for good performance in both
  monetary terms and incentives.
• This has been referred to as a Performance-
  Related Pay system (PRP), predicated on the
  Government of Botswana pay scheme.
• Non-monetary rewards such as praises and public
  recognition have been included as motivational
  issues to encourage good performance.
  Rewarding Performance 2
• It is believed that through a reasonable
  reward system the institution would be
  able to recruit the right people, with the
  right mix of skills and competences, to
  ensure success.
• Unacceptable performance, which is
  performance that is below expectation,
  would incur consequences such as denial
  of an annual increment or dismissal in
  cases of continued poor performance over
  a given period of time.
      Individual Development Plan
• In order for an institution to succeed it
  requires people not only those who are
  well motivated to work but also those that
  have the requisite training and
  competencies to perform.
• Include in the process the expectation that
  employees would be developed to enable
  them undertake their tasks.
• Addresses the growth needs of each
  employee emotionally, intellectually,
  personally, perceptually and socially
   Individual Development Plan 2
• It is believed that this will not only help people
  perform but also live up to their full potential.
• Individual Development Plans spell out the actions
  that an employee should take to develop
  themselves in order to extend their knowledge and
  skills, increase their levels of capability, and
  improve their performance in specific areas as
  agreed with the supervisor.
• It is a requirement that such needs are captured at
  a point when the Performance Agreement is being
  discussed so that they are made part of the
   The Performance Agreement
• The University of Botswana Performance
  Management System requires that there should
  be a Performance Agreement entered into
  between the supervisor and supervisee.
• This is a formal process that ensures that the
  strategic goals and objectives of the institution
  arrived at through a consultative and
  participative process and aligned with individual
  performance objectives and individual
  development plans (IDPs) are met.
• Individual performance is set against the
  priorities providing details of the objectives that
  are going to be pursued in the coming year.
The Performance Agreement 2
• It is a promise to deliver in terms of what is
  expected of an individual employee or team to
  accomplish with regard to agreed performance
  measures and standards such as goals,
  objectives, targets, KPIs, and competencies.
• It is a tool that ensures that there is
  understanding and agreement between the
  supervisor and the supervisee on the major goals
  and objectives and accountabilities of a given
• This process is revitalized annually to reflect the
  surfacing of new priorities and requirements and
  to remove those goals and objectives that have
  been achieved.
       Intelligence Information
• A well considered vision for a successful Performance
  Management System should include an intelligence
  information system or decision support system (DSS) that
  gathers information on how effectively the institution is
  meeting the tenets of its strategic mission.
• Strategic Performance Management (SPM) requires that an
  institution should draw upon its corporate knowledge in
  order to make decisions based on evidence and not
• It should have an information system that helps it focus on
  all its initiatives and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
  supporting its goals and assist it to align resources to the
  strategies that lead to the successful achievement of its
    Intelligence Information
            System 2
• The system should allow authorities to
  focus on performance and achievements;
  align resources and day-to-day activities
  with corporate strategy and adapt to the
  changing demands of the market,
  customers and stakeholders.
• The idea is not just to manage
  performance but also to continually
  improve it as well as the decision making
• Once a Performance Management System (PMS)
  has been successfully implemented it should be
  continuously monitored, evaluated and revised to
  ensure how effectively it
  – (a) sends a clear, consistent message to employees and
    (b) represents the concerns of multiple stakeholders;
    individuals and groups that have interest, rights, or
    ownership in the institution and its activities (Jackson
    and Schuler 2002)
• The characteristics of a strategic performance
  management system are that, the institution
  should have a strategic plan which spells out its
  mission, goals and priorities.
• It should regard its employees as the most
  important asset and align their performance with
  the mission and institutional goals.
           Conclusion 2
• Through its performance review and
  appraisal system the institution should
  give recognition to its employees for their
  contribution to the achievement of
  institutional goals and success by
  rewarding them.
• It should provide feedback to them to
  ensure better performance and continuous
• It should avail opportunities for employee
  development and growth that ensures that
  employees have the requisite skills and
The End of Presentation

   • I thank you for Listening

• Delivered 18th September 2007

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