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Humanistic Psychology - PowerPoint

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									Humanistic Psychology

      Abraham Maslow
      and Carl Rogers
     What is Humanistic
It emphasizes an optimistic view of human
beings, as persons who have the ability to
grow (human potential)
Though it does not deny the effect of the
environment, it sees human beings as able
to transcend it to some degree
It stresses health and actualization
It is a reaction against a deterministic view
of human beings
Humanistic Psychology: the
      Third Force
 Psychoanalysis has sometimes been
 called the "first force" in psychology
 Behaviorism was the second force
 Both first and second forces are
 deterministic in their view of people
 Humanistic psychology saw itself as
 the third force, stressing human
 freedom and human potential
    The Human Potential
Both Maslow and Rogers were part of the "human
potential movement"
Part of the 1960's mindset, emphasizing the
realization of individual potential, was much
more open to spiritual perspectives than classical
psychoanalysis or behaviorism
In addition to individual therapy, this movement
led to the use of encounter groups, team training
It also fostered a holistic approach to health and
was sympathetic to techniques like massage,
meditation, proper nutrition, exercise etc…
 Esalen: the “home” of the
human potential movement
One of the places that became very
important in this movement, due to
the fact that a lot of experimentation
around the human potential
movement took place there is Esalen.
As part of this unit, you will be taking
a virtual fieldtrip there.
      Abraham Maslow 1908-
Born in Brooklyn, New York in a Russian Jewish
family, the oldest of 7 children
Had a painful childhood, and especially very poor
mothering. He also experienced much anti-
Had some college teachers he especially admired:
Ruth Benedict and Max Wertheimer --they are the
inspiration for his concept of "self-actualizing
He sought to attach himself to eminent people and
studied them.
 Maslow is known for his
  Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow proposed 5 levels of need: from
basic to more advanced, they are:
  Physiological (food, water, sex)
  Safety (security, order, stability
  Belongingness and love
  Esteem (from self and others)
The more basic needs have to be at least
partly satisfied before one can move up.
Self Actualized People (the
   top of the hierarchy)
Are in touch with their spirituality (peak
Are accurate in their perception of reality
Are comfortable with themselves & others
Are open, direct, spontaneous, independent,
playful, creative
Focus on problems outside themselves, are
concerned w/ society, the world
Need aloneness and privacy
Establish deep intimate relationships
Are non-conformists but highly ethical
Self actualized people are
        not perfect
They are, however experiencing a
high level of well being and personal
They are still growing
Do any of the characteristics surprise
What is a peak experience?
A special moment when everything
seems to fall into place
People transcend the self and are at
one with the world
Similar to a religious, or mystical
A transformative experience
A part of the process of self-
Can self-actualization be
The Personal Orientation Inventory
(Shostrum, 1974) measures self-
actualizing characteristics, along with
dimensions like inner-outer orientation,
ability to function in the present etc…
A research article using the POI to look
at the relationship between humanism
and religion can be found in the course
Bb library.
Why doesn’t everyone live
 up to his/her potential?
The Jonah complex: fear of growth
because growth may lead to new situations
we would not know how to handle
Psychological and/or spiritual growth
requires courage (in addition to grace)
Here is an interesting blog about the Jonah
complex, from a business perspective.
   Carl Rogers 1902-1987
Born in Oak Park, Illinois, fourth of six
children, evangelical background.
As a sophomore in college, went to an
international Christian student conference
in Beijing. Moved away from conservative
Christianity to very liberal beliefs.
Studied at Union Seminary in NY, then
transferred to Columbia to study
Then worked both in academic and clinical
  According to Carl Rogers
Important issues must be defined by the
individual: importance of an autonomous self:
self-insight is what predicts later behavior.
Actualizing tendency: people tend to develop
in a positive direction, toward self-
The way we perceive our environment
determines how it affects us. (Roger's theory
emphasizes phenomenology)
Incongruence between our self-concept and
our experience leads to pathology
    Rogerian Therapy is
  Client-Centered Therapy
Necessary conditions from therapist to client:
 Unconditional positive regard for the
 Accurate empathy with the client
 Congruence in relations between the
 therapist & client, authenticity
 In Rogerian therapy, the
Moves from talking about externals to
talking about personal issues
Moves from talking about the past to
dealing with the present
Becomes closer to and more
comfortable with his/her feelings
Becomes more open to new
experiences, experiences more
   The Fully Functioning
    Person, for Rogers
Is aware of all experiences
Lives in the moment
Trusts in his/her self
Experiences freedom in choices
Is creative and adapts well
Is still growing and experiencing
The End

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