Sustainability Toolkit - Offices

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					                            Sustainability Toolkit – Offices

                                            Invigorating Business Skills
                                          Invigorating Business Results                                    March 2009
This publication has been supported by funding from the Australian
Government Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts,
through the Education for Sustainability Grants Program.
The views and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the
authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Australian Government
or the Minister for the Environment, Heritage and the Arts or the Minister
for Climate Change and Water.
While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure that the contents of
this publication are factually correct, the Commonwealth and the NSW
Business Chamber do not accept responsibility for the accuracy or
completeness of the contents, and shall not be liable for any loss or
damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or
reliance on, the contents of this publication.
Climate change will affect every Australian      to a carbon-constrained economy.
business and is one of the most critical risk    We are also taking on the challenge to
factors that will impact the viability of        become more sustainable ourselves. The
businesses. As a result, climate change and      NSW Business Chamber has joined the
sustainability have moved beyond buzz            Sustainability Advantage Program,
words to being significant factors in            administered by the NSW Department of
business planning and operations. Business       Environment and Climate Change, and we
sustainability preparation is more than          have made significant progress in achieving
environmental preservation, it recognises        sustainability best practices.
the impact of businesses on society,
employees and the collective wealth of a         I congratulate businesses that have taken on
nation. It also helps businesses improve         the challenge of becoming a more
efficiency and productivity, which makes         sustainable organisation and in doing so,
good business sense – economically,              support their community and the
environmentally and socially.                    environment. We encourage members to
                                                 document their successes and let their
Although larger businesses have generally        clients, industry and stakeholders know and
been the first movers in addressing climate      engage in the process.
change within their organisations, all
businesses will be impacted, regardless of       It makes good business sense to be
size. The effects of climate change              sustainable.
regulation on large businesses and               Kind regards,
industries will be passed on throughout the
supply chain and will be felt by everyone,
even though direct compliance will not
impact most businesses. Early preparation
for climate change and energy regulation is
the most efficient and cost effective way to
ensure the long-term survival of your            Kevin MacDonald
business.                                        CEO, NSW Business Chamber
NSW Business Chamber recognises that
business owners and operators are essential
to the livelihood of the Australian economy,
but are often neglected in sustainability
information sources. To address this issue,
we have developed a practical and tailored
toolkit to assist and advise micro, small,
medium and large businesses that seek to
understand and implement their own
sustainability programs. The sustainability
toolkit is one component of a multitude of
business resources to assist in the transition

                                                                                                Invigorating Business Results > 3
  Table of Contents
  Opening                                                    3    Section III: Actioning Sustainability                19
  Section I: Understanding Sustainability                    6    Energy Efficiency                                    19
  What is Sustainability?                                    6       Lighting                                          19
    Sustainability in the Workplace                          6       Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)   20
    What is Climate Change?                                  6       Building Envelope                                 21
    Climate Change in Australia                              7       Office Equipment                                  21
                                                                     Water                                             22
  Risk Management                                            8
                                                                     Kitchens and Break Rooms                          22
  Benefits of Early Response                                 9       Transportation                                    22
  Section II: Getting Started                                10   Water Efficiency                                     23
  Step 1: Obtain Management Commitment                       10      Bathroom                                          23
  Step 2: Understand Historical and Current Resource Usage   10      Kitchens                                          23
                                                                     Cooling Towers                                    24
  Step 3: Establish Baselines, Benchmarks and Targets        11      Garden Areas                                      24
     Baseline                                                11      Water Harvesting                                  24
     Benchmarking                                            12      Recycling                                         24
     Key Performance Indicators (KPIS) and Targets           12      Fact Sheets                                       24
     Energy Benchmarks                                       13
                                                                  Resource Efficiency and Waste Reduction              25
     Water Benchmarks                                        14
                                                                     Waste Avoidance and Reduction                     25
     Waste Benchmarks                                        15
                                                                     Reuse                                             25
  Step 4: Audit                                              16      Recycling                                         25
     Walk-Through Audit                                      16      Office Supplies                                   26
     Detailed Technical Audit                                16      Building Design and Renovations                   26
     Additional Auditing Assistance                          16
                                                                  Section IV: Next Steps                               27
  Step 5: Prioritise an Action Plan                          17      Supply Chain                                      27
  Step 6: Monitor and Measure                                17      Sustainable Procurement Policy                    27
  Step 7: Staff Engagement                                   17   Taking it to the Next Level                          28
     Education                                               18       Efficiency First                                 28
     Rewards                                                 18       Renewable Energy                                 28
                                                                      Carbon Offsetting                                29
                                                                      Carbon Neutral                                   29
                                                                  Continuous Improvement                               29

4 >
Section V: Additional Information                          30
                                                                 Making sense
    Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS)
                                                                 into cents…
    National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting System (NGERS) 30
    Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scheme (GGAS)                  30   Reducing energy, water and waste
    Nsw Energy Efficiency Trading Scheme (NEET)             30   consumption in your organisation makes
    Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) – Lighting 30    great business sense. It can:
Funding Opportunities                                      31    >   Save money
Government Programs                                        32    >   Minimise climate change risk
                                                                 >   Enhance business image
Complementary Information                                  32
                                                                 >   Improve customer and staff satisfaction
Glossary                                                   33
                                                                 This toolkit serves as an introductory guide
Appendix                                                   34
                                                                 to basic sustainability principles, practices
   Walk-Through Audits                                     34    and actions that any business can employ to
   Energy Walk-Through Audit                                     help manage their costs and climate change
   Water Walk-Through Audit                                      impacts.
   Waste Walk-Through Audit

                                                                      Invigorating Business Results > 5
  Section I: Understanding Sustainability
  What is sustainability?                         sustainability, TBL and CSR reporting into           company image. Thus, integrating
                                                  one common framework. This system can                sustainability into business planning,
  Sustainability is a form of progress or
                                                  then be used as a consistent gauge of                policies, practices and training should be
  development that meets current needs
                                                  businesses’ influence beyond financial               considered standard practice, not an
  without compromising the ability of future
                                                  measures. At this stage, the GRI framework           optional add-on.
  generations to meet their needs. It is a term
                                                  is optional and mainly designed for the very
  used to describe process impacts on climate
                                                  large businesses.                                    What is climate change?
  change, water, energy, natural resources and
                                                                                                       Climate change, often used interchangeably
  waste.                                          Sustainability in the workplace                      with global warming, refers to any
  Sustainability involves accounting for three    Sustainability is not a passing fad or one-off       significant change in climate such as
  main factors: environmental, economic and       project, it is a critical decision making            temperature, precipitation, or wind, lasting
  social considerations. These three principles   process that will aid your business in               for an extended period such as decades or
  are often referred to as the triple bottom      managing its costs and environmental                 longer. Global warming is an average
  line (TBL). In practical terms, the TBL goes    outcomes as well as provide benefits to              increase in the temperature of the
  beyond traditional financial accounting and     customers and employees. The principles of           atmosphere near the Earth’s surface and in
  estimates the impact of a process, such as a    sustainability, outlined in this toolkit, should     the troposphere, which can contribute to
  specific business operation, on social and      be factored into core business decisions the         changes in global climate patterns1.
  environmental performance.                      same way cost, service and risk are                  Whether manmade or naturally occurring,
                                                  addressed in traditional organisational              climate change is having a noticeable
                                                  planning. There are many benefits to                 impact on the environment. Within a
                                                  accounting for sustainability in your                lifetime, serious environmental changes are
                  Economic                        business decisions, including cost reduction,        being observed which will diminish the
                                                  improved process efficiency, reduced                 capacity we have to maintain our quality of
                                                  environmental impacts and enhanced                   life and provide for future generations.
                                                                      The Greenhouse Effect                           Enhanced Greenhouse Effect

       Social                Environment                                  The earth is covered by a                                 Human activities –
                                                                    blanket of gases which allows                            particularly burning fossil
                                                                     energy from the sun to reach                           fuels (coal, oil and natural
                                                                         the Earth’s surface, where                          gas), agriculture and land
                                                                         some of it is converted to                          clearing – are generating
                                                                    heat energy. Most of the heat
                                                                                                                              more greenhouse gases.
  Figure 1.                                                          is re-radiated towards space,
                                                                                                                           Greater concerntrations of
                                                                            but some is re-radiated
  Sustainability and TBL Diagram                                             towards the ground by
                                                                                                                           greenhouse gases will trap
  In the business community the TBL is                                    greeenhouse gases in the                            more heat and raise the
                                                                     atmosphere. This is a natural                        Earth’s surface temperature.
  frequently addressed through corporate
                                                                    effect which keeps the Earth’s
  social responsibility (CSR). CSR is a concept                               temperature at a level
  whereby organisations take responsibility of                            necessary to support life.
  (and frequently report on) the environmental
  and social interests of stakeholders impacted
  by their business practices. Stakeholders
  include a contingency of customers,
  suppliers, employees, shareholders and the
  local community. At this stage, CSR is an
  optional responsibility measure and the
  degree of disclosure and action differs
  greatly depending on companies’
  sustainability goals.
  Standardisation of the various business
  sustainability reporting mechanisms is
  underway through the Global Reporting
  Initiative (GRI), which aims to combine         Figure 2. Greenhouse effect2

6 >
                                                                                                                                                                          S E C T I O N           1

Climate change and global warming are                        potential for trapping heat, which is know                     Consequently, Australia is being proactive in
caused by greenhouse gases (GHG) which                       as the global warming potential (GWP). For                     addressing and understanding climate
create a ‘greenhouse effect’ of warming the                  example, carbon dioxide (CO2) has a GWP of                     change mitigation and adaptation.
earth. Greenhouse gases are a natural part                   1, while methane (CH4) has a GWP of 23,                        How Australian businesses and economic
of the atmosphere. They absorb and                           meaning CH4 has more potential to trap                         systems cope with these impacts depends
re-radiate the Sun’s warmth and maintain                     heat than CO2, even though it exists in                        on the extent and rate of climate change,
the Earth’s surface temperature at a level                   smaller relative quantities then CO2.                          and on their capacity for adaptation.
necessary to support life. The problem we                    Note: The terms carbon emissions, emissions                    Australia’s CSIRO concluded that reducing
now face is that human actions, particularly                 and greenhouse gas emissions are used                          carbon emissions would reduce the rate and
burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil and                   interchangeably in this toolkit.                               magnitude of climate change, thereby
natural gas, and agriculture and land                                                                                       allowing businesses more time to adapt.
clearing, increase the concentrations of the                 Climate change in Australia                                    Acting early to cut emissions reduces
gases that trap heat. This is the enhanced                   Research by Australian and international                       damage and buys much-needed time4.
greenhouse effect, which is contributing to                  scientists shows that although Australia’s
a warming of the Earth’s surface and                                                                                        To address climate change issues and meet
                                                             contribution to climate change is minimal
creating dangerous side effects such as                                                                                     its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol,
                                                             on global levels, its environment and
increased frequency and intensity of storms,                                                                                the Australian Government plans to
                                                             economy will likely be one of the fastest and
droughts, flooding and raising sea levels2.                                                                                 implement a carbon trading scheme called
                                                             hardest hit by climate change due to the
                                                                                                                            the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme
Under the Kyoto Protocol Agreement that                      extreme heat and dryness of the continent.
                                                                                                                            (CPRS). CPRS is a cap and trade scheme that
Australia ratified in 2007, a mixture of six                 Rising global temperatures are projected to
                                                                                                                            is targeted to reduce Australia’s carbon
types of greenhouse gases are monitored                      increase the risk of rising sea levels,
                                                                                                                            emissions between 5 per cent and 15 per
and targeted for reduction to address                        bushfires, flooding, drought, changes in
                                                                                                                            cent below 2000 levels by the end 2020. The
climate change. For ease of understanding,                   biodiversity and ecosystems, evaporation
                                                                                                                            cap achieves the environmental outcome of
these six gases are then changed and                         rates, water quality and availability and
                                                                                                                            reducing carbon pollution. The ability to
reported in the equivalents of carbon. So                    extreme weather/storms. These risks could
                                                                                                                            trade ensures carbon pollution is reduced at
climate change is not just carbon emissions,                 dangerously impact Australians’ personal
                                                                                                                            the lowest possible cost.
it is a combination of six main greenhouse                   lifestyles, businesses and Government.
gases. Each of these gases has a different

                                                                                    Rainfall changes                                        Temperature changes
Figure 3. Contribution to total net
CO2-equivalent emissions
by gas 2006 in Australia³

             N2O             HFCs and PFCs
Nitrous Oxide 4%             Hydrofluorocarbons
                             and Perfluorocarbons 1%
        CH4                            CO2
Methane 21%                            Carbon Dioxide* 74%

                                                                   Drier   2030   Wetter         Drier   2070   Wetter
                                                                                                                                                    2030                              2070

                                                              -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8 0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8
                                                                    Rainfall change (%)           Rainfall change (%)           Temperature change (%)            Temperature change (%)
 * Includes confidential emissions reported as CO2 e
                                                              Figure 4. Projected changes in Australian precipitation (left) and temperature
                                                              (right) in 2030 and 20705

                                                                                                                                    Invigorating Business Results > 7
  Risk Management
  Climate change and sustainability can be         Identifying the areas of your business that     Market and competitive risks
  considered in terms of business risk             are at risk to climate change will help
                                                                                                   > Loss of new and existing consumer base
  management. Every business needs to              identify and prioritise immediate and longer
                                                                                                     by not offering green products and
  understand the major risks to its operations     term actions to address these risks. Each
                                                                                                     operating procedures
  and profitability; this is no different in the   business will need to evaluate climate
  context of sustainability. Aspects of            change risks based on its individual            > Loss of market share to competitors
  sustainability such as energy and water are      operating requirements and procedures.            offering of greener products and services
  critical to every business and a lack of         However, the key areas to consider include:     Reputation risks
  availability or large increases in costs could                                                   > Lack of consumer/client confidence in
                                                   Physical structure risks
  have significant negative impacts on the                                                            organisation
  business bottom line.                            > Increased insurance premiums due to
                                                     climate change issues                         > Appearance of being less innovative and
  The core climate change risks to businesses                                                         not proactive compared to competitors
  are:                                             > Structural damage from storms, fires and
                                                     floods                                        > Loss of revenue resulting from decreased
  > Higher energy costs                                                                               patronage
                                                   > Transportation delays or interruptions due
  > Increased general business costs including       to storm, heat and/or water damage            After the key climate change risks have been
     insurance premiums, raw materials,                                                            identified, it is helpful to prioritise these
     transportation, etc.                          Supply cost risks                               risks and form an action plan. One way to
  > Loss of revenue                                >   Increased raw material costs                organise operating risks around climate
                                                   >   Increased supply costs                      change is to create a risk analysis matrix.
  > Increased legislative requirements
                                                   >   Increased transportation costs              The following risk analysis matrix
  > Consumer expectations for ‘greener’                                                            demonstrates how to evaluate the urgency
     businesses and products                       >   Decreased water availability                of addressing your organisation’s risks. By
  Australian obligations through the Kyoto         >   Increased water costs                       organising the risks based on likelihood and
  Protocol and similar international               >   Increased energy costs                      impact, you can assess which areas are the
  environmental agreements have resulted in        >   Interruption or cessation of supply flows   highest and lowest risks to your
  additional legislation that impact                                                               organisation and plan accordingly.
  businesses. Such legislation mainly targets      Regulatory and litigation risks
  large and very large businesses; however,                                                        Additional assistance in risk assessment is
                                                   > Carbon emission liabilities
  the impact will also be felt by supportive                                                       available to businesses through programs
                                                   > Loss of tenders due to lack of                such as Sustainability Advantage (NSW
  businesses through the supply chain. This          sustainability or environmental policy
  could result in corporations providing their                                                     Department of Environment and Climate
                                                   > Non-compliance fines                          Change) as well as through professional
  own ‘legislation’ on products and services
  purchased. For example, in their efforts to      > Business delays from lack of preparedness     consultants for a fee.
  meet their own sustainability goals, larger        for regulations
  businesses may manage their suppliers by         > Liability for non-compliance with
  requiring them to demonstrate proof of             regulations or non-disclosure
  ‘green’ initiatives, environmental               > Liability for non-compliance with client
  management systems or policies. The best           sustainability requirements
  management of climate change risks and
  sustainability is to act early and prepare for
  doing business in a carbon-constrained
  economy. This will identify and allow for
  changes where necessary, as well as position
  a business ahead of its competitors.

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                                                                                                                                                          S E C T I O N    1

Table 1. Sample Risk Matrix
                                      Very Likely            Acceptable Risk       Unacceptable Risk Unacceptable Risk
                                                             (Medium)              (High)            (Extreme)
                                      Likely                 Acceptable Risk       Unacceptable Risk Unacceptable Risk
 What is the chance it

                                                             (Low)                 (Medium)          (High)
                                      Unlikely               Acceptable Risk       Unacceptable Risk Unacceptable Risk
                                                             (Low)                 (Low)             (Medium)
 will happen?

                                                             Minor                 Moderate             Major
                                                             How Serious Is The Risk?
Table 2. Sample Risk Analysis
 Risk                                          Likelihood     Impact            Risk Score       Sample Actions
 Supply risks
 Increased                                     Very likely     Major      Unacceptable risk      > Print double sided
 supply costs                                                                                    > Investigate supply reduction and reuse options (recycling, change to
                                                                                                   electronic invoicing)
 Increased                                     Very likely     Major      Unacceptable risk      > Implement ‘low hanging fruit’ energy reduction options (use energy
 energy costs                                                                                      efficient light bulbs, adjust thermostat) immediately
                                                                                                 > Develop plan for future energy consumption reduction options
 Increased water                               Very likely   Moderate     Unacceptable risk      > Implement ‘low hanging fruit’ water saving measures (install water
 costs and                                                                                         saving taps, fix leaks)
 restrictions                                                                                    > Investigate longer term water savings investments (rainwater tanks,
                                                                                                   grey water recycling, dual-flush toilets)
 Market and competitive risks
 Customer                                        Likely      Moderate     Unacceptable risk      > Review operations, supplies and products for ‘greening’
 demand for                                                                                        opportunities
 ‘greener’                                                                                       > Join government sustainability assistance program such as
 products and                                                                                      Sustainability Advantage

 Green or                                        Likely      Moderate        Acceptable risk     > Develop an environmental or sustainability policy statement
 sustainability                                                                                  > Join government sustainability assistance program such as
 requirement for                                                                                   Sustainability Advantage
 tendering                                                                                       > Denote sustainability measures in Request For Proposals

Benefits Of Early Response
Businesses that take early steps to mitigate                             aimed at reducing emissions will create new        On the contrary, inaction could ultimately
and adapt to climate change will be better                               markets for such products and services, as         mean reduced revenue and possibly business
prepared for any changes in regulations,                                 will customer preferences for more                 failure due to increased operating costs and
save money through efficiency and be ahead                               environmentally friendly options.                  loss of competitive advantage. Savvy
of competitors that are slow to address                                                                                     businesses recognise the threats and pursue
                                                                         Benefits of early action include:
climate change issues. Business operators                                                                                   the opportunities instead.
may also find they are able to capitalise on                             >     Cost savings
climate change as a revenue-generating                                   >     Increased efficiency
opportunity by developing and marketing                                  >     Competitive advantage
technologies, products and services that
                                                                         >     New customers
help others reduce their emissions, improve
their resilience to the effects of climate                               >     Increased customer loyalty
change and become greener consumers.                                     >     Preparedness for new legislation
Government and large industry initiatives

                                                                                                                                Invigorating Business Results > 9
  Section II: Getting Started
  Making the decision to pursue or at least        As a business operator, it is important that                                                As seen in Figure 5, water usage at this
  become aware of sustainability in business       you lead by example. So if change is                                                        business goes through troughs and peaks
  is commendable. When the decision has            necessary to a process, it is incumbent on                                                  throughout the year. In this case, after
  been made the following are important early      you to demonstrate that being sustainable                                                   investigation it was found that the
  steps take.                                      works.                                                                                      air-conditioning systems utilised more water
                                                                                                                                               during summer than winter. It was also
  Step 1: Obtain management commitment             Step 2: Understand historical                                                               found that water usage on average declined
                                                                                                                                               each year. Through investigation, the most
  Step 2: Understand historical and current        and current resource usage                                                                  probable cause was that leaks and
          resource usage                           In order for a business to progress and                                                     maintenance had been more pronounced,
  Step 3: Establish baselines, benchmarks          realise savings, it is necessary to know the                                                resulting in lower consistent water usage.
          and targets                              resource usage history and analyse the
                                                                                                                                               When you receive a bill relating to
  Step 4: Audit                                    findings.
                                                                                                                                               sustainability (energy, water and waste), it is
  Step 5: Prioritise an action plan                Obtain the following historical information:                                                necessary to record the financial and
                                                   > Energy usage (gas and electrical)                                                         consumption usage. Too often the bills are
  Step 6: Monitor and measure                                                                                                                  paid without checking for errors or major
                                                   > Water usage
  Step 7: Staff engagement                                                                                                                     changes. After all, you can only manage
                                                   > Waste / garbage services                                                                  what you can measure. An example of how
                                                   > Transportation (only if easy to obtain)
  Step 1: Obtain management                                                                                                                    to record usage is provided below in Table 3.
                                                   Many general suppliers will have your
  commitment                                       business on record, it might require an
  The most important step in taking an active      administration fee, but they should be able
  approach to sustainability is to obtain senior   to provide you a summary of your usage.
  management commitment. It is not
                                                   Organise this information into a meaningful
  sufficient to just have CEO/General Manager
                                                   format, such as Figure 5 below.
  initiation; it is necessary to get the senior
  managers engaged in the project as well.
  Management’s support is necessary as they                                                                         Historical Water Usage
  tend to have an overall view and active                   40.0
  participation in daily business operations
  and strategy development. Management is                   35.0
  likely to be responsible for implementing
  change. In smaller businesses, it is the
  business operator or owner who will need to
  demonstrate this commitment.
  It is important to publically record

  commitment to sustainable practices for
  annual recognition and measurement as                     20.0
  well as for stakeholders to be aware of your
  actions. For example, NSW Business                        15.0
  Chamber has displayed their ‘Commitment’
  online as a way of demonstrating that
  actions are being taken to become more
  As sustainability becomes part of the
  organisation’s culture, it will be important
  to continually review and update the                       0.0
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  sustainability commitments. Furthermore,
  measurable goals will need to be included in
  the commitment to ensure that performance
  can be measured.                                 Figure 5. Historical water usage for a business

10 >
                                                                                                                                           S E C T I O N   2

Table 3.                                             Step 3: Establish baselines,                        Regular monitoring of usage and cost
Site water consumption record                                                                            against the baseline will identify the
                                                     benchmarks and targets                              efficacy of your sustainability efforts and
 Date Reading          Usage            Costs        Baseline                                            also alert you to any discrepancies that need
 Taken                (kL/day)           ($)
                                                     Once historical and current usage data have         to be resolved, such as leaks or equipment
22/01/02               37.3            2349.90                                                           that needs to be repaired.
12/04/02               32.4            2041.20       been obtained, it is important to establish a
07/07/02               22.3            1404.90       baseline. A baseline is the amount of a
09/10/02               26.0            1638.00       resource (water, energy, supplies and waste)
20/01/03               18.9            1190.70       that your business typically uses. The
24/04/03               15.9            1001.70       baseline is used as the comparison rate for
23/07/03               12.5             787.50       monitoring future progress and
24/10/03               13.2             831.60       benchmarking against industry standards.
02/02/04               15.9            1001.70       Using the average consumption rate from a
27/04/04               21.1            1329.30       recent year (12-24 months) is an
21/07/04               12.7             800.10       appropriate baseline. For example, if the
26/10/04                7.6             478.80       business in Table 3 used 2002 as their water
 Average               19.7            1237.95       baseline, they would use $1,858.50 and 29.5
2004 Average           14.3             902.48       kL/day to evaluate their progress in terms of
2003 Average           15.1             952.88       usage and cost savings.
2002 Average           29.5            1858.50

Since Figure 5 and Table 3 are linked to the
same business, it can be seen that usage has
gradually decreased, resulting in financial
savings of 50%.                                      Table 5. Baseline Water Use (Sample Assessment)
                                                     Organisation Name
Table 4.                                             To be completed for all sites that are included in the organisations sustainability action plans.
 Business Activity Indicator                         Site Description                                 Normal operation            Variation from normal
 The business activity indicator is a unit of        Address                                          123 Sydney Street           321 Newcastle Street
 measurement that represents the business
 operation. Preferably it is the same indicator      Sydney Water Account number                      12 23456 789                987 65432 21
 that your organisation uses to assess business      Baseline start date                              1-Jan-2006                  1-Jan-2006
 efficiency. For example:                            Baseline end date                                1-Jan-2007                  1-Jan-2007
 > For commercial buildings and shopping             A = baseline water use per annum (kL)            50,000                      50,000
   centres “leasable area” in m2                     Business Activity Indicator                      Tonnes                      Tonnes
 > For hotels and hospitals “number of bed
                                                     B = Quantity of site business activity indictor 1,800                        2,000
   nights or meals”
                                                     per annum (corrected for variations)
 > For manufacturing and laundries “quantity
                                                     Is baseline representative of normal water       Yes                         No
   of production” in tonnes or other units
                                                     use (Yes/No)
 > For education “number of full time student
   equivalents”                                      If no, description of variation (i.e.,                                       Plant shutdown for
                                                     restrictions, shutdowns, refurbishments, etc)                                (July – August 06)
 > For irrigators “area” (i.e., golf courses, show
   grounds reserves) in m2                           C = Impact of variation on water use (i.e.       0                           -8,000
                                                     variation from normal) kL per annum
 > For swimming pools, clubs and pubs
   “number of patrons”                               D = A + C baseline water use corrected for       50,000                      42,000
                                                     variation (kL)
 Table adapted from NSW Department of
                                                     E = D/B baseline water use key performance 27.8                              21.0
 Energy, Utilities and Sustainability Guidelines
                                                     indictors (KPI)
 for Water Savings Action Plans, 2005.6
                                                     Baseline KPI units                               kL/tonne                    kL/tonne
                                                     Table adapted from NSW Department of Energy, Utilities and Sustainability Guidelines for Water
                                                     Savings Action Plans, 2005.6

                                                                                                            Invigorating Business Results > 11
  Table 6. Baseline Energy Use (Sample Assessment)                                                            A simple alternative waste baseline
                                                                                                              determination method is to weigh waste
   Organisation Name                                                                                          materials over ten normal, consecutive
   To be completed for all sites that are included in the organisations sustainability action plans. Energy   working days. Then extrapolate weight
   consumption should be reported in most appropriate units – i.e., kWh, GJ, etc.                             measurements over the month or year to
   Site number/name                                 1                  2                    3                 determine average waste generation.
   Address                                          123 Sydney         321 Newcastle        456 Ballina       Certain times of the year, such as end of
                                                    Street             Street               Street            financial year and school holidays, should be
   Energy provider Account number                   123 4567 89        987 6543 21          654 4568 45       avoided when utilising this method. This
   Baseline start date                              1-Jan-2006         1-Jan-2006           1-Jan-2006        method can also be used separately for
   Baseline end date                                1-Jan-2007         1-Jan-2007           1-Jan-2007        recycled materials.
   A = baseline energy use per annum (kWh)          50,000             66,000               65,000
   Greenhouse Emissions                             Tonnes             Tonnes
   (see NABERS)                                     45 Tonnes          59 Tonnes            59 Tonnes
                                                                                                              Benchmarking your resource consumption
                                                                                                              against industry average guidelines will help
   Business Activity Indicators                     m2                 m2                   tonnes
                                                                                                              determine potential savings opportunities.
   B = Quantity of site business activity           1,800              2,000                25,000
                                                                                                              Use the benchmarks below as a guide to
   indicator per annum, corrected for variation
                                                                                                              indicate the possible savings in your
   Is baseline representative of normal energy      Yes                No                   No
   use (Yes/No)                                                                                               building. If your baseline resource
                                                                                                              consumption is higher than the benchmarks
   If no, description of variation (i.e.,                              Increased energy Decreased
   restrictions, shutdowns, refurbishments, etc)                       consumption due energy                 below, there is a good chance there are
                                                                       to office            consumption       leaks or inefficiencies in your building’s
                                                                       refurbishment        due to March      systems. Note, you may need to convert
                                                                       for 2 months         2006              your baseline to the same units noted in the
                                                                                                              benchmarks, see key performance indicators
   C = Impact of variation on energy use (i.e.      0                  8,000                -3,000
   variation from normal) kWh per annum                                                                       Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
   D = A + C baseline energy use corrected for 50,000                  58,000               62,000            and targets
   variations (kWh)
                                                                                                              It is important to identify resource key
   E = D/B baseline energy use key                 27.78               29.0                2.48
                                                                                                              performance indicators (KPIs) for your
   performance indictors (KPI)
                                                                                                              building and set reduction targets. KPI’s are
   Baseline KPI units                              kWh/m2              kWh/m2              kWh/tonne
                                                                                                              quantifiable measurements that reflect your
   Table adapted from NSW Department of Energy, Utilities and Sustainability Guidelines for Energy            progress towards meeting your sustainability
   Savings Action Plans, 2005.7
                                                                                                              goals. You can determine resource KPI units
  Table 7. Baseline Waste and Recycling Generation (Sample Assessment)                                        by using the benchmarks below. For
                                                                                                              example, the most common water related
   Waste and recycling baseline                                                                               KPI for commercial office buildings is kL/m2/
   Complete separately for waste and recycling                                                                year, which is the number of kilolitres of
   Quantity Collected       Number of containers collected multiplied by volume or weight of the              water used per square meter of office space
                            container                                                                         per year9.
                            Your organisation has 10 wheelie bins of paper collected for recycling (or        Resource reduction targets can also be
                            waste) each month.                                                                determined by the benchmarks below. For
                            10 X 240L Bins = 2,400L of paper collected/month                                  example, the economic best practice
                            2,400 X 12 = 28,400L per annum                                                    benchmark (Tables 9 and 10) for water use
                            28,000 ÷ 1,000 (to convert litres to cubic metres) X 0.24 (to convert cubic       in office buildings without cooling towers is
                            metres to tonnes) = 6.9 tonnes per annum                                          0.47 kL/m2/year, this will be the water usage
   Cost                     Number of containers multiplied by cost of pickup per container.                  target you aim to achieve and exceed.
                                                                                                              Therefore, the actual amount of water you
                            Waste contractor charges $5.50 to pick up each paper recycling bin
                                                                                                              are targeting to conserve per year is
                            10 X $5.50/bin = $55.00 to recycle paper each month = $660 per annum
                                                                                                              determined by subtracting 0.47 kL/m2/year
  Adapted from A WRAPP Guide to Conducting an Office Waste Assessment8

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                                                                                                                               S E C T I O N   2

from your baseline score. Note: You may         Energy benchmarks
need to convert your baseline into KPI units.
Whether your business receives a low or         Table 8. Energy Benchmarks (based on NABERS ratings)
high rating, remember there are always
improvements and efficiencies that can be                                                 NABERS                      Kg CO2/m2
made to become more sustainable.                                                           Rating                    Carbon emissions10
NABERS                                                                                         1                             172
Ratings for offices                                                                           1.5                            158
                                                                                               2                             144
                       A NABERS rating
                       accurately compares                                                    2.5                            131
                       the performance of                   Tenancy                            3                             117
                       your office to other                                                   3.5                            103
                       similar premises, and                                                   4                              89
                       can assist you to                                                      4.5                             76
                       manage the impact of                                                    5                              62
your office on the environment. NABERS                                                         1                             199
ratings for offices include Energy, Water,                                                    1.5                            183
Waste and Indoor Environment.                                                                  2                             167
NABERS is the industry standard for                                                           2.5                            151
measuring and benchmarking the                           Base building                         3                             135
environmental performance of existing                                                         3.5                            119
Australian buildings, incorporating the                                                        4                             103
trusted Australian Building Greenhouse                                                        4.5                             87
Rating for offices. NABERS is a national
                                                                                               5                              71
initiative of federal, state and territory
                                                                                               1                             372
governments, and is managed by the NSW
Department of Environment and Climate                                                         1.5                            342
Change.                                                                                        2                             313
                                                                                              2.5                            283
NABERS ratings are based on actual data
                                                         Whole building                        3                             253
related to the performance of your premises
over the last 12 months. For a certified                                                      3.5                            223
rating that you can promote, you will need                                                     4                             193
to engage a NABERS Accredited Assessor to                                                     4.5                            164
calculate your rating. This will enable you                                                    5                             134
to use the NABERS trademark. You can             Table adapted from NABERS Benchmarks v6.010 and Sydney Water Best practice guidelines
self-assess the environmental performance        for water conservation in commercial office buildings and shopping centres9
of your office premises at no cost using the
NABERS Rating calculator – www.nabers. - but cannot promote
this rating.                                                                                    Table 8 Assumptions for energy
                                                Note: Conversion to kWh/M /year may
                                                                            2                   benchmarks:
                                                be required. To effectively compare the         > Density of computers: (m2/computer) 23
                                                performance of your building against            > Hours of operation/week: 50
                                                these benchmarks, the NABERS rating
                                                calculator should be used:                      > Building location Sydney

                                                                                                    Invigorating Business Results > 13
  Water benchmarks

  Table 9.
  Quick reference of water efficiency benchmarks in Sydney office buildings9
   Benchmark                          Offices with cooling towers        Offices without cooling towers
                                                                              (extrapolated figures)
   Median market practice with no            1.01 kL/m2/year                      0.64 kL/m2/year
   Economic best practice (median            0.84 kL/m2/year                     0.47 kL/m2/year
   of implementing water savings
   projects with two year paybacks
   Very well managed building                0.77 kL/m2/year                     0.40 kL/m2/year

  Table 10. Water Use Benchmarks9
                        Sydney Water performance            NABERS Water
                               benchmarks                      rating
       1.75                                                    1 star (1.73)
                                                                                        Leak Zone
       1.40                                                    2 star (1.39)
       1.20                                                    2.5 star (1.21)
       1.05                                                    3 star (1.04)
       1.00        Average practice for buildings with
                                                                                 Cost effective
       0.95        cooling towers and no leaks (1.01)
                                                                                 improvement zone for
       0.90        Economic best practice for buildings        3.5 star (0.87)
                                                                                 water cooled buildings
       0.85        with cooling towers (0.84)
       0.80        Well managed building with cooling           4 star (0.70)
                                                                                 Target zone for water
       0.75        towers (0.77)
                                                                                 cooled buildings
       0.65        Average practice for buildings without                        Cost effective
       0.60        cooling towers and no leaks (0.64)                            improvement zone for
       0.55        Economic best practice for buildings        4.5 star (0.52)   buildings without
       0.45        without cooling towers (0.47)                                 cooling towers
       0.40        Best practice for buildings without                           Target zone for
       0.35        cooling towers (0.40)                       5 star (0.35)     buildings without water
                                                                                 cooled buildings
  To effectively compare the performance of your building against these benchmarks, the NABERS rating
  calculator should be used:

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                                                                                                                                         S E C T I O N   2

Table 11. Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards Scheme (WELS) ratings9

                Taps                    Showerheads              Toilets                Urinals9
    Rating      Specification (L/min)   Specification (L/        Specification (L/      Specification (L/single stall or L/600 mm
                                        min)                     average flush)         of continuous length)
    0 Star      > 16                    > 16                     N/A                    > 2.5 serving a single stall or 4.0 for two stalls
    1 Star      > 12 and < 16           > 12 and < 16            > 4.5 and < 5.5        < 4.0 serving two stalls or equivalent continuous lengtha
    2 Star      > 9.0 and < 12          > 9.0 and < 12           > 4.0 and < 4.5        < 2.5 serving two stalls or equivalent continuous lengtha
    3 Star      > 7.5 and < 9           > 7.5 and < 9            > 3.5 and < 4.0        < 2.0 serving two stalls or equivalent continuous lengtha
    4 Star      > 6.0 and < 7.5         > 6.0 and < 7.5          > 3.0 and < 3.5        < 1.5 serving two stalls or equivalent continuous lengtha
    5 Star      > 4.5 and < 6.0         > 4.5 and < 6.0          > 2.5 and < 3.0        < 1.0 serving two stalls or equivalent continuous lengtha
    6 Star      < 4.5                   > 4.5 and < 6.0          < 2.5                  < 1.0 serving two stalls or equivalent continuous lengthb
    must be fitted with demand driven or smart demand operation
    must be fitted with demand-driven or smart-demand operation with a urine sensing device

Waste benchmarks
    Table 12. Recycling Benchmark                   Table 13. Total Materials Generation
                  Recycling Data                            Materials (grams/person/day)
    Star Rating          Percentage %                Star Rating            g/p/d
    0 star (not rated)   <25%                        0 star                 > 550
    1 star               33-26%                      1 star                 500 - 549
    1.5 stars            41-34%                      1.5 stars              450 - 499
    2 stars              49-42%                      2 stars                400 - 449
    2.5 stars            57-50%                      2.5 stars              350 - 399
    3 stars              65-58%                      3 stars                300 - 349
    3.5 stars            73-66%                      3.5 stars              250 - 299
    4 stars              81-74%                      4 stars                200 - 249
    4.5 stars            89-82%                      4.5 stars              150 - 199
    5 stars              >90%                        5 stars                < 149
    NABERS version January 2008    10
                                                     NABERS version January 200810

Note: To effectively compare the performance of your building against these benchmarks,
the NABERS rating calculator should be used:

                                                                                                            Invigorating Business Results > 15
  Step 4: Audit                                   To conduct a walk-through audit and get a       Energy efficiency for small business
                                                  better understanding of your business           program
  It is essential to know the types and
                                                  consumption patterns and opportunities for      The Energy Efficiency for Small Business
  amounts of energy, water and materials that
                                                  improvements, follow the basic steps and        Program provides assistance to businesses in
  are being used in your business. An audit of
                                                  checklists located in Appendix.                 reducing their energy consumption and
  key resources should be conducted to
  determine the overall resource efficiency of    Detailed technical audit                        costs. The program offers an energy audit
  your business and opportunities for savings.                                                    and efficiency advice, as well as rebates to
                                                  If you prefer not to administer a self
  The audit type that will be most useful and                                                     businesses wanting to minimise their energy
                                                  walk-through audit or found significant
  cost effective to your business depends on                                                      consumption. http://www.environment.nsw.
                                                  discrepancies between your utility bills and
  the size and complexity of your business and                                          
                                                  audit estimates that require advanced
  the level of detail you require. Two common     assessment, you can hire a professional to      Greenhouse challenge plus: energy audit
  audit types are walkthrough audits and          conduct a detailed technical audit. This type   tools
  engineering audits.                             of audit requires an engineer or auditing       The Department of Environment, Water,
  The majority of businesses will only require    professional who will provide a detailed        Heritage and Arts (DEWHA) has developed a
  a simple walk-through audit. If the site/s is   assessment of your business resource use        series of energy auditing tools for small to
  complex, then it may be necessary to obtain     and advise on:                                  medium sized businesses as part of their
  the help of a professional auditor.             > Opportunities to improve operating and        Greenhouse Challenge Plus Program. Visit
  There are Government programs that will           maintenance procedures                        their website to download auditing forms.
  help cover the costs of professional audits.    > Opportunities to utilise alternative
  See Additional Auditing Assistance below or       sources, resource re-use options within       challenge/members/energyaudittools.html
  alternatively contact your energy provider        the site and recycling where practical
  and request a technician do a simple audit                                                      Water
                                                  Additional auditing assistance                  Every drop counts
  of your facilities and equipment.
                                                  Sustainability advantage                        Sydney Water’s Every Drop Counts Business
  Before conducting any audit, consider and
  take any necessary actions to ensure the        Additional efficiency assistance is available   Program provides additional water
  following are addressed:                        through the NSW Department of                   assessment, auditing and efficiency
                                                  Environment and Climate Change’s (DECC)         assistance to Sydney Water customers to aid
  >   Privacy/confidentiality                                                                     businesses in managing and reducing their
                                                  Sustainability Advantage Program, including
  >   Security                                    audit guidance. This program helps              water consumption. Visit the following
  >   Occupational Health & Safety                businesses manage their resource use as         website for additional information on this
  >   Resources/volunteers                        well as plan and implement sustainability       program:
  >   Approval from building and contractors      planning in the workplace. Visit the DECC
                                                  website for additional information on this      savingwater/InYourBusiness/
  Walk-through audit                              program:        EDCBusinessProgram.cfm
  A walk-through audit analyses the utility       au/sustainbus/sustainabilityadvantage.htm
  bills and briefly surveys the building. This                                                    Waste
                                                  Energy                                          Waste Reduction and Purchasing Policy
  type of audit will identify potential savings
                                                  Sustainability advantage energy saver           (WRAPP)
  and aid in implementing low cost and no
  cost improvements as well as planning for       The NSW DECC’s Sustainability Advantage         Detailed waste auditing information and
  longer term capital improvements which          program also includes an Energy Saver           training is available through the NSW
  merit further investigation.                    option, which is designed to help mitigate      WRAPP program. Visit the following website
                                                  risks relating to the potential increase in     for additional information on this program:
  Goals of walk-through audit:
                                                  energy costs under a national emissions
  > Gather basic data on building structure,      trading scheme, CPRS. Visit the DECC
    systems and resource use                      website for more information: http://www.
  > Identify operational or maintenance areas
    that are wasting resources                    energysaver.htm
  > Identify capital projects that can improve
    efficiency and minimise waste

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                                                                                                                            S E C T I O N   2

Step 5: Prioritise an                                   Step 6: Monitor and measure
action plan                                             You can only manage what you can
Once an audit has been undertaken, it is                measure. Scheduling regular monitoring and
important to outline the savings and                    measuring of progress against the
efficiency potential or goals. This outline             designated targets will help assess the
will be the practical guide to achieving your           effectiveness of your sustainability programs
resource conservation targets. Whilst not all           and identify areas that need improvement. It
options are financially viable, outlining them          will also highlight any unusual activity or
provides an opportunity for assessment over             discrepancies in resource use that may
several years.                                          require maintenance.

When planning and documenting resource
improvement opportunities identified in the
auditing phase, it is important to assign
responsibility and a timeframe. Use the
following as a guide. The saving action plan
is also a good place to record your resource
baselines, KPIs and targets – this will help
organise and track your current progress
and develop future initiatives within one

Table 14. Sample Efficiency Savings Action Plan*

Current water usage
Baseline                 KPI        Benchmark/Goal Target reduction Actual (kL/day)       Timeframe
30 (2007)              kL/day         22.5 kL/day           25%          28.0 (Jan 09)    12-18 mo
                                                                         27.5 (Feb 09)
                                                                        25 (March 2009)
Water Efficiency Savings Action Plan
Description                              Cost             Savings        Responsibility   Timeframe
Install flow restrictors on taps        $1,500            2kL/day         John Smith      March 2009
Educational signage                      $200               N/A         Senior Manager     Feb 2009
Total                                  $1,700             2kL/day
Current energy use
Baseline                 KPI        Benchmark/Goal Target reduction Actual (kWh/m2)       Timeframe
185 (2007)            kWh/m     2
                                     129.5 kWh/m    2
                                                            30%          180 (Jan 09)     12-18 mo
                                                                         175 (Feb 09)
                                                                         125 (Mar 09)
Energy Efficiency Savings Action Plan
Description                              Cost             Savings        Responsibility   Timeframe
Efficient lighting in common area       $3,000           50 kWh/m   2
                                                                          Julia Smith     March 2009
Educational signage                      $200               N/A         Senior Manager     Feb 2009
Total                                  $3,200           50 kWh/m    2

*Note: Sample table, not based on actual benchmarks or savings

                                                                                                        Invigorating Business Results > 17
  Step 7: Staff engagement                        Education                                        Internal sustainability team
  Staff engagement is critical to the success     Staff education initiatives and easy access      > Create a sustainability team with
  of any sustainability program and will be a     to the Where, When and How of your                  members from each major department
  powerful driver to change within the            organisation’s sustainability program goals         such as marketing, finance and operations
  organisation. Implementing the necessary        will improve the success rate and retention      > Meet regularly with the sustainability
  process changes required for sustainability     of process changes. A few simple ways to            team and give updates on project
  and efficiency improvements in the              increase education and awareness around             progress as well as brainstorm new
  workplace is dependant on the cooperation       the office include:                                 initiatives
  and involvement of everyone in the              Signage and communication                        > Give one or two relevant and manageable
  organisation. People are generally willing to                                                       sustainability action items to each team
  contribute to being more sustainable and        > Post best practice signage in key areas
                                                                                                      member. This will assist in promoting
  efficient when they are given the                 such as toilets, kitchens, near copy
                                                                                                      ongoing improvement measures
  appropriate information on how their              machines and printers
                                                                                                      throughout the organisation
  actions can make a difference in improving      > Post signs noting the building or
                                                                                                   > Find other advocates within the
  the environment and help the business run         sustainability contact that should be
                                                                                                      organisation who are interested in
  more effectively. High commitment levels by       notified of leaks or equipment failures
                                                                                                      sustainability to help promote process
  senior management help employee                 > Examples and templates for signage is             changes to staff
  commitment and participation in                   available on Sydney Water’s website as
                                                                                                   There may be a few growing pains when
  sustainability and efficiency measures.           part of the Every Drop Counts program
                                                                                                   implementing processes that require staff to
  Suggestions to engage staff and enhance         > Create a designated area for sustainability    change unsustainable behaviours that they
  the outcomes of your sustainability efforts:      updates and information, such as on the        have had for years, but do not let this
                                                    company’s internal website or information      discourage or derail the company’s
  > Use common areas as forums to inform            board in break rooms/kitchens
    employees about energy, waste and water                                                        sustainability efforts. Continuous
    savings techniques and company                > Regularly communicate sustainability           demonstration of management commitment
    commitment to efficiency                        outcomes and wins to the entire company        and gradual adjustments will help to show
                                                  > Include sustainability updates with all        staff that sustainability measures are
  > Look for ‘sustainability advocates’ in
                                                    company performance and financial              important and require a new mindset rather
    different areas of the organisation to help
                                                    reviews. This will reaffirm the                than more effort.
    monitor and implement efficiency
                                                    organisation’s commitment to
    measures                                                                                       Rewards
                                                    sustainability as part of business
  > Reward employees for new resource               operations rather than it being seen as a      Demonstrating of company and
    saving ideas                                    separate program or department                 management commitment to sustainability
  > Inform staff of sustainability ‘wins’         > Create a sustainability newsletter for staff   measures will go a long way in engaging
  > Let your staff and customers know what          and customers                                  staff to act sustainably. Providing incentive
    steps the organisation is making to                                                            programs and rewards to employees who
                                                  > Develop a mechanism for staff feedback
    become more sustainable                                                                        actively participate in efficiency and
                                                    and ideas for sustainability projects
  > Join Government efficiency programs                                                            sustainability will help retain process
    such as NSW Government Sustainability                                                          changes and bring more staff members
    Advantage Program                                                                              onboard. Examples of reward and incentives:
  > Participate and celebrate national/                                                            > Provide a company mug to all employees
    international environmental events such as                                                       with ‘green’ branding
    Earth Hour and National Ride to Work Day                                                       > Provide a reusable carrying bag with the
                                                                                                     company logo to all employees
                                                                                                   > Offer public transportation incentives to
                                                                                                     employees, i.e., discounts or make travel
                                                                                                     passes available pre-tax
                                                                                                   > Impromptu small rewards, such as movie
                                                                                                     tickets, to staff who turn off their
                                                                                                     computer and monitor everyday

18 >
                                                                                                                               S E C T I O N     3

Section III: Actioning Sustainability
Energy Efficiency
Improving energy efficiency makes good
business sense, both economically and
environmentally. Energy efficiency measures
                                                             Efficiency, efficiency, efficiency…
can reduce your operating costs as well as                   you don’t have to pay for what you don’t use!
reduce carbon emissions contributing to                      If you do nothing else… following these simple best practice tips
climate change. There are many win-win
energy efficiency opportunities that can be                  1. Switch off – all energy consuming equipment should be turned off when
implemented in the work place.                                  not in use. Install timers where necessary
                                                             2. Fix leaks – repairing dripping taps, showers and toilets will save you
                                                                money on both water and energy bills
                     Other 3%                                3. Schedule regular maintenance and cleaning of equipment, including,
     Refrigeration 11%               Air handling 19%
                                                                HVAC, kitchens and vehicles
Office equipment                                             4. Install energy efficient light bulbs
Water heating                                                5. Adjust thermostat a few degrees higher in the summer and lower in the
                                                             6. Print double sided and use electronic documents rather than paper
                                                             7. Implement a recycling program (paper, plastic and glass)
                                                             8. Install water saving showerheads and taps
   Lighting 24%                                                      Heating
                                        Cooling 22%          9. Engage staff in your sustainability efforts
                                   Pumping 3%                10. Record and monitor your resource (energy, water and water) use, you
                    Heating 11%
                                                                 can only manage what you can measure
Figure 6. Energy use in Australian
commercial sector11

                                                Lighting                                         Usage
   Fast fact:                                   Artificial lighting makes up a significant       > Turn off lights in areas that are not
   If energy makes up a                         portion of electricity consumption in most         utilised
                                                commercial buildings. There are many
   quarter of your business                                                                      > Use task lighting to supplement general
                                                cost-effective ways to reduce energy               lighting
   costs, then a 20% energy                     consumption, improve energy efficiency and       > Utilise natural lighting, keep lights to a
   savings reflects a 5%                        reduce GHG emissions in existing buildings.        minimum during the day in areas that are
   increase in overall profit                   Efficiency replacements                            well lit by sunlight
                                                > Replace incandescent light bulbs with          > Clean lighting fixtures regularly
                                                  energy efficient compact fluorescent light     Sensors and switches
                                                  (CFL) bulbs, which use 70% less energy         > Label light switches to denote location of
                                                  than their incandescent counterparts             lights, aiding in switching off unnecessary
                                                > Not to mention incandescent lights will          lighting
                                                  be banned in Australia effective as of         > Avoid having several lights activated by
                                                  2010, so you’ll be ahead of the regulation       one switch, use separate switches for
                                                  by making an immediate change                    each light
                                                > Replace EXIT signs with light emitting         > Install switch plate occupancy sensors to
                                                  diode (LED) fixtures                             automatically turn lighting off when no
                                                > Replace older T-12/T-8 fluorescent               one is present
                                                  lighting fixtures with new slimmer, more       > Install timers on outside lighting, update
                                                  energy efficient T-5 models. Easy retrofit       timer seasonally
                                                  conversion kits are also available

                                                                                                       Invigorating Business Results > 19
  Energy Efficiency
  Table 15. Efficient lighting guide9                                                                 > If ducted HVAC system has zoning
                                                                                                        capability, program to only condition
   Inefficient lighting   Replacement lighting      Advantages and Disadvantages                        areas that are in use
   Standard fluorescent   T5 fluorescent lights,    Advantages                                        > If HVAC system does not have zoning
   tubes                  electronic ballasts and   • lower energy use                                  capabilities, shut vents in areas that are
                          lux reflectors            • slim line                                         not in use, note 80% of the vents should
                                                    • less flicker and buzz                             remain open while system is operational
                                                    • low levels of mercury
                                                    • white light                                     > Ensure heat producing equipment is not
                                                    • long life                                         located near thermostat sensors
                                                    • low loss of light over lifespan                 > If using a ducted HVAC system ensure
                                                    • high output lights available, if needed           furniture, drapes and other items are clear
                                                    Disadvantages                                       of the vents or outlets to ensure free
                                                    • will require new fittings and ballasts            airflow
   Incandescent globes    Compact fluorescent       Advantages                                        > Utilise fans where possible. Fans help
                          globes                    • lower energy use                                  circulate air, reducing the need for air
                                                    • wide range of colours and sizes                   conditioning, while remaining a
                                                    • long life                                         comfortable temperature
                                                    • will fit existing light sockets
                                                    • and fittings
                                                    • dimmable versions now available                 > Schedule regular maintenance checks for
   Low voltage halogen    Compact fluorescent       Advantages                                          HVAC equipment
   lights                 globes designed for       • lower energy use                                > Perform a pre-season check prior to the
                          recessed and track        • cheaper globes                                    winter heating and summer cooling, well
                          lighting                  Disadvantages                                       maintained systems cost less to run and
                                                    • requires new fittings                             provides better performance
                                                    • light output not as strong, may need            > For businesses with significant HVAC
                                                      additional bulbs                                  equipment, it may be worthwhile to have
   Low voltage halogen    35 w infrared coated      Advantages                                          the systems professionally audited for
   lights                 (IRC) lamps               • lower energy use                                  energy usage and efficiency
   Low voltage halogen    Light emitting diode      Advantages                                        > Check system is functioning and
   lights                 (LED) lamps               • lower energy use                                  programmed properly, test temperature
                                                    • longer life globes                                settings and airflow
                                                                                                      New systems
                                                    • relatively new products, availability limited
                                                    • more expensive globes                           > When purchasing a new HVAC system,
                                                                                                        make sure it is the most energy efficient
  Heating ventilation and air                       > In the summer adjust temperature to               model
                                                      23°-25°C                                        > Consult for
  conditioning (HVAC)
                                                    > In the winter adjust temperature to               energy efficiency ratings
  Heating and cooling also accounts for a             18°-20°C                                        > Depending on the age and type HVAC
  large percentage most businesses’ energy
                                                    > When outside temperatures are 20°-24°C,           system, it may be more cost effective to
  bills. Significant energy savings can be made
                                                      turn off heating or cooling if possible           install new, more efficient equipment
  by improving the efficiency of an HVAC
                                                    Airflow                                             prior to the old equipment failing
  system through upgrades, regular
  maintenance and participating in energy                                                             > When purchasing a new system, be sure it
                                                    > Check doors and windows have tight seals
  savings programs.                                                                                     is the appropriate size for your space and
                                                    > Keep exterior doors and window closed             use requirements. Systems that are too
  Temperature                                         during cold and hot days to prevent air           large or too small will not only waste
                                                      loss                                              energy but also increase your energy costs
  > Program HVAC system to automatically
    turn off after hours and switch back on         > Open the windows and turn off system on
    during operating hours                            nice days

20 >
                                                                                                                                  S E C T I O N    3

Energy Efficiency
                                                   > Install double or triple pane windows         > Disable screen savers set to ‘sleep mode’
  Did you know:                                    > Install window glazing, films or tinting        when a computer is inactive
  > Every 1°C increase on the thermostat           > Insulate window frames                        > Purchase the most energy efficient office
    will increase energy use by about                                                                equipment, look for Energy Star labelling
    15% in winter                                                                                    and ask about the power rating and
  > Every 1°C decrease on the                      > For a new facility, employ passive solar        energy efficiency
    thermostat will increase energy use              design and orientation, that is positioning   > Consider flat screen monitors rather than
    by about 10% in summer                           a building to take advantage of the sun’s       standard monitors – they are more energy
                                                     natural heating and light energy as well        and space efficient
  > You can save as much as 10% a year
                                                     as shade
    on your heating and cooling costs by                                                           > Consider using laptops rather than
    simply turning the thermostat back             > Optimise green interior design techniques       desktop computers, they are more energy
    by 1°C!12                                        to minimise light, heat and cooling needs       and materials efficient than desktop
                                                   > All new building work must comply with          computers
                                                     the Building Code of Australia energy
Building envelope                                                                                  Printers/copiers/fax
                                                     efficiency provisions
Building envelope energy efficiency                                                                > Activate energy saving mode on printers/
improvements are important considerations          Office equipment                                  copiers/fax
when your facility is being upgraded. Over         In Australia, office equipment consumes at      > When purchasing new copiers/printers/
the life of a building the upfront costs of        least 5% of all electricity and directly and      fax, look for models that are the most
energy efficiency improvements will                indirectly generates 9-11 million tonnes of       energy efficient and are programmable to
frequently pay for themselves through              CO2 each year. For a typical piece of office      automatically turn off out of business
energy savings. In the case of new                 equipment, about 85% of the total energy is       hours
construction, it is less costly and more           used during operation mode and active           > Consider removing individual printers and
efficient to “do it right the first time” rather   standby mode11.                                   utilise all-in-one printer/copiers that are
than make improvements later in the life of                                                          designed for double-sided printing and
the building.                                      General                                           use of recycled paper
Insulation                                         > Switch off all equipment at the end of the    > Also look for models that have toner/ink
                                                     day or when not in use                          saving modes
> Install insulation in exterior walls, wall
                                                   > Switch off equipment at the wall – most       > If copiers/printers warm-up quickly,
  cavities and ceilings
                                                     office equipment still uses a small amount      switch off when not in use
> New technology has made the installation           of energy even when it’s turned off
  of insulation into existing buildings much                                                       > Print in ‘batches.’ Make copies all at once
                                                   > Use the ‘power save’ mode on equipment.         rather than multiple smaller batches – each
  easier and less expensive
                                                     By enabling ‘power save’ or ‘Energy Star’       time you start photocopying the machine
> Install interior blinds/shades to provide          setting the equipment goes into “sleep”         uses extra energy to get ready to operate
  additional shade and minimise heating              mode when not in use
  effect of sunlight                                                                               IT equipment
                                                   > Consider the location of printers,
Roofing                                              photocopiers and fax machines which           Upgrading IT infrastructure, such as servers,
                                                     produce heat, if these are located near a     can also be a great way to reduce your
> Install roof insulation
                                                     heating or air conditioning sensor they       electricity requirements and subsequent
> Consider radiant barriers and cool roofing                                                       carbon emissions. The key factors to
                                                     can lead to over cooling
  that reflects the Sun’s radiant energy, and                                                      consider when purchasing new equipment:
  saves money on air conditioning                  > Install energy saving software that
                                                     powers computers down after hours or          > Select the appropriate office and IT
> Consider installing solar panels
                                                     install timers                                  equipment for your business needs, both
Windows and doors                                  > When purchasing new office equipment,           in the short-term and long-term
> Seal gaps around window and doorframes             look for the Energy Star rating and energy    > Select appropriately sized for your office
  with caulk                                         efficiency options                              needs, may need professional assessment
> Check window and door weather stripping,         Computers                                       > Select high functioning and multitasking
  replace if missing, cracked or hard                                                                equipment to avoid buying multiple
                                                   > Turn off computers and monitors when not        pieces of equipment
> Close gap under exterior doors if you can          in use. A computer monitor uses up to
  see daylight underneath                            75% of the energy powering a computer13

                                                                                                      Invigorating Business Results > 21
  Energy Efficiency
                                                   Kitchens and break rooms
                                                   > Only run the dishwasher when full and be      Australian Business
    Fast fact:
                                                     sure to use the ‘economy’ setting             Limited Apprentice Centre
    Paper (including toner) is the                 > Check coffeemaker and kettle are not          (ABLAC) – Green Fleet
    biggest cost of a photocopier                    constantly boiling
                                                                                                   Case Study
    and has the most                               > Use appropriately sized refrigerators –
                                                     small bar fridges are huge energy wasters     ABLAC has significantly reduced its
    environmental impact. Be                                                                       transportation carbon emissions and
    sure to print double-sided,                    > Store pitchers of water in the refrigerator
                                                                                                   fuel consumption by purchasing
    purchase recycled paper and                      instead of using drink dispensers
                                                                                                   more efficient vehicles and offsetting
    recycle toner cartridges14                     > Replace microwaves older than 5 years         the carbon emissions. By upgrading
                                                   > Use microwave rather than stove or oven       80 vehicles to more fuel efficient
                                                   > For refrigerators, freezers and water         models, ABLAC has reduced its
                                                     coolers, make sure there is a 15cm            carbon emissions by almost 100
  Water                                              air-gap between the back of the               tonnes/year and reduced fuel
  > Fix leaking taps and showers                     appliance and wall                            consumption costs by 20%. The
  > Install water saving taps and showerheads      > Check refrigerator door seals are tight, if   remaining carbon emissions have
                                                     you can easily pull a note out from           been offset by planting trees through
  > If the hot water thermostat is adjustable,
                                                     between the seal and frame on a closed        the Green Fleet program.
    turn it down to 55°C
  > Promote water and energy conservation            door, replace the seal
    through signage and programs such as
    ‘Every drop counts’ to encourage               Transportation
    employees to conserve water                    > Encourage and incentivise staff to utilise
  > Insulate hot water heaters and piping            public transportation
  > Consider installing a solar hot water heater   > Consider purchasing hybrid and diesel
                                                   > Regularly service vehicles
                                                   > Keep tyres inflated to correct pressure
                                                   > Utilise GPS systems to determine the
                                                     most efficient route and drive time
                                                   > Use telecommunications rather than
                                                     travelling to meetings
                                                   > Encourage and organise carpooling for staff
                                                   > Allow staff to work from home periodically

22 >
                                                                                                                                 S E C T I O N     3

Water Efficiency
There are plenty of water saving                 Urinals                                          Kitchens
opportunities in the work place.
Implementing water saving and efficiency
                                                 > Cistern size should be 7L or less              Appliances
measures will save you money and help            > Manual urinals generally use less water,       > Ideal water devices are labelled under the
Australia conserve its valuable water              although depending on the size of the            Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards
resources.                                         facility may not always appropriate              (WELS) scheme with 6 stars being the
                                                 > Check sensors are placed directly above          highest ranking
Bathrooms                                          the urinal so that people using basins or      > Check dishwashers, washing machines,
                                                   toilets do not accidentally trigger the          taps and hot water heaters are rated as
Toilets                                            sensor                                           high as possible
> Install dual flush toilets, 6L cisterns with   > Some sensors when they fail, fail in the       > Only run dishwashers when full
  a half flush (3L) option                         open position, that is, constantly flushing.
                                                                                                  > Place signage in kitchen reminding staff
> Check the back of the toilet bowl; if there      It is important to check that they switch
                                                                                                    to conserve water and report leaks
  are signs of small leaks, get them fixed as      off by direct observation
  a small leak eventuates into a bigger one      > Waterless urinals are available either with    Hot water
> If toilets are connected directly to a flush     a cartridge or cube. If considering this,      > Kettles are the best for boiling water in
  valve (that is, no cistern) then ensure          note that it works best with wall mounted        smaller kitchens as water is not wasted
  flush is 5 seconds or less                       urinals and they still require maintenance,    > Larger water boiler units need to be
> Consider reducing the water level of high        new cleaning regimes and used only in            checked as the overflow valve is often
  volume toilets. Note: if cistern is 9L or        well-ventilated areas                            hidden. Once they get old or out of
  13L, do not reduce the water level in the      Showers                                            service, they tend to leak more frequently
  cistern by more than 2L as the bowl is         > Ideal is a 9L aerated showerhead               > Check that hot water heaters are
  designed to require more water                                                                    switched off at night, install timer plug if
                                                 > If showerhead is greater than 13L/min it
Hand basins                                                                                         necessary
                                                   should be replaced
> Ideal would be a mixer tap (combined hot       > Place water conservation signage in
  and cold) with a flow rate of 6L/min and         showers, contact Sydney Water Every
  an aerated flow                                  Drop Counts program
> Check tap flow rates – more than 10L/min       > To get a sense of greater pressure, install
                                                                                                       Fast fact:
  are high flow, wasting unnecessary water         aerators to allow air to be pulled in for           Running hot water in the
> Whilst sensor taps appear good, they need        the pressure sensation                              sink for 5 minutes uses the
  to switch off within 6 seconds, but                                                                  same amount of energy as
  generally they waste more water than                                                                 a 60-watt light bulb
  manual taps                                                                                          burning for 14 hours15
> Install tap aerators, which allows for the
  sensation of pressure without extra water
> Check hot water temperature has not
  been set too high

                                                                                                    Invigorating Business Results > 23
  Water Efficiency
  Cooling towers                                  Garden areas                                     Recycling
  In larger complexes, air-conditioning is        Many office environments have either             Technologies in recycling are vastly
  through cooling towers as opposed to            garden areas or water features. Appropriate      improving; however their cost is still a
  individual electric units. Never conduct        management is necessary to make the best         hindrance. There are several types of
  personal maintenance of cooling towers as       of the aesthetics while not unnecessarily        recycling mechanisms:
  it requires qualified specialists. When         wasting water.                                   > Greywater – which is recycling water
  approaching cooling towers, always follow       Water features require regular care and            from sinks (not in the kitchen) and
  safety instructions and the use of a            maintenance, check the following:                  showers
  facemask. There are however signs to assess
                                                  > Overflow valve is above normal water           > Black water – which is recycling of water
  if there are problems between services.
                                                    level                                            which contains organics
  These include:
                                                  > Water is recycled                              Recycling systems are best implemented in
  > Check that there is splatter proof guards                                                      new buildings, as converting existing office
    so that water is contained in the             > Steps are taken to reduce evaporation
                                                                                                   spaces to allow for it is very expensive.
    equipment                                     Garden areas with irrigation should be
  > Ensure that the overflow pipe outside the     checked for leakage. Irrigation cycles should
                                                  be changed during the year depending on          Fact sheets
    cooling tower does not always have water
    running through it. Whilst it is normal to    the season and should be checked that they       Sydney Water’s Every Drop Counts Business
    have some overflow due to high salinity       are not automatically switching on every         Program has a number of fact sheets
    in the water, there should be periods of      evening.                                         suitable to assist office spaces become more
    times when it does not run                                                                     water efficient.
  > Most towers utilise a float ball valve to     Water harvesting
    signal for more water, check that the         Installing a rainwater or stormwater
    internal overflow pipe is not always          harvesting system requires a specialist for
    covered wasting water unnecessarily           approval and installation. Local councils
  > If there is a cooling tower, get a submeter   generally have individual rules for the use of
    placed on it. Regularly checking how          harvested water in business premises and it
    much water is used in the cooling tower       could be that water use is restricted to
    is important and may also result in lower     garden and outdoor areas. Internal plumbing
    fees if you can prove a higher discharge      requires a qualified technician and
    through cooling towers.                       appropriate sizing. Generally speaking,
                                                  harvesting systems require significant roof
                                                  area for appropriate use and despite this,
                                                  have long payback periods.

    Ramm Botanicals water conservation
    Ramm Botanicals participated in a water conservation program led by Wyong Council
    which targeted a 24% reduction in water use. Through a combination of installing
    rainwater tanks and changing their plant product offerings to a range of water-wise
    Australian native plants, Ramm Botanicals was able to exceed the Council goal and
    achieve a 54% reduction in their town water use. They capture 3/4 of their water
    needs through the rainwater tanks and minimise water intensity by specialising in
    plants that are adapted to Australia’s dry climate. These measures create valuable
    long-term water savings for their business and also for customers who landscape with
    native plant species.

24 >
                                                                                                                                             S E C T I O N        3

Resource Efficiency and Waste Reduction
Reducing resource consumption and waste          Figure 7. Waste hierarchy
generated from your company are essential
                                                 The best opportunities to save money – Avoid and Reduce waste from the start
components of improving your
organisation’s sustainability. Improving                                                                 Refrain from purchasing unneccessary goods
resource efficiency will conserve energy and                        Avoid $

reduce carbon emissions, as well as save                           Reduce $$                               Limit the amount of material purchased
your business money.
Monitoring and management of materials                             Reuse $$$                      Find alternative uses for materials rather than discarding

and waste generation will also help improve
the overall efficiency of your organisation                      Recycle $$$$                  Collect and properly recycle materials that cannot be repurposed
through minimisation of time and money
spent on purchasing and removal of                               Recover $$$$$                                     Collect waste material
materials. The savings from waste reduction
can be used to develop and enhance your                      Treat-Remove $$$$$$
                                                                                                              Dispose of waste after treatment
business rather than being thrown out with
the garbage.
Waste and resource reduction measures will:
                                                 Electronic communication                         Recycling
                                                 > Send electronic communications rather          > If you don’t already have recycling
>   Save money
                                                   than paper                                       available in your office, contact your
>   Improve efficiency                                                                              waste contractor about recycling options
                                                 > Ask suppliers to send electronic
>   Reduce natural resource consumption            communications and invoices                    > Use waste audit outcomes to determine
>   Reduce carbon emissions                      > Send electronic invoices and                     which materials are the highest priority to
                                                   communications to your customers                 recycle and reuse
Waste avoidance and reduction                    Mailing lists                                    > If you currently have only paper recycling,
Paper                                                                                               contact your waste provider to discuss a
                                                 > Remove duplicate names and out-of-date           commingled recycling service which
> Think before you print. Do you really need       entries from mailing lists and consider          allows other materials such as plastic and
  a printout of that document?                     electronic communications instead                metal in the same bin
> Set all computers in your office to            > Take steps to reduce unsolicited mail          > Replace trash bins at individual desks
  automatically print double-sided               > Design mailers which avoid the use of            with a combined recycle bin and utilise a
> Suggest using the “Two-Up” option when           envelopes (fold and staple the paper)            central waste bin. This will help remind
  printing (prints in a booklet style, 2 pages   > Use electronic mail and voice mail rather        staff to recycle more and waste less
  per sheet of paper) in addition to               than mailers                                   > If your office is small, consider combining
  double-sided printing. This combined
                                                                                                    your recyclables with other small offices
  with double-sided printing will use 75%        Reuse                                              nearby
  less paper alone!
                                                 > Reuse paper that has only been printed on      > Provide clearly labelled recycling bins
> If you can’t print double-sided, consider
                                                   one side                                         around the office, especially in kitchen
  printing two sheets to a page (two-up)
                                                 > Reuse envelopes by placing a label over          and break rooms
> Set electronic templates to a smaller font
                                                   the old address
  with larger margins
                                                 > Use reusable envelopes for interoffice
> Calculate how many reams per person are
  used and let staff know about ways to
  reduce this number                             > Use outdated letterhead for in-house
                                                   memos and copies
                                                 > Reuse file folders
                                                 > Reuse cartons for shipping
                                                 > Shred newspapers and reuse for

                                                                                                      Invigorating Business Results > 25
  Resource Efficiency and Waste Reduction
  Office supplies                                Kitchen                                        Building design and renovations
  Purchasing policy                              > Provide reusable mugs and utensils to        > When building or renovating your facility,
                                                   employees and clients rather than using        utilise low waste contractors who
  > Establish a purchasing policy that favours
                                                   paper or polystyrene cups and disposable       specialise in reuse of materials and
    environmentally-preferred products and
                                                   wooden or plastic stirrers                     reconstruction instead of demolition
    supplies and includes efficiency in all
    purchasing decisions                         > Buy in bulk to minimise packaging with       > Create a waste management plan with
                                                   items like coffee, tea, sugar, paper, pens     the contractor prior to construction to
  > Include a clause in major purchases that
                                                   and notebooks                                  ensure waste reduction measures are
    requires suppliers to take away packaging
                                                 > Avoid buying sachets of sugar and coffee,      convenient and adhered to
    (such as, polystyrene and cardboard)
                                                   use a canister instead                       > Donate old office furniture rather than
  General                                                                                         sending to the landfill
                                                 > Provide cloth towels in kitchen and
  > Review office supply orders for                restrooms rather than using paper towels     > Use recycled materials for construction
    unnecessary or duplicate items               > If disposable items are required, be sure    > Use environmentally friendly materials
  > Provide a communal location for office         to buy those that are made from recycled       such as paint, furniture, finishings and
    supplies that are used infrequently rather     and biodegradable materials                    flooring
    than purchasing individual supplies for
    each individual
                                                 > When promoting your business carefully
  Paper                                                                                           Case Study:
                                                   select useful giveaways to avoid throw
  > Buy recycled office paper and stationary       away trinkets                                  Australian Business Limited
  > Look for carbon neutral paper and            > Minimise the use and distribution of           Apprentice Centre (ABLAC)
    stationary                                     plastic bags
                                                                                                  – paper and resource
  Toners and ink cartridges                      > Let customers know your efforts to
                                                   minimise waste                                 efficiency
  > Recycle and/or refill toner and ink
                                                                                                  In an effort to minimise paper
    cartridges                                   Cleaning supplies
                                                                                                  consumption and increase resource
  > Use vegetable-based inks when printing       > Use environmentally friendly cleaning          efficiency, ABLAC implemented a
  Office equipment                                 products, phosphate free and                   scanning system for tracking
                                                   biodegradable                                  documents. The electronic system
  > Purchasing energy efficient equipment,
    see for energy       > Involve cleaners in all company                replaced a manual paper system and
    efficiency ratings                             sustainability discussions and forums,         has significantly improved processing
                                                   their cooperation is critical                  time and labour efficiency. The savings
  > Consider upgrading to an all-in-one
                                                 > Consider composting and worm farms for         benefits include waste and paper
    copier/printer, eliminating the need for
                                                   kitchen waste if you have a garden             reduction as well as cost savings. The
    multiple smaller printers
                                                   available                                      new electronic system reduced paper
  > Rent equipment used infrequently                                                              consumption by 30,000 sheets and the
  > Dispose of old equipment responsibly, look                                                    equivalent of $100K in salary by being
    for recycling options                                                                         able to process more with the same
                                                                                                  number of staff.

   Fast fact12:
   Each tonne of paper that is recycled
   >   Almost 13 trees
   >   2.5 barrels of oil
   >   4100 kWh of electricity
   >   4 cubic metres of landfill
   >   31,780 litres of water

26 >
                                                                                                                     S E C T I O N   4

Section IV: Next Steps
Supply Chain                                    Sustainable procurement policy
All businesses rely on their supply base and    Development of a procurement policy can
customers to survive. Integrating               be an effective step in managing the
sustainability principles into purchasing       sustainability of your supply chain. It can
decisions and managing your supply chain        also provide economic benefits as many
from a sustainability perspective are key       large corporations and government
steps to achieving overall sustainability for   departments require documentation of
your business. Supply chain management          sustainability or environmental management
considers the interactions between a            initiatives for tendering. Additional benefits
business and its customers and suppliers.       to sustainable supply chain management
Incorporating sustainability into your supply   and procurement include:
chain involves reviewing your purchasing        > Reduced costs and increased productivity
and production decisions from both social
                                                > Reduced financial, regulatory and
and environmental perspectives in addition
                                                  reputation risks
to the economic considerations. Supply
chain management extends as far as              > Incentive to producers to develop new
possible ‘upstream’ towards raw materials         sustainable products
and supply purchases to ‘downstream’            > Competitive advantage in new and
towards the consumer and then back again          expanding markets for sustainable
for product disposal and recycling.               products
                                                > Meeting the expectations of the
                                                  shareholders, community and customers
                                                Businesses with complex supply chains may
                                                want to take further action up and down
                                                their supply chain by developing a ‘Code of
                                                Conduct.’ This document outlines the social
                                                and environmental principles and standards
                                                that the company, contractors and suppliers
                                                are expected to observe. Implementation of
                                                a Code of Conduct will also require
                                                monitoring and evaluation of the
                                                sustainability practices of companies within
                                                your supply chain.
                                                Visit the NSW Government Green Goods
                                                website for more information on developing
                                                a sustainable procurement policy. http://

                                                                                                 Invigorating Business Results > 27
  Taking It To The Next Level
  Efficiency first                                 Renewable energy
  Improving efficiency is the simplest and         Once you have addressed the energy
  most cost effective way to reduce carbon         efficiency opportunities available in your
  emissions and save money on utility bills.       business, you may want to consider
  Taking advantage of opportunities to             converting to a ‘green power’ or renewable
  minimise consumption in all areas of your        energy. Renewable energy is electricity
  business, whether it be energy, water,           supplied by wind, solar, geothermal, hydro
  supplies or paper can significantly reduce       and biomass, these sources are considered
  negative environmental impacts and help          continuously renewable. These types of
  your business prepare for the transition into    electricity emit very low levels of GHG
  a low-carbon economy.                            emissions compared to traditional fossil fuel
  Once you have addressed the immediate            electricity such as coal.
  efficiency savings opportunities, the next       Renewable energy can be provided by
  big step is to assess larger projects outlined   installing equipment such as solar panels on
  in your energy savings plan. For most            your building or alternatively can be
  businesses, significant energy efficiency        purchased from your energy provider rather
  savings can be obtained through                  than fossil fuel electricity. Purchasing
  investments in newer, more efficient             renewable energy can be more expensive
  equipment and building upgrades. To              than traditional fossil fuel based electricity,
  determine which investments to make first,       so it is important to address energy
  look at the most energy intensive and oldest     efficiency measures to minimise your utility
  equipment in your facility. The key areas to     bills. For more information on renewable
  consider are:                                    energy, visit the Government’s accredited
  > Heating, air conditioning and ventilation      green power website at www.greenpower.
  > Lighting
  > Insulation
  > Office equipment
  > Refrigeration (if applicable)
  See ‘Funding’ section for grants and
  assistance programs that may be able to
  provide financial support for efficiency
  upgrades for your business.

28 >
                                                                                                                                  S E C T I O N     4

Carbon offsetting                               Carbon neutral                                     Once your organisation’s carbon emissions
                                                                                                   have been determined via an LCA and
A carbon offset is a purchased ‘credit’ that    A growing number of businesses are
                                                                                                   carbon footprint calculation, the next steps
represents a reduction in greenhouse gas        becoming ‘carbon neutral’ as a way of
                                                                                                   to becoming carbon neutral typically
emissions. Carbon offsets are generated         demonstrating their commitment to
through emissions-reducing or energy            sustainability at the highest level. Becoming
efficiency projects such as tree planting or    carbon neutral means achieving net zero            > Limiting energy usage and improving
renewable energy. The amount of carbon          carbon emissions by balancing the emissions          energy efficiency in all areas of your
emissions ‘saved’ through these projects is     produced by a business with the equivalent           business
calculated and then sold as offset credits to   amount of carbon offsets, carbon                   > Using renewable energy, either purchasing
businesses or individuals to mitigate carbon    sequestering projects or renewable energy.           green power or generating it directly such
emissions from various activities such as       The benefits to becoming carbon neutral              as wind or solar power
transportation and electricity use. There are   include:                                           > Purchasing carbon offsets for emissions
two types of carbon offsets, those purchased    > Risk reduction in the transition to a              that cannot be avoided through efficiency
by large industries in order to comply with        low-carbon economy                                measures or a carbon reduction project
emissions reduction regulation and
                                                > Considered market leader in sustainability       > Optional but recommended, become
voluntary offsets purchased by businesses,
                                                > Increased marketability, meeting                   accredited by a carbon neutral
individuals and governments to meet their
                                                   consumer demand for carbon neutral                certification provider
emission reduction goals.
                                                   products and businesses
Carbon offset products are largely an
                                                In order to become carbon neutral, the
unregulated market, so it is important to
                                                carbon footprint of your business must be
look for accredited providers to ensure that
                                                determined. Carbon footprint is a measure
offsets are actually reducing carbon
                                                of the total amount of carbon equivalent
emissions. In Australia, there are a few
                                                emissions generated by your business
government mechanisms currently available
to assure customers of the quality of offsets
they are purchasing. For more information
                                                activities, both directly (onsite and internally
                                                produced emissions) and indirectly (offsite        Continuous
                                                and externally produced emissions such as
on carbon offsets, visit the Department of
Climate Change Greenhouse Friendly
program website at: http://www.
                                                those resulting up and down the supply
                                                chain). This process requires a life cycle
                                                analysis (LCA) of your business operations         Sustainability is a journey that does not end
                                                and products to ensure all critical                with the installation of lighting motion
Whilst purchasing carbon offsets is an          components are accounted for in the carbon         detectors or recycling, it is a continuous
effective tool in managing the carbon           footprint. An LCA assesses the                     process throughout the life of your business.
emissions of your business, it is only one      environmental impacts associated with              No matter how efficient or innovative your
aspect of reducing your company’s carbon        products, processes and services throughout        organisation becomes, there will always be
emissions. Implementing efficiency              its life cycle, from the extraction of the raw     developments and new technologies that
programs and initiatives to avoid and reduce    materials through to processing, transport,        will be able to further the sustainability of
carbon emissions in the first place is a        use, reuse, recycling or disposal. LCA’s           your business. Sustainability should be
critical step prior to investing in carbon      require specific and well researched               viewed as a continuous process rather than
offsets. Higher efficiency will also reduce     information and may be quite resource              a destination. This mindset will help position
the amount of offsets required, saving you      intensive depending on the nature of your          your business to always seek process and
money overall.                                  business and could require an external             efficiency improvements, positively
                                                consultant.                                        influence and educate staff and customers,
                                                                                                   save time and money while also preserving
                                                                                                   the environment and reducing carbon

                                                                                                     Invigorating Business Results > 29
  Section V: Additional Information
  Legislation                                      Whilst the CPRS is mainly targeted at the       Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scheme
                                                   largest 1000 businesses in Australia, the       (GGAS)
  Australian environmental, emission and
                                                   effects will be felt by all businesses. The
  energy regulations are some of the fastest                                                       The NSW Government has indicated that
                                                   most likely impacts include:
  growing areas of the legal system in both                                                        Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scheme (GGAS)
  scope and complexity. The majority of these      > Increases in energy prices between 15 and     will cease on the commencement of the
  regulations do not directly impact all              50%                                          national emissions trading scheme, CPRS.
  businesses as they focus on large                > Government regulation – potentially           The energy efficiency component of GGAS
  corporations and industries. However, it is         covering energy efficiency and type of       will continue with new targets being set
  important to be informed about new and              energy sources                               mid year 2009. The new scheme will require
  changing regulations as there will likely be     > Corporate regulation – a requirement to       electricity retailers to pursue additional
  indirect impacts for all Australian businesses      be ‘green’ for tendering                     energy efficiency improvements in
  and individuals.                                                                                 households and businesses.
                                                   > Supply chain dynamics – purchasing of
  For more information on the growth of               supplies, particularly raw materials may     NSW Energy Efficiency Trading
  environmental law and its impacts on                become more expensive                        Scheme (NEET)
  business owners and operators, visit the         > Consumer demands – purchasing only
  NSW Business Chamber’s website and                                                               NSW Energy Efficiency Trading Scheme is an
                                                      environmentally sensitive products
  review ‘The Challenge of Green Tape’                                                             energy efficiency package aimed at reducing
                                                   Thus, it is important to start early and make   power use and cutting the state’s
                                                   small but gradual changes to processes.         greenhouse gas emissions. It is a market-
  Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme                Prepare early to maximise the opportunities     based incentive for energy efficiency.
  (CPRS)                                           in the transition to a carbon-constrained       Compliance obligations under NEET will rest
                                                   economy whilst simultaneously saving on         with electricity retailers. This scheme will
  The Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme            the bottom line.
  (CPRS), otherwise known as ‘emissions                                                            revitalise the existing energy efficiency
  trading’ or the ‘green paper’ is the Federal     National Greenhouse and Energy                  component of the GGAS. The scheme is due
  Governments’ response to climate change.         Reporting System (NGERS)                        to start on 1 July 2009.

  The CPRS aims to reduce carbon emissions         The National Greenhouse and Energy              Minimum Energy Performance
  through a Government regulated system            Reporting System (NGERS) is a mandatory         Standards (MEPS) – Lighting
  that encourages energy efficiency by             reporting system that requires corporations     In February 2007, Government’s phase-out
  establishing a cost disadvantage for heavy       that either produce or consume large            of inefficient incandescent lamps was
  pollution.                                       amounts of energy to report their energy        announced. The phase-out of incandescent
  The scheme is essentially a cap and trade        and greenhouse gas emissions to the             lighting aims to significantly reduce
  scheme that is targeted to reduce Australia’s    Government. Reporting requirements              Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions and
  carbon emissions between 5 per cent and 15       include corporate groups that either            places Australia at the forefront of
  per cent below 2000 levels by the end 2020.      consume or produce 500TJ of energy and/or       international efforts to tackle climate
  The cap achieves the environmental               produce 125 kt of CO2-e and facilities that     change.
  outcome of reducing carbon pollution. The        either consume or produce 100TJ of energy
                                                   and/or produce 25 kt of CO2-e. This             This initiative will be implemented by
  ability to trade ensures carbon pollution is                                                     introducing MEPS for incandescent lamps,
  reduced at the lowest possible cost. When        reporting system will be used to inform the
                                                   ‘cap’ levels for the Carbon Pollution           in order to remove the poorest performing
  that cap is set, parties are able to trade                                                       products from the Australian marketplace
  within that cap.                                 Reduction Scheme (CPRS).
                                                                                                   between 2008 and 2015. Additionally, MEPS
                                                                                                   for compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) will
                                                                                                   also be introduced to ensure that only high
                                                                                                   quality CFLs are sold in Australia. For more
                                                                                                   information and specific timing to the
                                                                                                   phase-out visit,

30 >
                                                                                                                             S E C T I O N     5

Funding Opportunities
There are some excellent funding                Renewable Energy Development Fund              Public Facilities Program
opportunities to manage climate change,
                                                The Renewable Energy Development               The Public Facilities Program under the NSW
whether it is to clean up production
                                                Program under the NSW Climate Change           Climate Change Fund provides $30 million
processes or install efficient lights. The
                                                Fund provides $40 million over five years to   for water and energy saving projects in
Government is providing plenty of
                                                support projects which are expected to lead    facilities which are open to, and frequently
opportunities to help your business become
                                                to large scale greenhouse gas emission         accessed by, the public including schools,
more sustainable.
                                                savings in NSW by: either demonstrating        community buildings, sporting facilities,
Green Business Program                          renewable energy technologies in NSW or        museums and art galleries.
                                                supporting the early commercialisation of
The NSW Green Business Program is a                                                            Enterprise Connect
competitive fund supporting businesses that     renewable energy technologies in NSW.
                                                                                               Enterprise Connect provides comprehensive
reduce water and energy usage. It has been      Renewable Energy Equity Fund                   support to Australian small and medium
available for a number of years to NSW
                                                The REEF program is a specialist renewable     sized enterprises (SMEs), to help them
businesses and supports any project that
                                                energy equity fund based on the Innovation     become more innovative, efficient and
will ultimately save either/both water and
                                                Investment Fund (IIF) model. It provides       competitive.
                                                venture capital (equity) to assist small
                                                                                               Export Market Development Grants
Energy Efficiency for Small                     companies to commercialise R&D in
Businesses Program                              renewable energy technologies.                 The Export Market Development Grants
                                                                                               (EMDG) scheme offers financial assistance
The NSW Department of Environment and           Low Emissions Technology and                   for aspiring and current exporters.
Climate Change’s new Energy Efficiency for      Abatement                                      Administered by Austrade, the scheme
Small Business Program is available to                                                         supports a wide range of industry sectors
                                                The Low Emissions Technology and
businesses that use up to $20,000 in                                                           and products, including inbound tourism
                                                Abatement (LETA) initiative is a $26.9
electricity a year. To sign up for the Energy                                                  and the export of intellectual property and
                                                million measure to reduce greenhouse gas
Efficiency for Small Business Program or for                                                   know-how outside Australia. To access the
                                                emissions over the longer term by
more information contact Business                                                              scheme for the first time, businesses need to
                                                supporting the identification and
Partnerships at 1300 361 967 or email                                                          have spent $15,000 over two years on
                                                implementation of cost effective abatement                                                              eligible export marketing expenses. The
                                                opportunities and the uptake of small scale
Climate Ready Program                           low emission technologies in business,         Export Market Development Grants
                                                industry and local communities.                program:
The Climate Ready program is a competitive
grants program providing grants from            Re-tooling for climate change                  > Encourages small and medium sized
$50,000 up to $5m on a matching funding                                                          Australian businesses to develop export
                                                This is the Federal Government’s $75 million     markets
basis to support research and development,
                                                Re-tooling for Climate Change grants
proof-of-concept and early-stage                                                               > Reimburses up to 50 per cent of expenses
                                                program with grants for small and medium
commercialisation activities to develop                                                          incurred on eligible export promotion
                                                sized manufacturers ranging from $10,000
solutions to climate change challenges. This                                                     activities, above a $15,000 threshold
                                                to $500,000 to help manufactures reduce
program is also being administered through                                                     > Provides up to seven grants to each
                                                the environmental impact of their
AusIndustry.                                                                                     eligible applicant
                                                production processes. It is being
Green Building Fund                             administered through the AusIndustry.
The Green Building Fund initiative is
designed to help Australian businesses
implement cost saving energy efficiency
measures through retrofitting and retro-
commissioning of existing commercial office
buildings. The program will also provide
financial support to relevant industry
associations and other non-government
organisations for building related efficiency
and skill training.

                                                                                                  Invigorating Business Results > 31
  Government Programs
  There is a wealth of information available   Other Australian resources:            International websites:
  through Government should you wish to
                                               Sydney Water                           Intergovernmental Panel on
  pursue further information.
                                                      Climate Change
  Department of Environment and                                             
                                               Green Building Council Australia
  Climate Change
                                                             Carbon Trust (UK)
                                               National Australia Built Environment   (see publications and resources)
  Department of Environment and Climate                                     
                                               Rating System (NABERS)
  Change Sustainable Advantage Program
                                                           Energy Star (US)
  Australian Government Department of
  Environment, Water, Heritage and Arts
  Australian Government Department
  of Climate Change
  AusIndustry and Climate Ready
  Energy Star Australia
  Sustainability Victoria

  Complementary Information
  Available on the NSWBC website includes:
  1. Top 10 tips for being efficient
  2. CPRS fact sheets
  3. CPRS survey results
  4. What is means to be green
  5. Podcasts

32 >
                                                                                                                                    S E C T I O N   1

Adaptation – initiatives and measures to        Green power – generic name given to            Sustainability – form of progress, process or
reduce the vulnerability of natural and         electricity generated from clean and           development that meets the needs of the
human systems against climate change            renewable energy sources. Green power          present without compromising the ability of
effects.                                        sources can include solar (photovoltaic and    future generations to meet their needs.
Base building – central services and            thermal), wind power, new hydro on existing    Sustainable development – development
common areas of a building.                     dams, biomass, wave energy, landfill gas,      that meets the needs of the present without
                                                etc.                                           compromising the ability of future
Baseline – assessment conducted in order
to determine the current resource use of an     Greenhouse effect – the absorption of solar    generations to meet their own needs.
organisation, specifically for energy, water    energy due to accumulation of greenhouse       (Brundtland Report 1987)
and waste. The baseline assessment is used      gases in the atmosphere.                       Tenancy – Office space within a building
to determine how effective various aspects      Greenhouse gases (GHGs) – gases                covering tenant light and power only. This
of an action plan have been in terms of         regulated under the Kyoto Protocol,            may include tenancy air-conditioning if this
improving resource efficiencies.                determined to be the main contributors to      has been installed to service particular
Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 - e) – the       the enhanced greenhouse effect. The            tenant loads, but does not include central
universal unit of measurement used to           principle gases are carbon dioxide (CO2),      services normally provided by the landlord.
indicate the global warming potential (GWP)     methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O),            Triple bottom line (TBL) – takes into
of each of the 6 greenhouse gases. It is used   hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons    account the effects a business’s activities on
to evaluate the impacts of different            (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).         the environment and society as well as on
greenhouse gases.                               Key performance indicators (KPIs) – an         the conventional economic bottom line. An
Carbon neutral – a term used when an            information tool used to measure trends and    underpinning concept of sustainability and
organisation has reduced the net amount of      progress. Indicators provide a snapshot of a   sustainable development
carbon dioxide equivalent it emits to zero.     current situation and the means to observe     Whole building –includes all energy
                                                changes over time. Example, energy usage       entering the building used for providing
Carbon offset – a financial instrument that     for a unit of production (kWh/product).
represents a reduction in greenhouse gas                                                       services to the occupants of the space.
emissions, typically converted to the carbon    Kyoto Protocol – specifies the level of
equivalent. Carbon offsets are generated        emissions reductions, deadlines and
                                                                                               Note: Website references current as of March 2009
through emissions-reducing or energy            methodologies that signatory countries are
efficiency projects such as tree planting or    to achieve. Kyoto Protocol was ratified by
renewable energy.                               Australia in 2007.

Global warming – progressive gradual rise       Life cycle assessment – determines the
of the Earth’s surface temperature thought      total quantities of resources that go into
to be caused by the greenhouse effect and       products from the production of their inputs
responsible for changes in global climate       to the waste they produce when disposed or
patterns.                                       recycled.

Global Warming Potential (GWP) – index          Mitigation – actions to reduce greenhouse
that compares the relative potential of the 6   gas emissions and to enhance carbon sinks
greenhouse gases to contribute to global        aimed at reducing the extent of global
warming, i.e., the additional heat/energy       warming.
which is retained in the Earth’s ecosystem      Renewable energy – electricity generated
through the release of this gas into the        from low or no-emission sources that are
atmosphere. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been       indefinitely renewable, such as wind, hydro
designated a GWP of 1 and Methane (CH4)         and solar.
has a GWP of 23.

                                                                                                  Invigorating Business Results > 33
  Walk-through audits                                Step 3: Building management                      Step 4: Conducting an audit
  To conduct a walk-through audit and get a          assistance                                       The next step is to conduct a walk-through
  better understanding of your business’s            Prior to the physical audit of the site, meet    survey with building operations personnel.
  consumption patterns and opportunities for         with the building operations and                 Use direct observation and measurements to
  improvements, follow the basic steps below.        maintenance personnel to discuss the audit       complete the enclosed audit checklists as
                                                     and learn about the building’s operating         you survey the facilities. Identify and record
  Step 1: Establish baseline and KPI
                                                     systems and maintenance projects. One of         all pieces of equipment that use water and/
  Prior to the physical audit of the site,           the objectives of an audit is to provide         or energy.
  determine your business’s resource use via         information that will help the building          As you walk through the premises, be sure
  historical/current utility bills and establish a   operations personnel run the facilities more     to take notes of any outstanding questions
  baseline for water, energy and waste.              efficiently. Therefore, it is recommended        or areas that need follow-up information or
  Convert baseline into KPI units.                   you invite the building operations personnel     expertise. Discuss the feasibility and
  Step 2: Information gathering                      to participate in the walk-through audit.        opportunities for efficiency improvements
                                                     The operations staff will also be able to fill   with the building personnel as you go
  Prior to the physical audit of the site, obtain    you in on maintenance practices and any          through the building, this will help you
  or draw the building floor plan and mark the       issues with the building. Developing a good      develop a savings opportunity plan after the
  location of sources of energy, water and           working relationship with the building           audit is complete. Do not tamper with or
  waste disposal. This will help you map out         operations personnel is important to getting     adjust any control settings or equipment,
  where resources are most necessary and             the most out of the audit and identifying        leave this to the professionals.
  identify areas of inefficiency, such as            additional savings opportunities.
  constant lighting in rooms that are                                                                 Please note, the enclosed checklists do not
  infrequently used.                                                                                  include every single detail which can be
                                                                                                      included in an audit; rather they aim to
                                                                                                      identify the largest energy, water and waste
                                                                                                      areas as well as provide alternative solutions
                                                                                                      to improve efficiency.

34 >
Offices: Energy walk-through audit checklist
Office size: __________ m2
Operating hours: __________
Number of employees:___________
Baseline energy use per annum: ___________kWh
Baseline energy use KPI: ___________ kWh/m2/year
List energy using equipment and number: (Examples: computers, printers, copiers, refrigerators, etc)

Other instructions:
1.            Mark the location of equipment, fixtures and amenities that need repair or maintenance on site plan
2.            Note areas or equipment that require follow-up investigation, such as energy efficiency upgrades of lighting or HVAC system.

 Administration and communication
 Check list                                                         Y/N     Units       Suggested follow-up action                       Responsibility
                                                                          (no., type)
 Communication and          Has the critical need to be more                            > Develop and post commitment policy statement
 policy initiatives         energy efficient been broadly                               > Implement employee education and
                            communicated within your business?                            engagement programs
                            Has a management team been                                  > Create sustainability team involving senior
                            organised to provide strategy and                             management
                            leadership around energy efficiency?                        > Include sustainability measures in business
                                                                                          strategy development
                            Has an energy management plan or                            > After audit, develop an immediate and
                            savings plan been developed?                                  long-term energy savings plan. See Table 15
                            Have internal policies and                                  > Use the audit findings to develop policies
                            procedures been developed around                              and procedures addressing the most critical
                            energy efficiency and management?                             and immediate energy efficiency measures
 Employee engagement        Are energy conservation/efficiency                          > Display signage reminding staff to switch
                            posters displayed throughout the                              off equipment and lights
                            Are reward/acknowledgement                                  > Develop engagement and rewards programs
                            programs provided for employees                               for staff
                            who conserve energy?
                            Are employees provided education                            > Include energy efficiency training at staff
                            around energy efficiency?                                     meetings and provide information in public
                                                                                          areas such as bulletin boards and internal
                            Are employees provided regular                              > Provide energy savings progress reports to
                            updates on energy usage and                                   staff
                            progress towards energy savings?

 Energy tracking            Is energy usage regularly metered,                          > Record energy usage and spending when a
                            monitored and recorded?                                       bill is received
                                                                                        > Determine baseline energy use
                            Is energy use benchmarked against                           > After baseline is determined, benchmark
                            industry best practice?                                       against industry standard
                                                                                        > Alternatively, calculate energy rating via
                                                                                          NABERS website
                            Have energy savings targets been set?                       > After baseline and benchmarks are
                                                                                          determined, set target savings against
                                                                                          industry standard
                  Are energy costs and program                                 > Add energy performance to financial
                  performance included in financial                              reviews and updates
                  and business reviews?
Energy billing    Do you know your electricity costs                           > Review and record energy data for every bill
                  associated with both use (kWh) and                             received
                  demand (kW)?
                  On an annual basis, are energy rates                         > Include energy review at the end of reach
                  and supplier reviewed to ensure the                            financial year
                  most favourable rate structure?
                  Are monthly energy bills reviewed                            > Double check energy usage vs cost when
                  for accuracy?                                                  recording energy activity for each bill
                                                                               > Check and record meter readings if possible
Check list                                                 Y/N     Units       Suggested follow-up action                          Responsibility
                                                                 (no., type)
Lighting use      Are lights turned off when rooms or                          > Post signage reminding staff to switch off
                  areas are not occupied?                                        lights
                                                                               > Install occupancy sensors
                  Are light switches labelled to denote                        > Label light switches with corresponding
                  location of lighting?                                          lighting area
                  Have energy conservation stickers                            > Place energy saving reminders on light
                  been placed on light switches?                                 switches
                  Are lighting systems wired so that                           > Consider rewiring to separate switches
                  lights throughout a large area do not                        > When remodelling, wire lights to separate
                  have to be on when only a small                                switches
                  section of the area is being used?
                  Is task lighting used to reduce                              > Provide energy efficient desk lamps and
                  background or overhead lighting?                               reduce overhead lighting
                  Have occupancy sensors been                                  > Install occupancy sensors in key areas
                  installed in areas that are frequently
                  unoccupied (bathrooms, conference
                  rooms, storage rooms, hallways, etc)?

                  Have timers been installed on                                > Install timers to outside lighting or use solar
                  outside lighting?                                              lighting
                  Has housekeeping and security staff                          > Remind security and housekeeping staff of
                  been advised to keep lights turned                             energy saving measures and that lights
                  off in unoccupied spaces?                                      should remain off after hours
Lighting types    Have older lighting fixtures been                            > Install or convert old lighting fixtures to
                  upgraded or converted to T-5 lamps                             more energy efficient models
                  and electronic ballasts?
                  Have incandescent light bulbs been                           > Replace all lights with CFL or more energy
                  replaced with compact fluorescent                              efficient models. See Table 16
                  light bulbs (CFLs)?
                  Do EXIT signs use light emitting                             > Install LED fixtures to all EXIT signs
                  diode (LED) fixtures?
                  Has unnecessary lighting been                                > Review lighting needs and eliminate
                  removed or disconnected, both                                  unnecessary lights in all areas of building
                  indoor and outdoor?
                  Has unnecessary lighting been                                > Disconnect lights in vending machines
                  removed from vending machines?                               > Install timer plug in for all vending
                                                                                 machines to switch off out of business
Cleanliness and   Are lamps regularly cleaned?                                 > Remind housekeeping staff to regularly
maintenance                                                                      clean all light fixtures
                        Are broken lamps repaired?                                  > Notify maintenance staff of any lamps that
                                                                                      need to be repaired
                                                                                    > Post signage reminding staff to report
                                                                                      damaged lamps
                        Have non-working lights been                                > Notify maintenance staff of any lamps that
                        replaced?                                                     need to be changed out
                                                                                    > Post signage reminding staff to report
                                                                                      non-working lamps
Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC)
Check list                                                      Y/N     Units       Suggested follow-up action                          Responsibility
                                                                      (no., type)
Maintenance             Is there a service contract agreement                       > Contract regular maintenance to HVAC
                        to provide regular safety and                                 systems
                        efficiency maintenance to the
                        Are systems regularly cleaned and                           > Schedule regular HVAC maintenance
                        filters replaced?
                        Have leaks in system components                             > Schedule repairs with maintenance staff
                        such as pipes, steam traps and
                        couplings been repaired?
                        Are thermostats regularly calibrated?                       > Regularly calibrate HVAC system and
                                                                                      investigate/repair any abnormalities
                        Are exhaust fans turned off with the                        > Program all available components of HVAC
                        HVAC systems when space is                                    to be turned off out of business hours
Settings                Are heating and air conditioning                            > Set thermostat to:
                        thermostats set to the most efficient                       > Summer: 23°-25°c
                        and comfortable level?                                      > Winter: 18°-20°c
                        Does system have thermostat                                 > If no, install sensors in main work areas and
                        sensors?                                                      way from heat or draughts
                                                                                    > If yes, check to ensure sensors are placed
                                                                                      away from heat sources and draughts
                        Are thermostats tamper proof?                               > Place covers over thermostats to prevent
                                                                                      staff from unnecessarily adjusting
                        Does HVAC system have a timer or                            > Install or set timer to shut off system out of
                        programmable?                                                 operating hours
                                                                                    > Install or set timer for portable systems
                        Is HVAC system setback when                                 > Program HVAC to switch off out of business
                        building is unoccupied?                                       hours
                        Is air conditioning and heating                             > Program HVAC to switch off when outside
                        setback when weather permits?                                 temperature permits
Airflow                 Has supply air been adjusted to                             > Calibrate airflow
                        match space requirements?                                   > Decrease flow in areas that are over
                        Are air deflectors installed on floor                       > If no, install air deflectors to force air into
                        ducts?                                                        the centre of the room
                        Are doors fitted with automatic door                        > Install door closers to prevent heat/cool air
                        closers?                                                      escape and drafts
                        Has direct conditioning of                                  > Program HVAC to be switched off or close
                        unoccupied areas (corridors,                                  vents in unoccupied areas
                        stairwells, storage rooms, etc) been
                        Are outside air dampers controlled to                       > Program all components of HVAC to most
                        close when conditioned space in                               energy efficient and savings settings
                        If economisers are available on HVAC                          > Program all components of HVAC to most
                        system, are they set to utilise free                            energy efficient and savings settings
                        cooling when outside temperate
Location                Is heat producing equipment such as                           > Move any heat producing equipment away
                        printers, copiers and refrigerators                             from HVAC sensors
                        located away from HVAC thermostat
Water use and heating
Check list                                                        Y/N     Units       Suggested follow-up action                         Responsibility
                                                                        (no., type)
Settings                Is hot water heater set to the                                > Reduce hot water heater to minimum
                        minimum level necessary for                                     temperature permitted for your business
                        sanitation requirements?                                        needs
                                                                                      > Consider installing a solar hot water heater
                        Are aerator taps and efficient shower                         > Install WELS aerated taps and showerheads
                        heads installed?
                        Are timers installed to switch off                            > Install timer to switch off hot water heaters
                        water heater when facilities are                                out of hours and switch back on before
                        unoccupied?                                                     opening
Insulation              Are the hot heaters and first 1-2                             > Insulate hot water heaters and piping
                        meters of piping insulated?
Maintenance             Have leaks been identified and                                > Schedule regular maintenance inspections
                        repaired?                                                       for leaks and repairs
Communication           Is water conservation signage                                 > Post water savings and leak reporting
                        located throughout facility?                                    reminder signage with maintenance contact
                                                                                        info in kitchens, toilets and break rooms
                                                                                      > Sydney Water has examples
Check list                                                        Y/N     Units       Suggested follow-up action                         Responsibility
                                                                        (no., type)
Maintenance             Are refrigerator doors and seals in                           > To test, if you can easily remove a note from
                        proper condition to close tightly                               between the seal and frame, the seal needs
                        without leaks?                                                  to be replaced
                                                                                      > If the seal is cracked or separated it should
                                                                                        be replaced
                        Are refrigerator coils clean and dust                         > Regularly clean and maintain refrigerator
                        free?                                                           equipment
                        Is the freezer frost free?                                    > Defrost any ice build up
Location                Are fans and equipment                                        > Make sure there is a 15 cm gap between
                        unobstructed?                                                   the wall and the back of the refrigerator
Settings                Are refrigerators set to most efficient                       > Increase temperature to avoid over cooling
                        temperature?                                                    and freezing
                        Are timers installed to switch off                            > Install timer plug ins on all appropriate
                        appropriate refrigerators when                                  refrigerators (those that contain non-
                        facilities are unoccupied?                                      perishables such as bottled drinks) to turn
                                                                                        off after hours and back on prior to opening
Equipment               Are refrigerators most energy                                 > If refrigerators are older inefficient models,
                        efficient models?                                               consider upgrading to hight Energy Star
                        Are refrigerators appropriately sized                         > Remove multiple mini refrigerators and buy
                        for facility needs? Example, 2 larger                           a larger more efficient model
                        refrigerators rather than 4
                        Are unnecessary refrigerators                                 > Remove or unplug unused refrigerators
                        removed or switched off?
Office equipment
Check list                                                     Y/N     Units       Suggested follow-up action                             Responsibility
                                                                     (no., type)
Settings                Are computers, monitors, printers,                         > Place signage near exits reminding staff to
                        copiers and other office equipment                           switch off all equipment at the end of the day
                        turned off when not in use?                                > Use reward programs to incentivise staff to
                                                                                     switch off
                                                                                   > Install timer plug ins on office equipment to
                                                                                     switch off after hours
                                                                                   > Ensure senior management leads by
                                                                                     example and switch off each day
                        Are computers, monitors, printers,                         > Program or set all equipment to energy
                        copiers and other office equipment                           saving or sleep mode
                        set for “sleep” or energy saving
Equipment               Is office equipment the most energy                        > Consider upgrading older equipment to
                        efficient models (generally Energy                           energy efficient Energy Star rated
                        Is Energy Star equipment specified                         > Prioritise or require highest Energy Star rating
                        when making purchasing decisions?                            for all new purchases in purchasing policy
                                                                                   > Advise any staff making purchasing
                                                                                     decisions to take advantage of energy
                                                                                     efficiency opportunities
                        Are battery chargers (mobile phones,                       > Remind staff to unplug unused equipment
                        computers, etc) unplugged after use?
Check list                                                     Y/N     Units       Suggested follow-up action                             Responsibility
                                                                     (no., type)
Maintenance             Are seals, weather stripping and                           > Replace seals that are cracked, dry or
                        caulking around openings in good                             missing
                        Does building insulation need to be                        > Replace insulation that is no long effective
                        repaired or replaced?
Settings                Are blinds and shades adjusted to                          > Adjust the blinds throughout the day to
                        take advantage of daylight and                               minimise heat loss or over heating
                        utilise or avoid the impact of solar
                        Are operable windows used for                              > Open windows and take advantage of free
                        ventilation whenever possible?                               fresh air whenever possible
Facilities              Have thermal windows and glazing                           > Consider replacing single paned windows
                        been installed to minimise heating                           the double or triple panes
                        and cooling loss?                                          > Consider glazing/tinting to minimise solar heating
                        Are ceilings, roof and walls                               > Consider insulating all possible walls,
                        insulated?                                                   ceilings and roofing to maximise efficiency
Vehicles and transportation
Check list                                                     Y/N     Units       Suggested follow-up action                             Responsibility
                                                                     (no., type)
Maintenance             Do company vehicles receive regular                        > Schedule all vehicles for regular service
                        maintenance?                                                 inspections
Equipment               Are company vehicles most fuel                             > Consider retiring older or inefficient vehicles
                        efficient models available for your                          and purchase more efficient and/or hybrid
                        business’s requirements?                                     and diesel fleets
                        When purchasing a new vehicle is                           > Prioritise fuel efficiency when purchasing
                        fuel efficiency prioritised?                                 new vehicles
                        Are vehicle GHG emissions offset?                          > Consider purchasing carbon offsets for
                                                                                     vehicle related GHG emissions
Communication           Are employees encouraged or                                > Promote public transport to staff
                        incentivised for taking public                             > Organise carpooling schedules
                        transport or carpooling?                                   > Offer travel passes pre-tax
Office: Water walk-through audit
Office size: __________ m2
Operating hours: ______
Number of employees:___________
Baseline water use per annum: ___________kL
Baseline water use KPI: ___________ kL/m2/year

Other instructions:
1. Identify water usage rates for all toilets, urinals, showers and taps. (Consult manufacturer’s user guide for toilets and urinals and flow
   rate test instructions below for showers and taps)
2. Compare water flow rates to WELS ratings on Tables 11 and 12
3. If accessible, read water meters regularly and compare actual water use to the facility’s water reduction goal. Large water users should
   continue to read meters daily. Commercial businesses using water for sanitary purposes only might read meters biweekly or monthly.

Simple toilet leak test
To detect silent leaks, remove the toilet cistern lid. Flush the toilet to empty the cistern and add a few drops of food colouring to the cistern
as it refills. If the tank is leaking, colour will appear in the bowl within 15 to 30 minutes. If your toilets are not of the standard cistern and
pan variety, (cavity mounted cisterns for example) then please do not attempt to investigate any leaks.
Note: Be sure to flush toilet after test is complete to ensure the food colouring does not stain toilet.

Shower and tap flow test
1. Fully turn on the cold-water tap of your shower or tap
2. Hold a bucket under the shower for 20 seconds
3. Remove the bucket and turn the water off
4. Measure the amount of water in the bucket by emptying a litre at a time into the measuring container
5. Calculate the flow rate (in litres per minute) by multiplying the number of litres by three. For example, if you collected
   8 litres over the 20 seconds, the flow rate is 8 x 3 = 24 litres per minute

 Administration and communication
 Check list                                                      Y/N   Units (no.,   Suggested follow-up action                       Responsibility
 Communication and       Has the critical need to conserve                           > Develop and post commitment policy
 policy initiatives      water been broadly communicated                               statement
                         within your business?                                       > Implement employee education and
                                                                                       engagement programs
                         Has a management team been                                  > Create sustainability team involving senior
                         organised to provide strategy and                             management
                         leadership around water                                     > Include sustainability measures in business
                         conservation?                                                 strategy development
                         Has a water management plan or                              > After audit, develop an immediate and
                         savings plan been developed?                                  long-term water savings plan
                         Have internal policies and procedures                       > Use the audit findings to develop policies
                         been developed around water                                   and procedures addressing the most critical
                         conservation and management?                                  and immediate water savings measures
 Employee engagement     Are water conservation/efficiency                           > Display signage reminding staff to conserve
                         posters displayed throughout the                              water in relevant locations, i.e., kitchens,
                         organisation?                                                 bathrooms
                                                                                     > See Sydney Water’s Every Drop Counts
                 Do you provide rewards/                                       > Develop engagement and rewards programs
                 acknowledgement programs for                                    for staff
                 employee who are conserve water?
                 Are employees provided education                              > Include water savings training at staff
                 around water conservation?                                      meetings and provide information in public
                                                                                 areas such as bulletin boards and internal
                 Are employees provided regular                                > Provide water savings progress reports to
                 updates on water usage and progress                             staff
                 towards water savings?
Water tracking   Is water usage regularly metered,                             > Record the location of water meters on floor
                 monitored and recorded?                                         plan sheet
                                                                               > Record the meter number, reading, date and
                 Is water use benchmarked against                              > After baseline is determined, benchmark
                 industry best practice?                                         against industry standard
                                                                               > Alternatively, calculate water rating via
                                                                                 NABERS website
                 Have water savings KPI and targets                            > After baseline and benchmarks are
                 been set?                                                       determined, set target savings
                 Are water costs and program                                   > Add water savings performance to financial
                 performance included in financial                               reviews and updates
                 and business reviews?
Water billing    Do you know your water costs?                                 > Review and record water data for every bill
                 Are monthly water bills reviewed for                          > Double check water usage vs cost for each
                 accuracy?                                                       bill
                                                                               > Review audit findings and bills for areas of
                                                                                 high water use, investigate cause and check
                                                                                 for leaks
Check list                                                 Y/N   Units (no.,   Suggested follow-up action                        Responsibility
Meter reading    How often are meters read?                                    > Develop a metering schedule
                 Has leak detection been carried out                           > Record meter reading afterhours then again
                 by monitoring water meters during                               before opening. If there is a change in meter
                 zero flow periods i.e. overnight?                               reading, there are leaks occurring
Check list                                                 Y/N   Units (no.,   Suggested follow-up action                        Responsibility
Toilets          Are toilets single flush?                                     > Replace with dual flush (6/3 litre or 4.5/3
                                                                                 litre models)
                 Are toilets dual flush?                                       > Check volume, replace 11/5.5 and 9/4.5 litre
                                                                                 models with 6/3 or 4.5/3 litre models
                 Are the toilets leaking/running?                              > Fix leaks and running toilets
                 (Test-see above)
                 If you have single flush toilets, can                         > Consider reducing flush volume by adjusting
                 you reduce the cistern flush volume?                            cistern float arm or install a displacement
                                                                                 device or weight. Caution- may not be
                                                                                 appropriate for all models.
                 Are the cistern rubber seals on toilets                       > Replace every 2 years
                 replaced regularly?
                 Is the flow rate within the                                   > If no, maintenance is required
                 manufacturer’s recommended range?
Urinals          Are urinals cyclical (‘fill and dump’)                        > Replace with push button/pull chain or
                 flushing?                                                       automatic sensor flushing units
                          Do urinals have automatic sensor                           > Check sensors are working properly and not
                          flushing?                                                    flushing more than once every 6 minutes
                                                                                       regardless of number of users
                          Is the flow rate within the                                > If no, maintenance is required
                          manufacturer’s recommended range?
Sink taps (kitchen,       Are sink taps leaking? Check tap and                       > Fix any leaks
bathrooms, etc)           pipes below.
                          Do sink taps have flow regulators or                       > Install flow regulators or aerators that
                          aerators? (To check tap flow, see                            reduce flow to at least 6 litres per min or
                          above)                                                       install WELS rated showerhead
                          Are taps mixed (both hot and cold                          > Convert to mixed tap to minimise wasting
                          together) or separate?                                       water-quicker achievement of optimum
                          Is the flow rate within the                                > If no, maintenance is required
                          manufacturer’s recommended range?
Showers                   Do showers have water saving                               > Install flow regulator or aerator that reduces
                          showerheads?                                                 flow to at least 9 litres per min or install
                          (To check tap flow, see above)                               WELS rated showerhead
                          Are showerheads leaking?                                   > Fix leaks
                          Is the flow rate within the                                > If no, maintenance is required
                          manufacturer’s recommended range?
Dishwashers               Are dishwashers water efficient                            > Consider upgrading to a more water and
                          models?                                                      energy efficient model
                          Are dishwashers only run when full?                        > Only run dishwashers when full
                          Are dishwashers only run on                                > Only run dishwashers on economy setting
                          economy setting?
Large water boilers       Are water boilers switched off at                          > Turn off at end of day
                          night?                                                     > Install timer if needed
                          Is temperature set too high?                               > Reduce to minimum needed
                          Are the boilers leaking?                                   > Check overflow valve, especially in older models
                          Is the boiler used frequently?                             > If no, discontinue use and supply smaller
                                                                                       more efficient kettle
HVAC (no cooling tower)
Check list                                                       Y/N   Units (no.,   Suggested follow-up action                           Responsibility
Maintenance               Are HVAC systems scheduled for                             > Schedule regular maintenance
                          regular maintenance?
Check list                                                       Y/N   Units (no.,   Suggested follow-up action                           Responsibility
Cleaning staff            Are water management and savings                           > If no, cleaning staff will need info about
                          actions communicated to cleaning                             water saving cleaning tips. Educational
                          staff?                                                       signage and fact sheets are also helpful
Outdoor space
Check list                                                       Y/N   Units (no.,   Suggested follow-up action                           Responsibility
Landscaping               Are there alternative water sources                        > If no, consider rainwater or stormwater
                          to irrigation?                                               systems
                          Are native vegetation and/or                               > When planting, utilise native and low-water
                          low-water plants used for                                    plant species
                          Is compost used?                                           > Use of compost improves soil and will retain
                          Are drip hoses used?                                       > Use drip hoses rather than sprinkler systems,
                                                                                       minimises evaporation and water waste
Offices: Visual waste audit
and waste walk-through checklist
Office size: __________ m2
Operating hours: ______
Number of employees:___________
Visual waste assessment:
This option for conducting a waste audit consists of visually sampling the waste stream and recording types and frequency
of waste found in receptacles.

Main techniques:
>   Visual inspection of the different waste types and systems within the building
>   Estimate quantities of each waste type
>   Conduct site analysis
>   No physical sorting conducted

Before visual audit:
>   Check with the maintenance/janitorial staff to schedule the audit at a time of day when building receptacles are all at their fullest
>   Recruit two or three people to conduct the audit, depending on the size of the building and number of building waste receptacles
>   Observe any OH&S requirements, i.e. plastic gloves, etc
>   Ensure audit takes place on a ‘typical’ day, avoid times of unusually high or low waste activity such as holidays or end of financial year

Visual waste audit process:
1. Auditors should complete a walkthrough of the entire building, checking and recording the contents of 3-5 sample of waste bins on each
   floor or department. You should not typically have to handle garbage, a visual survey should be sufficient. Remember this is an estimate
   to gain a general idea of the types and amounts of waste being disposed of. Be sure to take notes.
2. Using the table below, estimate the percent bin is full, place a tick mark for each material observed in a receptacle and approximate the
   material volume by percentage
3. Repeat for each type of sample waste container in all locations (i.e. desk side containers, lunch/break room, kitchen, and supply rooms).
4. After completing the walk-through and recording your findings, tally the tick marks for each material. This will demonstrate which wastes
   were found most frequently throughout the building. For example, “copy paper was found in 5 out of 6 building waste receptacles.” Also,
   be sure to account for percent bins are full as to not over estimate findings by assuming all bins are 100% full.
5. Repeat process for recycling bins, if applicable
Information found during a visual waste audit will help determine the types and amounts of wastes that could be recycled, reused,
composted or avoided to begin with. If you already have a recycling program, this audit will let you know if additional communication
and efforts are necessary to maximise recycling and reduce waste.

Terms used in audit:
Waste: garbage, trash
Materials: key supplies purchased, such as, stationary, paper, food, guest room items, cleaning supplies, etc
Recycling: recyclable materials such as paper, glass, metal, etc
Sample Visual Waste Assessment Worksheet
Location: Repeat table for each area and recycling receptacles
Key Areas: Kitchen, bars, guest rooms, break room, conference room, reception and central areas
Material:                  Sample Waste      Sample Waste        Sample Waste         Sample Waste       Sample Waste       Sample Waste         Average
Estimated visual (%)        receptacle 1      receptacle 2        receptacle 3         receptacle 4       receptacle 5       receptacle 6        findings
% of bin full                  100%               50%                25%                   10%                25%                0%               35%
Bin size                        25 L              25L                25L                    40L               25L                25L              27.5 L
Days since collection            1                  1                    1                   1                  1                 1               1 day
Food and organics               ×                  ×                  ×                     ×                   ×
                               50%                50%                10%                   25%                 0%                0%               22.5%
Cardboard                        ×
Copy paper                      ×
Newspaper                       ×
Aluminium cans                   ×
Plastic                         ×
Mixed paper
Magazines                       ×

Waste walk-through checklist
Administration and communication
Check list                                                         Y/N         Units       Suggested follow-up action                       Responsibility
                                                                             (no., type)
Communication and        Has the critical need to reduce waste                             > Develop and post commitment policy
policy initiatives       and recycle been broadly                                            statement
                         communicated within your business?                                > Implement employee education and
                                                                                             engagement programs
                         Has a management team been                                        > Create sustainability team involving senior
                         organised to provide strategy and                                   management
                         leadership around waste reduction                                 > Include sustainability measures in business
                         and recycling?                                                      strategy development
                         Has a waste reduction and recycling                               > After audit, develop an immediate and
                         plan been developed?                                                long-term recycling and waste minimisation
                         Have internal policies and                                        > Develop policies and procedures addressing
                         procedures been developed around                                    the most critical and immediate waste
                         waste reduction and purchasing?                                     reduction measures, i.e., recycling and
                                                                                             purchasing policies
Employee engagement      Are waste reduction/recycling                                     > Display signage reminding staff to recycle
                         posters displayed throughout the                                    and conserve resources
                         Are rewards/acknowledgement                                       > Implement engagement, education and
                         programs provided for employees                                     rewards programs for staff
                         who recycle and reduce waste?
                         Are employees provided education                             > Include waste reduction and recycle training
                         around waste reduction and                                     at staff meetings and provide information in
                         recycling?                                                     public areas such as bulletin boards and
                                                                                        internal website
                         Are employees provided regular                               > Provide waste reduction and recycling
                         updates on recycling and progress                              progress reports to staff
                         towards waste reduction?
Waste, material use      Are waste production, material use                           > Record material use, recycling and waste
and recycling tracking   (stationary, paper, supplies, etc) and                         levels and spending when a bills are received
                         recycling regularly monitored and                            > Determine waste, material use and recycling
                         recorded?                                                      baselines
                         Are waste generation and recycling                           > After baseline is determined, benchmark
                         benchmarked against industry best                              against industry standard
                         practice?                                                    > Alternatively, calculate waste rating via
                                                                                        NABERS website
                         Have material use, recycling and                             > After baseline and benchmarks are
                         waste reduction KPIs and targets                               determined, set target savings against
                         been set?                                                      industry standard (when available)
                         Are material use, waste and recycling                        > Add waste reduction, material use and
                         program performance included in                                recycling performance to financial reviews
                         financial and business reviews?                                and updates
Waste, material use      Are monthly waste, material use and                          > Double check waste, material use and
and recycling billing    recycling bills reviewed for accuracy?                         recycling generation vs cost for each bill
                                                                                      > Determine your waste generation, recycling
                                                                                        and disposal costs, see Table 7
                                                                                      > Calculate and review your material use by
                                                                                        recording and monitoring invoices for
                                                                                        consumables such as paper, stationary and
                                                                                        other common supplies
Check list                                                        Y/N     Units       Suggested follow-up action                        Responsibility
                                                                        (no., type)
General waste            Are there recyclable materials in the                        > Communicate recyclable materials and goals
                         general waste, i.e. cans/bottles?                              to staff regularly
                                                                                      > Post signage reminding staff to recycle and
                                                                                        what materials can be recycled
                         Is there high contamination in                               > Communicate recyclable materials and goals
                         recycling bins, i.e. garbage in paper                          to staff regularly
                         recycling bins?                                              > Post signage reminding staff to recycle and
                                                                                        what materials can be recycled
Comingled                Is comingled recycling provided?                             > Consider providing comingled recycling bins
                                                                                        at each desk
Paper                    Is paper recycled?                                           > Provide comingled or paper recycling at each
                                                                                        desk and near printers/copiers/faxes
                         Are secure documents recycled?                               > Contact your recycling provider and discuss
                                                                                        options for secure document recycling
                         Is there paper/cardboard in garbage                          > Communicate paper recycling goals to staff
                         bins?                                                          regularly
                                                                                      > Post signage reminding staff to recycle and
                                                                                        what materials can be recycled
Plastic                  Is plastic recycling available?                              > Contact recycling provider
                                                                                      > Consider comingled recycling options
                                                                                      > Provide receptacles in vital areas, i.e.
Aluminium/metal          Is aluminium/metal recycling                                 > Contact recycling provider
                         available?                                                   > Consider comingled recycling options
                                                                                      > Provide receptacles in vital areas, i.e.
Glass                     Is glass recycling available?                                > Contact recycling provider
                                                                                       > Consider comingled recycling options
                                                                                       > Provide receptacles in vital areas, i.e.
Location                  Are waste bins provided at each                              > Remove waste bins from each desk and
                          desk?                                                          replace with co-mingled or paper recycling
                                                                                       > Provide centrally located waste bins rather
                                                                                         and individual bins
                          Are general waste and recycling bins                         > Place recycling bins near printers/copiers
                          located in convenient locations?                             > Only provide the minimum number of waste
                                                                                         bins necessary and have recycling bins next
                                                                                         to general waste bins
Awareness                 Are employees informed and                                   > Give regular waste reduction updates at staff
                          provided information on recyclable                             meetings
                          materials and goals?                                         > Provide signage about waste reduction
                                                                                       > Remind staff on a regular basis on what can
                                                                                         be recycled
                          Are recycling bins clearly labelled                          > Label bins and post signs near waste and
                          with accepted recyclables?                                     recycling bins noting accepted materials
                          Are waste and recycling bins                                 > Try to ensure waste and recycling bins are
                          consistent in colour and design                                different from each other and consistent in
                          making them the clearly                                        colour and size to avoid confusion or
                          distinguishable?                                               accidental waste disposal rather than
                          Are there examples of good practice,                         > Place reuse trays and recycle bins near
                          i.e. reuse paper trays near printers,                          printers/copies
                          double sided printing signs near                             > Post reminder signage
                          Are cleaning/janitorial staff informed                       > Review recycling procedures and accepted
                          on waste reduction and recycling                               materials with cleaning staff
                          initiatives?                                                 > Include cleaning staff in waste and recycling
                                                                                         education initiatives
Supplies and purchasing
Check list                                                         Y/N     Units       Suggested follow-up action                        Responsibility
                                                                         (no., type)
Paper                     Are paper and stationary products                            > If yes, consider sourcing options with higher
                          made from recycled content?                                    recycled content when possible
                          If yes, what percent is recycled                             > If no, source options with recycled content
                          Are there paper or stationary                                > Review paper and stationary needs and
                          products that are rarely used?                                 discontinue unnecessary or duplicate
                          Are bathroom tissue and paper                                > Source options with recycled content
                          towels made from recycled content?
Toners                    Are toner and printer cartridges                             > Rather than buying new cartridges, source
                          remanufactured?                                                remanufactured options
                          Are toner and printer cartridges                             > Recycle cartridges to manufacturer or
                          recycled?                                                      designated recycling facility
Cleaning products         Do cleaners use environmentally                              > Discuss changing to green products with
                          friendly cleaning products                                     cleaning service provider
                                                                                       > Supply green cleaning products to cleaners
                          Do maintenance and grounds keeping                           > Discuss changing to green products with
                          staff use green chemicals or less                              grounds and maintenance staff
                          toxic alternatives to such chemicals                         > Supply and source green product alternatives
                          as paints, fertilisers and pesticides?
Kitchen supplies    Does your office use disposable                             > If yes, supply reusable mugs and utensils for
                    dishes, cups and utensils?                                    all staff use
                    If yes, what kind (polystyrene,                             > If disposables are necessary, source those
                    plastic, paper, bio-degradable, etc)?                         that can be recycled, reused more than once
                                                                                  and/or made from recycled/biodegradable
Misc supplies       Are duplicate supplies purchased for                        > Review supplies and determine which can be
                    all employees?                                                shared
                                                                                > Provide communal area for infrequently used
                    Is there obvious waste of unused                            > Avoid reordering
                    items i.e. office stationary?
                    Have staff who purchase supplies                            > All staff who are involved in purchasing
                    been informed of waste reduction                              should be briefed on waste reduction
                    policies and initiatives?                                     measures and sustainability purchasing
                    Are ‘green’ supplies purchased?                             > When purchasing new office supplies, look
                                                                                  for green options such as ‘stapleless’
                                                                                  staplers, reusable clips and refills
                                                                                > Prioritise supplies that minimise packaging or
                                                                                  packaging can be recycled or returned for reuse
Office equipment
Check list                                                  Y/N     Units       Suggested follow-up action                          Responsibility
                                                                  (no., type)
Efficiency rating   Are all pieces of office equipment                          > Purchase energy efficient models when
                    Energy Star rated?                                            replacing or upgrading equipment
Copiers, printers   Do all copiers have duplex capacity?                        > Purchase multipurpose printers/copiers with
and faxes           Number yes:                                                   duplexing capacity
                    Number no:                                                  > Consider rationalising copiers to a fewer
                                                                                  number of multipurpose printers/copiers
                    Are all computers and printers                              > Set defaults to print double sided
                    default settings set to print double
                    Do all printers have duplex capacity?                       > Purchase multipurpose printers with
                    Number yes:                                                   duplexing capacity
                    Number no:                                                  > Consider rationalising printers to a fewer
                                                                                  number of multipurpose printers/copiers
                    Do all faxes have duplex capacity?                          > Purchase fax machines with duplexing
                    Number yes:                                                   capacity
                    Number no:                                                  > Utilise emails rather than faxing
                    Is office equipment recycled or                             > Avoid sending outdated equipment to the
                    properly disposed at end of use?                              landfill, find a recycling centre or donate
                    Are mobile phones recycled?                                 > Collect mobile phones and chargers and recycle
                                                                                > Set up a mobile phone recycling bin at work.
Check list                                                  Y/N     Units       Suggested follow-up action                          Responsibility
                                                                  (no., type)
Electronic          Do you send paper invoices?                                 > Switch to paperless (electronic) billing
                    Do you send out paper                                       > Send advertisements via email
                    advertisements or promotions?
                    Is your mailing list regularly                              > Remove duplicate and out of date addresses
                    updated?                                                      from mailing lists
1. US Environmental Protection Agency,           9. Sydney Water Corporation, Best Practice
   Climate Change Basic Information. http://        Guidelines for Water Conservation in             Commercial Office Buildings and Shopping
   html                                             Centres, Sydney Water Corporate, 2007.
2. Australian Department of Climate              10. National Australian Built Environment
   Change, Climate Change Science,                   Rating System (NABERS), Office Ratings
   Commonwealth of Australia, 2007. http://          Tool,             aspx
   pubs/science-faq.pdf                          11. Smith, M., Hargroves, K., Stasinopoulos,
3. Australian Department of Climate                  P., Stephens, R., Desha, C., and Hargroves,
   Change, National Greenhouse Gas                   S. Engineering Sustainable Solutions
   Inventory 2006: Accounting for the Kyoto          Program: Sustainable Energy Solutions
   Target, Commonwealth of Australia, 2008.          Portfolio, The Natural Edge Project,                  Lecture 2.2. CSIRO and Griffith
   inventory/2006/pubs/inventory2006.pdf             University, 2007.
4. Australian Business Roundtable on             12. Sustainability Victoria, http://www.
   Climate Change, The Business Case for   
   Early Action, CSIRO Marine and                13. The Canadian Chamber of Commerce
   Atmospheric Research, 2006.                       (CCC), A Guide to Climate Change for
5. Preston BL and Jones RN, Climate Change           Small- to Medium-sized Enterprises,
   Impacts on Australia and the Benefits of          CCC, 2006.
   Early Action to Reduce Global Greenhouse      14. Commonwealth, State and Territory
   Gas Emissions, Commonwealth Scientific            government agencies, Green Office
   and Industrial Research Organisation,             Guide, Commonwealth Australia, 2001.
   pdf                                           15. Scientific America Earth 3.0, vol. 18, no.
                                                     4, 2008
6. Department of Energy, Utilities and               images/SciAm_Earth3_0.pdf
   Sustainability (DEUS), Guidelines for
   Water Savings Action Plans, DEUS, 2005.
7. Department of Energy, Utilities and
   Sustainability (DEUS), Guidelines for
   Energy Savings Action Plans, DEUS, 2005.
8. NSW Government Waste Reduction and
   Purchasing Policy (WRAPP), A WRAPP
   Guide to conducting an Office Waste
   Assessment, Department of Environment
   and Conservation (NSW), 2006.
                                                                                                             NSW Business Chamber is one of
                                                                                                             Australia’s largest business support
                                                                                                             groups, helping over 22,000 businesses
                                                                                                             each year.
                                                                                                             Founded in 1885, we’ve worked with
                                                                                                             thousands of businesses, from sole traders
                                                                                                             to large corporates, and have developed
                                                                                                             into a leading business solution provider
                                                                                                             and lobbying group with tremendous
                                                                                                             strengths in workplace management,
                                                                                                             OHS, IR HR, international trade, and
                                                                                                             improving business performance.
                                                                                                             Independent and non-government, NSW
                                                                                                             Business Chamber represents the needs of
                                                                                                             business at a local, state and federal level,
                                                                                                             lobbying governments and authorities to
                                                                                                             create a better environment to do
                                                                                                             business in.

Invigorating Business Representation

                                                                                                                                            NSW Business Chamber
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Monza Recycled contains 55% recycled fibre (25% post consumer and 30%
pre consumer) and 45% Elemental Chlorine Free pulp, the manufacturing                                                                       North Sydney NSW 2060
mill of Monza Recycled ensures that all virgin pulp is derived from
well-managed forests and is manufactured by an ISO14001 certified mill.                                                                     Locked Bag 938
                                                                                                                                            North Sydney NSW 2059
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