List of Contributors Michael Adler is Emeritus Professor of Socio-Legal Studies and Lever- hulme Emeritus Fellow in the School of Social and Political Studies at the University of Edinburgh. Ema Aitken At the time this paper was presented, Ema Aitken was the Chair of New Zealand’s Refugee Status Appeals Authority. In February 2007 she was appointed a Judge of the District Court. Professor Philip Bryden is Dean of Law, University of New Brunswick Lord Justice Carnwath is a Lord Justice of Appeal, Court of Appeal, England and Wales and is Senior President of the UK Tribunals Service. Murray Chitra is Chair, Ontario Civilian Commission on Police Services. Justice Garry Downes is President, Australian Administrative Appeals Tribunal (AAT). Gabriel Fleming BSSt LLB; MPublic Policy; PhD (Sydney). Currently a Magistrate of the Local Court of NSW. Tribunal member (NSW and Federal) 1992-2006. France Houle, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Montréal. Penny Letts is a Member of the Administrative Justice and Tribunals Council (UK). Patricia McConnell is Chair, Weathertight Homes Tribunal; Ministry of Justice, New Zealand. Ken MacKinnon is Associate Professor, School of Law, University of Waikato, New Zealand, and part-time reviewer of ACC decisions. John McMillan is Commonwealth Ombudsman; Professor of Law, Australian National University (on leave). Heather MacNaughton is Chair, British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal. Stuart Morris – at the time his paper was presented, Stuart Morris was Justice of the Supreme Court of Victoria and President of the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal. Currently he is a member of the Victorian bar. Peter Spiller is Principal Disputes Referee, Ministry of Justice, New Zealand, and Professor of Law, University of Waikato. Professor Nick Wikeley holds the John Wilson Chair in Law, University of Southampton.