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COGNITION

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					COGNITION
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) "Sue will have the apple." "Sue will halve the apple." These two sentences exhibit the same __________.
A) complex morphemes B) linguistic relativity C) deep structure D) surface structure

2) Remembering how to ride a bicycle, swim, or write your name are examples of __________ memory.
A) episodic B) procedural C) emotional D) semantic

3) Evidence exists that people become more creative when they are __________.
A) allowed to work in isolation without any direct supervision
B) allowed to use convergent thinking to solve problems
C) exposed to creative peers and teachers
D) placed in structured, goal-oriented work settings with strict rules and tight supervision

4) Ken knows that the radius of a circle is 5 feet, but he needs to calculate the diameter. The most effective solution
strategy he can use involves a(n) __________.
A) heuristic B) noncompensatory model C) means-end analysis D) algorithm

5) The two main components of grammar are __________.
A) top-down processing and bottom-up processing B) semantics and syntax
C) prototype construction and linguistic relativity D) phonemes and morphemes

6) The finding that when asked to recall a list of unrelated items, people tend to best remember the items at the
beginning and at the end of the list, is called the __________.
A) memory gap effect B) serial position effect C) forgetting curve D) sequentialization effect

7) Loni is asked to memorize the letters I K T E A L N. She memorizes them by reorganizing them into the words
"INK" and "LATE." This tactic is called __________.
A) shadowing B) cueing C) chunking D) rote rehearsal

8) Arnie finally got the telephone number of a girl he's been wanting to ask out for a date. Unfortunately, he had
nothing to write the number on when it was told to him. To keep from forgetting the number, he simply repeats it
aloud until he can find a pen and some paper. His memory tactic is called __________.
A) elaborative rehearsal B) distractor inhibition C) deep processing D) rote rehearsal

9) Belinda sits down to take a psychology test and finds that it is an essay test requiring creative writing to construct
hypothetical situations. What type of thinking will be MOST important to her to do well on the test? A) functional
thinking B) circular thinking C) convergent thinking D) divergent thinking

10) Many middle-aged adults can vividly recall where they were and what they were doing the day that John F.
Kennedy was assassinated, although they cannot remember what they were doing the day before he was
assassinated. This is an example of __________.
A) a semantic memory B) a flashbulb memory C) a procedural memory D) an eidetic image

11) The person whose work has greatly contributed to our understanding of the way grammar works is __________.
A) Louis P. Leakey B) Noam Chomsky C) Harry Harlow D) George Lakoff

12) A flexible system of communication that uses sounds, rules, gestures, or symbols to convey information is
called __________. A) code B) morphology C) language D) syntax

13) On a TV game show, Jeanette is asked to name the state capital of Vermont. This information is MOST likely
stored in __________.
A) semantic memory B) procedural memory C) episodic memory D) emotional memory

14) Short-term memory holds __________amount of information for __________ time.
A) a limited; a limited B) an unlimited; an unlimited
C) a limited; an unlimited D) an unlimited; a limited

15) Information in short-term memory gets transferred to long-term memory if __________.
A) it gets rehearsed B) it is nonverbal C) it is verbal D) there are no distractions

16) The passing of time causes forgetting according to __________.
A) decay theory B) optimization theory C) interference theory D) reduction theory

17) The decision-making process that involves making a decision on the basis of certain features that are similar to
a stereotyped model is called __________.
A) the representativeness heuristic B) compensatory decision modeling
C) the availability heuristic D) hill-climbing

18) The tendency to perceive and approach problems in certain ways is called __________.
A) mental set B) means-end analysis C) prototypical idealization D) noncompensatory modeling

19) What we are thinking of at any given moment, or what we commonly know as "consciousness," is __________.
A) short-term memory B) cognitive dissonance C) secondary memory D) long-term memory

20) A seemingly arbitrary "flash" of knowledge "out of the blue" that solves a problem is called __________.
A) insight B) a mental set C) functional thinking D) convergent thinking

21) Billy, a two year-old, uses telagraphic speech to say ________.
A) "mommy food" B) "I want some more food, mommy" C) "food" D) "more food please, mommy"

22) When Rip Van Winkle returns to his native village after 20 years of sleeping in the mountains, he goes
immediately to the location of his former house and asks for his wife and children by name. The kind of memory he
is exhibiting by remembering his home's location and the names of his wife and children is __________. A)
procedural memory B) emotional memory C) episodic memory D) semantic memory

23) Becoming accustomed to thinking of only a limited number of uses for something is known as __________.
A) prototypical idealization B) hill-climbing C) noncompensatory modeling D) functional fixedness

24) Speakers of different languages develop different cognitive systems. This is know as ______.
A) the theory of linguistic relativity. B) transformational grammar.
C) language acquisition. D) overextension.

25) Michael is given a list of items to memorize. If the serial position effect occurs, he is most likely to best
remember __________.
A) the items at the beginning and the end, but not those in the middle
B) the items in the end, but not those in the beginning or the middle
C) the items in the beginning, but not those in the middle or the end
D) the items in the middle, but not those in the beginning or the end

26) Spoken language is based on universal sound units called __________.
A) phonemes B) morphemes C) registers D) semantics

27) Feeling enraged at the sight of a burning cross in someone's yard is an example of __________ memory.           A)
emotional B) semantic C) procedural D) episodic

28) John is a sexist who believes that women are incompetent business managers because they are "not
temperamentally suited to the aggressive nature of the business world." He notices every mistake his female
managers make, but never seems to see their numerous successes. With each new mistake he notices, John becomes
even more convinced of the incompetence of female managers. John's sexism is being maintained by __________.
A) the idealized cognitive model B) the confirmation bias
C) the representativeness heuristic D) the availability heuristic

29) The portion of memory that is more or less permanent and that corresponds with everything we "know" is
called __________.
A) working memory B) eidetic memory C) primary memory D) long-term memory

30) The tendency to view outcomes as inevitable and predictable after we knew the outcome is called __________.
A) confirmation bias B) the correspondence bias C) hindsight bias D) the self-serving bias

31) The technique which encourages people to generate a list of potential ideas without evaluating the ideas until all
of the ideas have been collected is called __________.
A) means-end analysis B) modeling C) compensatory planning D) brainstorming

32) Prefixes, suffixes, and words are examples of __________.
A) phonemes B) morphemes C) semantics D) subjugations

33) Mental categories for classifying specific people, things, or events are known as __________.
A) concepts B) evaluations C) reflections D) images

34) According to __________ theory, people use past reactions and experiences to organize and interpret their
perceptions of a present episode.
A) rehearsal B) schema C) interference D) decay

35) In the absence of full and accurate information, people often make decisions based on whatever information is
most easily retrieved from memory, even though this information may not be accurate. This process of decision
making is called __________.
A) the representativeness heuristic B) the availability heuristic
C) compensatory modeling D) hill-climbing
COGNITION ANSWERS
1) D
2) B
3) C
4) D
5) B
6) B
7) C
8) D
9) D
10) B
11) B
12) C
13) A
14) A
15) A
16) A
17) A
18) A
19) A
20) A
21) A
22) C
23) D
24) A
25) A
26) A
27) A
28) B
29) D
30) C
31) D
32) B
33) A
34) B
35) B