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					NAFA Kyushu Model 2003 English Version



Observation

1. The carbon tax is effective measure to protect global enviroment.
Japan Center for a Sustainable Environment and Society (JACSES) 2000/ available on August 14,2003
http://www.jacses.org/paco/carbon/whatis_carbontax.html
Q) The carbon tax is an economic policy that imposes taxes on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas,
and so forth, according to the content of carbon. And which deters the demand by raising the price of
production and use of the products made from oil. And then, which deters carbon dioxide emissions in
the long run. It can be said that this is a fair system which benefits those who make effort for protection of
environment, because people and companies get reward if they try to reduce CO2 emissions, and they
get burden if they don‟t. (UQ

2. In order to solve golobal warming, world countries adpted Kyoto Protocol.
朝日新聞/2002/10月24日/朝刊/14版/p2
Q) The officials of COP8 says that 96 countries has already ratified the Kyoto Protocol which has the aim
of cutting greenhouse effect gases. The protocol is to be issued next year, and the chairperson バルー
called for ratification to all countries by saying, ”the global warming is an emergent problem. We cannot
delay the issue of the protocol. (UQ




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Contention1 Inherency


a) In the status quo, the worldwide global warming is emerging because our life emmits lots of CO2.
レスター・ブラウン/2002/アースポリシー研究所所長/世界 7 月号/p97/pb岩波書店
Q)”Most of the global warming cases in the past 50 years have been caused by human activities, i.e.
emissions of green house effect gases such as CO2.” This is a conclusion written in „the 3 rd evaluation
paper‟ which estimates the future of global warming based on latest scientific perception, reported by
IPCC, April, 2001.(UQ

b) However Japan cannot decrease the CO2 emission under the present policy.


1. Japanese government don‟t take any effective counter measure against it.
Japan Center for a Sustainable Environment and Society (JACSES) 2000
available on August 14,2003 http://www.jacses.org/paco/carbon/whatis_carbontax.html
Q) In order to stop global warming, we have to reduce the greenhouse effect gases such as CO2, i.e. we
need to achieve the goal of Kyoto protocol (which says that Japan is to reduce the emission of
greenhouse gases up to 6% compared to 1990 (or 1995 in the case of HFCs, PFCs, and SF6) between
2008 and 2012). However, the reduction of carbon dixide emissions in Japan hasn‟t proceeded and it is
clear that only Japanese current policy is not enough. Therefore in order to achieve the goal of Kyoto
protocol, we need to carry out more effective policy quickly.(UQ


2. Nations and enterprises don‟t have motivation to solve global warming.
松藤/2003/保孝/日本財団調査委員/「日本財団図書館」2003/ available on 2003-08-26
http://nippon.zaidan.info/seikabutsu/1999/00157/contents/066.htm
Q) Although all nations are having general recognition that global environment is in a serious situation, it
is difficult to say that they have the recognition that the cause of aggravating global environment is
lifestyle by each of themselves, business activities by each enterprise, and present social economic
system itself. Therefore, as for global environmental problem, even though there are many opinions to
criticize insufficient policies by administration and others‟ actions, they don‟t reach to think what we
should do and our society should be, and to take concrete actions. Also as for enterprises, we can see
some examples that mainly big companies do activities to consider environment, such as getting ISO
certification and introducing environmental account, these actions are their sales strategies for
expanding imports and consumers‟ attention. (UQ


c) As the result, CO2 emissions from nations and enterprises has been increasing dramatically.
河北新報ニュース 2003 年 8 月 3 日                   available on 2003 年 8 月 26 日
http://www.kahoku.co.jp/shasetsu/2003/08/20030804s02.htm
Q) The amount of discharging greenhouse effect gases in Japan shows about 8% increase in 2000
compared to 1990. Seeing the amount of discharging CO2, which occupies more than 90% of
greenhouse effect gases, in each section separately, discharge amount in industry section doesn‟t really
change, but in national life section like homes and office buildings and in transportation section, each
amount is increasing by even 20% compared to 1990. (UQ




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d) This causes severe global warming.
石/2002/弘之/東京大学教授/東京大学大学院新領域創成科学研究科環境学専攻国際環境協力コース
環境技術政策学/[地球温暖化何が起きているか]/世界7月号/p97/pb 岩波書店
Q) According to the announcement by Meteorological Agency, world‟s average temperature in 2001
became third highest through observation, following to 1998 and 1990. That showed the tendency of
global warming, which appeared clearly in 80‟s, was still continuing. (omit) Concentration of CO2 in
atmosphere, which is considered as the biggest cause of warming, recorded highest in both Japan and
the world in 2001. (UQ


Contention2 Significance


a) The global warming has a significant harm through all over the world.


1.Natural disasters will come out.
石/2002/弘之/東京大学教授/東京大学大学院新領域創成科学研究科環境学専攻国際環境協力コース
環境技術政策学/[地球温暖化何が起きているか]/世界7月号/p97/pb 岩波書店
Q) It is warned that if global warming is going on as it is, we will have serious influences in various
ranges such as collapsion of natural ecosystem, aggravation of drought, influence toward food
production and security, frequent flood and flood tide, and increase of tropical sickness. (UQ


2. For example, Malaria will break out in Japan.
石/2002/弘之/東京大学教授/東京大学大学院新領域創成科学研究科環境学専攻国際環境協力コース
環境技術政策学/[地球温暖化何が起きているか]/世界7月号/p97/pb 岩波書店
Q) If global warming is going on, it is supposed that the people living in the area, where malaria is
prevailing, will increase from 45% to 60% in present world population in 2100. Malaria is one of most
terrible infectious diseases, which kills 3000 people every day in the world. (omit) These prevalent areas
don‟t have very different temperature as Japan has, hence there is enough possibility that malaria
breaks out in Japan. (UQ


b) D/R The Japanese government should take any countermeasure against the global warming.
世良/1999/力/国立東京工業高等専門学校非常勤講師/[環境科学要論                                     現状そして未来を考える]/pb東
京科学同人 P.134
Q) There are many “ gray – colored problems” in the world. Generally, like in criminal law, we don‟t
punish for any doubtful things; we don‟t punish if there is no clear evidence. However, as for the
environmental problem, this doesn‟t make sense. Because global environmental problem is like a
“ heavy wheel”, which cannot stop(forever), once it starts running; what is worse, we tend to find the
problem in the late stage as for environmental problem. Once a global environmental problem breaks out,
it takes tens and hundreds years to recover it, and it needs cost, and while doing so, there is a fear that
many victims will appear. Therefore, it is too late to take a measure after finding the cause and effect
(which is, indeed the most economical way). We can stop the heavy wheel with a small energy when the
speed is slow. Therefore, we have to “ punish any doubtful things “, and carry out countermeasure which
will not be regretted.(UQ




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Plan: The Japanese government should impose taxes on carbon dioxide emissions.
Mandates
a) The tax will be imposed on CO2 emitted from fossil fuels (such as coal, oil, natural gases etc)
b) The tax rate will be 6000 yen per 1 ton of carbon.
c) To keep the fairness of the tax, we impose the carbon taxes on all fossil fuels by calculating the
amount of contained carbon.
d) The tax revenue will be used for the incentives of global warming measures such as plantation,
alternative enrgy, and so on.
e) Necessary adjustment shall be taken through the normal democtratic procedures.



Contention3 Solvency

a) The carbon tax will change nations and enterprises perceptions.


1. The carbon tax will motivate them to solve global warming..
田中/1997 年/健次/環境庁企画調整局長//地球温暖化対策と環境税/ぎょうせい発行/p45
Q) Other than the effects of incentives which were mentioned above and the use of subsidy, a carbon tax
has an effect that everyone is made to recognize an existence of global warming issues and the
necessity of carbon dioxide emission curtailment through the act of paying the tax, (omit) If people pay
the carbon tax in daily life, they will recognize that the things which have a heavier tax burden, affect
greater global warming, and they will widely know the necessity of the effort for solving the global
warming issue. (UQ


2. They will save energies and promote to use energy saving machines.
JACSES 2000/12 available on Aug.18th http://www.jacses.org/paco/carbon/whatis_carbontax.html
Q) In family, they will try to save gasoline and electricity by choosing electric applicants which has a high
energy saving, cars which has a good gas consumption, and the products whose materials don‟t use
fossil fuels. In enterprises, they will try to change their machines into saving energy ones, shift to the
materials which don‟t use fossile fuels, refrain from using electricity, and reduce the cost ot use energy.
(UQ


b) Revenue of carbon tax will reduce CO2 emissions.

1.The revenue will be used like subsidies for enterprises.
毎日新聞/2000/5 月 21 日 [mainichi interactive] available on 2003-08-26
http://www.mainichi.co.jp/eye/feature/details/science/Environment/200005/21-1.html
Q) « The commitee of economic measure on environmental policy » in the Environment Ministry (the
chairperson is Hiromitsu Ishi, the president of Hitotsubashi Univ.) reported the effectiveness of the
carbon tax which is imposed on the fossil fuel such as oil, coal etc. according to CO2 emissions. The
report simulated by the prospect model, and emphasized that it has sufficient effect to reduce CO2
emissions if we combines [the carbon tax] which is even low rate and other policies by using the tax
plo0revenue for the subsidy of saving energy investments and emissions trading etc.(UQ


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2. Thanks to it, Enterprises will create new technology to emit CO2.
田中/1997 年/健次/環境庁企画調整局長//地球温暖化対策と環境税/ぎょうせい発行/p44
Q) While the raise of energy price due to a carbon tax escalates the amount of the investment of energy
saving facilities, which enterprenures can accept, [the government] supplies subsidies for the
introduction of the technologies for warming prevension, which pulls down the cost of the begining
investment. By taking both policies, we make it be an incentive for introducing technology which has a
good energy consumption. And each section [of industries] chooses the best technology under the
economic rationality, and then enhances energy efficiency as a whole. By doing these processes, we
can reduce CO2 emissions. (UQ


c) These movements will reduce CO2 emission greatly.
JACSES 2000/ Japan Center for a Sustainable Environment and Society
http://www.jacses.org/paco/carbon/whatis_carbontax.html available on Aug.20th,2003
Q)If Japan impose ¥6000 per 1 ton of carbon, it will be able to achieve the 7,000,000 ton of carbon cut by
2010 directly. This number is equal to at least 2% of Japan‟s emission of green house effect gas in 1990
that is standard year of Kyoto protocol.(UQ


It has empirically succeeded in Finland.
毎日新聞/2000/6月18日/東京朝刊毎日インタラクティブ/ available on 2003 年 8 月 26 日
http://www.mainichi.co.jp/eye/feature/details/science/Earth/200006/18/01.html
Q)Finland is approaching environmental problems so positively, and introduced carbon taxes on fossil
fuels in 1990. The system is to put additional tax on fuel and electric consumption, and the present tax
rate is 102 マルカ (= about 1800yen) per 1 ton of CO2. Tax revenue is put into the general finance
budget, and is estimated to hold 5 billion マルカ tax revenue ( = about 90 billion yen) in 1999. It has
passed 10 years since the introduction of carbon tax. Any effect on greenhouse effect gases? –
According to the report by the prime minister and its administration of Finland, April , 2000, if they didn‟t
introduce carbon taxes, the CO2 emission of 1998 would be plus 4 million ton, and they said they „d
succeeded 7% cut.(U


d) On balance, Japan will be the triger to stop grobal warming.
Brown ‟96 / Lester R. Brown, ワールドウォッチ研究所長,/[シャーミンのエコインタビュー]
           http://www.ecostation.gr.jp/interview/1996/1.html available on 2003-08-22
Q) As for global warming problem, Japan is the country which has technology and gives biggest
overseas assistance in the world, so it seems that Japan can lead to change by such measures. (UQ




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Underview for CASE


_The nation are for the introduction of the carbon tax.
現代用語の基礎知識2003/p508/pb 自由国民社
Q) According to the questioner done by the environment ministry, 55.3% of people are for the
introduction [of the carbon tax], and 38.5% of people are against it. Approval outweighs objections, so
we can say the understanding toward such policies is exceeding. (UQ

_The tax never harms Japanese economy.
毎日新聞/2002/2月11日/東京朝刊/毎日インタラクティブ/ available on 2003-08-22
http://www.mainichi.co.jp/eye/feature/details/science/Earth/200202/11/01.html
Q) A NGO “ Carbon Tax Study Groups” announced their own system proposal, which determines “ 6000
yen per 1 ton of carbon” or “ to apply the same amount of money as tax revenue for the reduction of
employment insurance fee and national health insurance fee”. Haruo Adachi, who is an official of this
group said, “the burden of average families is about 6000 yen for families with no cars, and 9000 yen for
families with cars. We can cover the increased part by the reduced social insurance fee, and also we can
achieve 2% cut.


_Combination of environmental measure will massive the effect of CO2 reductions.
朝日新聞/2001/6 月 20 日/夕刊/p2/14 版/
Q) In trial calculation, when even about 3000 yen taxation per 1t of carbon used tax revenues
appropriately as a subsidy for curtailment introduction of technological know how of CO2, it also turns
out that it demonstrates an effect of the same grade as the 30,000 yen carbon tax per 1t of carbon. It is
said that it was proved that an effect is in CO2 curtailment by the carbon tax of a small amount. (UQ




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