Chapter 6 Managing the Learning Environment

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					    Chapter 6 Managing the Learning Environment
Discipline= is not always a punitive action. It
should be a training that is expected to produce a
specific character or pattern of behavior.
Discipline problem= any psychologically or
physically unsafe behavior that destroys property
or interferes with either the teaching act or the
rights of others to learn.
Under IDEA (1997) the following areas are listed
1. Safe learning environment, 2. prevent
discipline problems, 3. rights for all students, 4.
appropriate education and BIP.
►3  types of prevention for inappropriate
► 1. Antecedent Control= Know which buttons to
  push for each student and try to avoid them.
  Try not to use negative words (no, not, don’t,
  stop, can’t, won’t) yeah right!!
► A. Physical arrangements= Try to have your
  classroom near the office, counselor, and
  restrooms. (Not ! Stay away from the main
  office as much as possible..handle things
► Classroom=   set up a learning, friendly
  environment. Keep work areas clean and don’t
  have congested traffic areas for you or the
  students. (this adds to behavior problems)
► Establish your classroom regarding work areas,
  teachers desk, pencil sharpener, exit, storage
  areas, book shelves, file cabinets etc.
► Have a separate area set aside for problem
  behavior students in trouble. Never let trouble
  makers sit near each other. (duh)
► Beatify the room with plants, bulletin boards,
  displays, aquariums and so on.
► As the classroom teacher be sure that you set
  yourself where you can see everything and
  everyone on your room.
► B. Rules= require students to obey your
  classroom rules. Let them know what you will
  and will not accept. Make the students
  accountable for their actions good and bad.
► Don’t criticize behaviors because many teachers
  establish different base rules in their classes
► 8 topics regarding rules in the classroom
► 1. no more than 7 rules posted in class
► 2. may ask the students for rule suggestions
► 3. be specific on what you list
► 4. state rules in a positive format
► 5. have consequences listed for actions
► 6. age appropriate rules posted in class
► 7. review rules at first of year
► 8. make sure rules apply of all watch out for
  double standards for particular students
► Routine Classroom Procedures: keep you class
  as routine as possible, sped does not like
  change that will produce behavior problems
► Routines  consist of 2 areas: (a.) Academic=
  how to obtain and return materials, getting
  assistance, headings on papers (b.) non-
  academic= hall passes, lockers, restroom
  permission, independent assignments, clean up
► Student Schedules: (a.) IEP’s include the
  student regarding all areas, (b.) minimize
  disruptions when possible, (c.) review the
  student’s schedule with them, (d.) have the
  schedule available to you and the student, (e.)
  Premack Principle= make them take something
  they do not like and follow it with one of their
  favorite courses
► (f.) check duration of class (40 min.?) attention
  span may be 10 to 20 min. give short breaks!!
► (g.) let student’s know of changes (teacher
  day, holidays etc) in advance, do not disrupt
  schedule anymore than you must, student may
  become disruptive to avoid schedule changes,
► (h.) have back up materials incase student
  completes assignments
► (i.) end class telling or reviewing what they just
► (j.) involve parents when possible
► Time  management:
► Allocated Time: make sure student have
  enough time in classes to meet IEP goals and
► Engaged Time: time on task, performance/work
  time, teachers must have everything ready, ask
  questions frequently, call on all students, keep
  sped students away from back of the room
  when possible, spread your brighter students
  all over the room, participate (model) what you
  want your students to do, divide teams in
  groups of 4, independent and group answers to
► Academic   Learning Time: time the student is
  engaged in the instructional activity. Enhance
  the time with novel activities to motivate, give
  precise instruction, reward and praise for
  correct work, monitor answers and answer and
  explain questions
► Transition time: time to get materials or putting
  them together, lining up for lunch, moving from
  one subject or room to another. (a.) arrange
  room for efficient movement, keep with your
  schedule, warn students of changes, give them
  time to put things away to avoid problems.
► Functional,  Age-Appropriate Classes:
► (a.) functional activities are the materials you
  teach that can be used in the real world
► (b.) age appropriate is chronological age, not
  mental age with specifics (1. don’t make
  materials too difficult for the students, (2. make
  sure the students have a knowledge base
  before you start, (3. make sure the concept is
  functional, (4. allow enough practice time and
  work time for students, (5. order trial samples
  of new books for classes (they will try to sell
  you anything) Steck-Vaughn is “GREAT”
► Action Plan 6.9 on pg 146 should be taken into
  consideration for all sped students in your class
► 4 steps in selecting materials:
► (1. Identify curriculum areas you will teach
► (2. Rank, by priority, what you will teach
► (3. identify highest priority materials 1st
► (4. evaluate materials obtained according to
  Plan 6.9. You may have to adapt the materials
  you already have (bad material and school $)
► You may have someone tape record material
  for those with certain problems regarding
  reading and comprehention
► You  may have to rewrite or edit the materials
  yourself to present it to your class
► You may use the old “cut and paste” method to
  develop new materials
► The “best” things you can use are newspapers,
  magazines, food labels, catalogs, bills, receipts,
  employment applications and other things we
  use and see daily (talk about functional!)
► Rate of success:
► Students may succeed, become bored, work
  too hard and frustrated
► 1. If the student has a 100% they mastered
► 2. 90 to 99% pass rate add games, practice
► 3. 70 to 90% pass rate work on cues, logical
  sequences, multiple samples, 1 on 1
► 4 below 70% frustration level, independent
  work with teacher, task analysis, 1 on 1
► Teacher-student interaction:
► 1. work with concrete current terms
► 2. use age appropriate terms and vocabulary
► 3. give praise (don’t blow smoke)
► 4. immediate feed back for good and bad work
► 5. let student develop their own solutions to
  work and assume the responsibility
► 6. redirect inappropriate behaviors instead of
  just fussing at the student
► Interaction with Non-disabled Peers: shorten
  work and increase time when working
► Modeling:
► Teachers need to be a positive model for their
  students. (we are often old and out of style)
► Proximity does not ensure student with
  disabilities will emulate appropriate academic or
  social behavior.
► Review the IEP goals every 3 months, meetings
  are still annually at this time.
► II. Related Personal Characteristics:
► A. academic skills=
► 1. poor students often receive less of an
  opportunity to respond to questions, receive
  praise, and make lower grades
► 2. Develop a functional curriculum they may
  succeed at starting off and advance from there
► B. Social skills=
► 1. inappropriate actions are common
► 2. work in small groups on social skills
► 3. practice what is taught in general settings
► Emotional   Learning:
► 1. positive responses results in positive actions
► 2. negative responses results in negativity
► 3. Identify what causes a +/- response and
  action and pair them together (ex. Not like
  peers/ likes to shop= arrange a shopping trip
  and pair up with peers
► 4. produce as many +’s as you can
► 5. muscle relaxation increases focus (I’m sure
  you want to massage the student, how about
  them giving you a massage?)
► Consequence     Control:
► Positive Reinforcers=
► 1. Primary= foods, drinks, toys
► 2. Secondary= (1. praise, facial expressions,
  hugs, (2. get them to do something they don’t
  like then let them do something they do like,
  (3. token reinforcement (old time give and take
  marbles, sticks for good or bad behaviors or
  work) watch for bribes, (4. contract (forget it)
► Extinction=Ignore behaviors (watch this)
► Punishment=    do it immediately = best= take
  away something that is important to the child!
► Reprimand= 1. name the culprit, 2. pinpoint
  the inappropriate behavior, 3. explain why the
  student is in trouble, 4. describe what they
  should have done instead
► Time out:
► 1. contingent observation= they stay in the
  classroom where they can still see and hear
  what is going on
► 2. Exclusion= removed from the action (corner)
► 3. Seclusion= moved out of the room/isolated
► Seclusion  time out= location must do the
  following: be 6’ by 6’, adequate lighting and
  ventilation, no harmful objects, must not be
  locked, monitored at all times
► Group contingencies= changes that effect a
  group of students instead of just 1 or 2.
► A. Dependent group= the entire group is
  graded and receives or does not receive
  rewards, peer pressure works, can penalize all
  because of a few.
► B. Independent group= the entire group is
  involved but determinations are made per
► C. Interdependent group= those in a group
  who do well get rewarded those who do not
  are not rewarded
► Self management= Student who try to change
  their won behavior with self determination,
  reinforcement, evaluation, instruction,
  monitoring, punishment, and scheduling
► Promotes independence, generalization, and
  transference for the student who tries
► Detention= before or after school (9 areas)
► 1. staff responsible to work detention
► 2. teachers, students and parents should be
  informed what will cause detention
► 3. work out parent or late bus transportation
► 4. hold detention on specific days and times
► 5. write the student up for detention
► 6. notify the parent of detention and why
► 7. have assignments for student to work on
► 8. if acting up, added detention can be given
► 9. keep a record of student, determine regulars
► In School Suspension (8 areas)
► 1. person in charge
► 2. start time only in mornings for all day
► 3. central location for all students
► 4. work on assignments
► 5. limited leaving the room or no leaving
► 6. days may be added if problems
► 7. inform student what they should have done
  to not serve ISS
► 8. keep teachers informed of work and
  behaviors while in ISS
► Suspension=   10 days max for the school year
► Anything over 10 days is a change of
  placement and an IEP must be held, if over 10
  days you are looking at litigation, (Honig v.
  Doe) cannot suspend a student if inappropriate
  behavior is a characteristic of the disability
► Manifestation Determination= must re-test
  before 10 days to make sure disability is correct
  and action is a characteristic.
► 45 days for weapons, drugs, danger to self or
  others. These are all under Federal Laws!
► Functional   Behavioral Assessment:
► 1. this is to establish goals to try and modify
  the inappropriate behaviors of a student
► 2. FBA works into a Behavior Intervention Plan
  where you establish what to try, try it, re-
  evaluate and change behavior or modify

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