Science as Inquiry by lindash

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									Science as
Inquiry
                                                                                       NT Curriculum Framework




                                         Science as Inquiry
 Outcome
                                               Key Growth Point 1

                             Learners use intentional communication strategies to
                             interact with people, objects and activities.                    KGP 2
                                                                                              Learners explore
                             Learners demonstrating solid evidence of                         objects and events
                             SI KGP 1 Science as Inquiry                                      using all their
                                                                                              available senses
                             •   actively seek and anticipate interactions with familiar
                                                                                              for more extended
                                 people, activities, objects and environments
                                                                                              periods and respond
                             •   use a limited repertoire of gestures, actions,               actively.
                                 vocalisation strategies to respond to a sensory cue
                                 actively.

Indicators
 Key Growth Point 1 has three distinct developmental stages organised into six levels. The Key Growth Points
 Continuum on page two (2) describes the earlier stages of this development, whilst the indicators below provide
 the curriculum scope for planning and assessing learning within Key Growth Point 1.


Level 5 Anticipate
 •   choose from a limited range of responses to seek attention, request and respond to people, materials,
     objects, activities, eg show excitement or protest when presented with familiar objects, activities,
     environments; reach out toward a familiar object

 •   explore materials and objects, eg reach out and feel objects as tactile cues to events

 •   seek objects that may not exist in immediate environment, eg actively look for or request objects

 •   participate in shared activities with intermittent prompts and cues

 •   sustain concentration for short periods of time

 •   observe the results of their own actions with interest, eg listen to own noises

 •   remember learnt responses over more extended periods, eg follow the sequence of a daily routine and
     respond appropriately or reach out to touch a live animal with caution

 •   make simple choices, eg use a yes/no system when presented with one option or reach for preferred object
     when presented with two objects




Science as Inquiry
Outcomes and Indicators 2009                                                                                        1
                                                                                            Science Key Growth Points Learning Continuum
                                                  Awareness                                               Engagement                                                          Participation




2
                      Level 1 Tolerate                                                 Level 3 Respond                                        Level 5 Anticipate
                      Learners allow themselves to be involved in an                   Learners change their body language in a more          Learners positively or negatively anticipate a future event and respond to a
                      activity prompted by a familiar person.                          sustained and consistent way.                          sensory cue associated with this event.
                      Learners are able to                                             Learners are able to                                   Learners are able to
                               •   produce simple reflex responses in response           •   respond consistently to and show interest in       •   choose from a limited range of responses to seek attention, request and
                                   to the sensations they are experiencing, eg              familiar people, events and objects                    respond to people, materials, objects, activities, eg show excitement or
                                   vocalisation, eye rolling, actions in response to    •   react to new experiences, eg initially withhold        protest when presented with familiar objects, activities, environments,
                                   feeling pain                                             visual or physical attention                           reach out toward a familiar object
                               •   produce simple reflex responses in response           •   accept and engage in co-active exploration         •   explore materials and objects, eg reaching out and feeling objects as
                                   to external stimuli, eg startle reflex to a loud          of objects and environments, eg focus their            tactile cues to events
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 NT Curriculum Framework




                                   noise                                                    attention on sensory aspect of particular          •   seek objects that may not exist in immediate environment, eg actively
                               •   rely on communication partner to prompt                  materials                                              look for or request objects
                                   interaction                                                                                                 •   participate in shared activities with intermittent prompts and cues
                                                                                                                                               •   sustain concentration for short periods of time
                                                                                                                                               •   observe the results of their own actions with interest, eg listening to own
                                                                                                                                                   noises
                                                                                                                                               •   remember learnt responses over more extended periods, eg following
                                                                                                                                                   the sequence of a daily routine and responding appropriately or
                                                                                                                                                   reaching out to touch a live animal with caution
                                                                                                                                               •   make simple choices, eg use a yes/no system when presented with one
                                                                                                                                                   option or reach for preferred object when presented with two objects

                      Level 2 React                                                    Level 4 Focus                                          Level 6 Choose
                      Learners respond to a stimulus.                                  Learners respond purposefully to a stimulus.           Learners request stimulus through gesture, action or vocalisation and are
                      Learners are able to                                             Learners are able to                                   able to make a choice or express a preference.
                               •   take part in interactions, activities and            •   communicate consistent preferences and            Learners are able to
                                   experience through body language, actions,               affective responses, eg reach out for favourite    •   request interactions and activities with consistent use of gesture,
                                   vocalisations, eg eye gaze for longer periods            person                                                 actions or vocalisations, eg prompt another person to join in an activity
                                   of time and with increased attention on object       •   recognise familiar people, objects and             •   use learned responses over increasing periods of time to engage in
                                   or person                                                experiences, eg vocalise or gesture in                 activities and anticipate future events, eg indicate an area of the yard to
                               •   intermittently appear alert and focus attention          response to visit by a familiar person                 go to
                                   on certain people, objects or parts of objects,      •   perform actions by trial, error and                •   respond to options presented with actions, gestures and/or
                                   and experiences, eg smiling at familiar people           improvement, eg use different approaches to            vocalisations clearly expressing their preference
                               •   give unexpected or intermittent reactions                gain attention                                     •   attempt to solve problems systematically, eg bring an object to an adult
                                   within an interaction, activity or experience, eg                                                               in order to request a new activity
                                   become excited in the midst of social activity
                                                                                                                                               •   choose to select or reject from a number of presented options within




Outcomes and Indicators 2009
         Science as Inquiry
                                                                                                                                                   and outside experiences, eg choose to taste new foods
                                                                                     NT Curriculum Framework



                                         Science as Inquiry
 Outcome
                                              Key Growth Point 2

                             Learners explore objects and events using all their
 KGP 1                       available senses for more extended periods and respond          KGP 3
 Learners use                actively.                                                       Learners explore,
 intentional                                                                                 use and respond
 communication               Learners demonstrating solid evidence of                        to changes to
 strategies to interact      SI KGP 2 Science as Inquiry                                     objects and events,
 with people, objects                                                                        and indicate
 and activities.             •   show they have observed patterns or regular changes         preferences based on
                                 in features of objects                                      experiences.
                             •   recognise distinctive features of objects and materials
                             •   sort objects and materials using a single characteristic
                                 when contrast is obvious
 Indicators
 The curriculum scope for planning and assessing learning within Key Growth Point 2
 Investigating
 •   take part in activities focused on the anticipation of and inquiry into specific environments

 •   respond to requests, eg ‘Show me the flower’ and questions, eg ‘Is it wet or dry?’

 •   use simple vocabulary, eg before, after, bumpy, grow, eat, move to communicate related ideas and
     observations using simple phrases, eg which food to give which animal

 •   communicate awareness of changes, eg in light, sound or movement

 •   demonstrate simple properties of light, sound, movement, eg bright/dark, noisy/quiet, fast/slow

 •   match objects and materials in terms of simple features or properties, eg shape, colour

 •   try out a range of equipment that is familiar and relevant, eg switch on a torch or lamp, use scissors for
     cutting various materials

 •   recognise distinctive features of objects, eg leaves on trees, nose on face

 •   explore objects and materials provided, changing some materials by physical means and observing
     outcomes, eg when mixing flour with water

 •   begin to make generalisations, connections and predictions from regular experience, eg expecting that ice
     cream will melt, making wheeled objects move faster by pushing on a smooth surface or releasing them
     down a slope

 •   make some contributions for planning and evaluation

 •   make simple records of their findings, eg putting pictures of an activity in sequence




Science as Inquiry
Outcomes and Indicators 2009                                                                                        3
NT Curriculum Framework




                                            Science as Inquiry
    Outcome
                                                 Key Growth Point 3
                                Learners explore, use and respond to changes to
    KGP2                        objects and events, and indicate preferences based on           Band 1
    Learners explore            experiences.                                                    Learners describe
    objects and events                                                                          some ways
    using all their             Learners demonstrating solid evidence of                        that scientific
    available senses            SI KGP 3 Science as Inquiry                                     activities affect
    for more extended                                                                           their community.
    periods and respond         •   identify some things that help us                           They focus on a
    actively.                   •   make observation statements about science                   problem using a
                                    experiences and identify similarities and differences on    familiar situation,
                                    the basis of familiar characteristics                       responding to
                                •   identify ways we should care for living things              teachers’ suggestions
                                                                                                to carry out simple
                                                                                                activities that
                                                                                                require observation
                                                                                                and sharing of
                                                                                                observations.


    Indicators
    The curriculum scope for planning and assessing learning within Key Growth Point 3
    Understanding and acting on personal and social issues
Learners are able to
    •   explore what things help them in their lives, eg a fridge keeps my food cold, a washing machine cleans my
        clothes

    •   identify specialised equipment that assists them or people they know, eg wheelchair

    •   assist with caring for a class pet, worm farm, school pond or growing vegetables considering what is
        important for them to survive, eg food, water, sun

 Investigating

Learners know and understand that
    •   we can use our senses to describe things

    •   things can be grouped according to criteria that we choose

    •   we need to care for living things

Learners are able to
    •   investigate science concepts through play, eg use different types of boats during water play, try to pick
        objects up with magnets and make statements about what happened

    •   ask questions about things they experience, eg Why do some toys roll further?

    •   engage with simple scientific information from familiar sources, eg a book showing the kinds of animals found
        in the desert, at the beach

    •   make observations about the world based on first hand experience, eg the plant smells like lemons, the
        sunset is red




                                                                                                  Science as Inquiry
4                                                                                        Outcomes and Indicators 2009
                                                                                    NT Curriculum Framework




 Investigating (cont)

Learners are able to
 •   use their senses to observe and describe different sensations and objects, eg the properties of water by
     pouring, dripping
 •   group objects to display, eg plants having similar and different flower shapes, shells with one/two parts

 •   follow teacher’s verbal direction, given one to one, eg make slime with an adult helper

 •   use simple equipment in explorations safely and ethically

 •   follow instructions and make observations about what happens, eg the magnet attracts these metal things but
     not plastic, the beans grew taller than the cress

 •   offer their own explanation of what happened

 •   share their science observations and understanding through words, signs, picture symbols, actions, drawing

 •   talk about what they liked and didn’t like and which things they would like to try again




Science as Inquiry
Outcomes and Indicators 2009                                                                                      5
NT Curriculum Framework




                                           Science as Inquiry
    Outcome
                                                         Band 1

                               Learners describe some ways that scientific activities
    KGP 3                      affect their community. They focus on a problem using a           Band 2
    Learners explore,          familiar situation, responding to teachers’ suggestions to        Learners explore and
    use and respond            carry out simple activities that require observation and          engage with science
    to changes to              sharing of observations.                                          in their interests and
    objects and events,                                                                          activities within and
    and indicate               Learners demonstrating solid evidence of                          beyond school. They
    preferences based on                                                                         collaboratively plan,
                               SI 1.1 Understanding and acting on personal
    experiences.                                                                                 conduct and report on
                                     and social issues                                           investigations related
                               •   identify aspects of our life that depend on scientific         to their questions
                                   knowledge to ensure quality of life                           about living and
                                                                                                 non-living things and
                               SI 1.2 Investigating                                              events. Learners
                               •   ask questions such as How do you know? How? Why?              begin to understand
                                   What will happen if…?                                         that in a fair test there
                                                                                                 are variables and
                               •   follow step by step procedures and use their senses
                                                                                                 the investigator only
                                   to observe and share their observations saying what
                                                                                                 changes one of these
                                   happened
                                                                                                 to get an answer to
                                                                                                 their question. They
                                                                                                 follow instructions,
                                                                                                 collecting and making
                                                                                                 limited records of
                                                                                                 their findings, saying
                                                                                                 whether or not what
                                                                                                 happened was
                                                                                                 expected.

    Indicators
    The curriculum scope for planning and assessing learning within Band 1
    Understanding and acting on personal and social issues

Learners are able to
    •   recognise science ideas in their daily life, eg the importance of washing hands after going to the toilet or
        before eating food so that they don’t get sick from the germs, or that they need to refill the dog’s water bowl
        regularly

    •   recognise how our quality of life is dependent on scientific knowledge, eg medicine, foods, street lighting,
        shelter

    •   care for classroom animals or plants explaining what they need (food, water, sunlight, shelter) and how to
        handle them safely

 Investigating
Learners know and understand that
    •   people are more likely to believe your ideas if you can provide reasons for them

    •   people can learn about things around them by just observing closely and recording what happens

    •   questions help us find out how and why things are happening




                                                                                                    Science as Inquiry
6                                                                                          Outcomes and Indicators 2009
                                                                                       NT Curriculum Framework




 Investigating (cont)
Planning investigations
 •   respond to teacher’s prompts and questions, eg I wonder what would happen if…? What do we already
     know? How could we find out?

 •   ask questions and make suggestions to guide observations and investigations of familiar objects/situations

 •   make guesses as to what will happen

Conducting investigations
 •   use appropriate tools/equipment with care and safety, eg magnifying lens

 •   make observations using different senses, eg light comes from many different things such as sun, light globe,
     candle, fire

 •   follow oral/visual and/or written instructions to carry out simple scientific activities/investigations (a small
     number of steps) with teacher guidance

Processing and analysing
 •   share observations making suggestions as to what observations mean using simple generalisations

 •   communicate what they found out from the investigation

 •   present information gathered, eg photos and captions, class book/PowerPoint, act out, draw what happened

Evaluating
 •   identify a part of the investigation that went well and where they had difficulty

 •   express their feelings and thoughts about the activity/investigation




Science as Inquiry
Outcomes and Indicators 2009                                                                                           7
NT Curriculum Framework




                                             Science as Inquiry
    Outcome
                                                           Band 2
                                Learners explore and engage with science in their
    Band 1                      interests and activities within and beyond school. They            Band 3
    Learners describe           collaboratively plan, conduct and report on investigations         Learners apply
    some ways                   related to their questions about living and non-living things      their scientific
    that scientific              and events. Learners begin to understand that in a fair            understanding to
    activities affect           test there are variables and the investigator only changes         make sense of
    their community.            one of these to get an answer to their question. They              their day-to-day
    They focus on a             follow instructions, collecting and making limited records         experiences and
    problem using a                                                                                interests. They are
                                of their findings, saying whether or not what happened
    familiar situation,                                                                            aware of the need for
    responding to               was expected.                                                      fair testing and the
    teachers’ suggestions                                                                          need to get more than
    to carry out simple         Learners demonstrating solid evidence of                           one set of results
    activities that             SI 2.1 Understanding and acting on personal                        in order to test their
    require observation               and social issues                                            simple predictions
    and sharing of                                                                                 (not guesses).
    observations.               •   give reasons for responsible actions                           They collect and
                                SI 2.2 Investigating                                               organise numerical
                                                                                                   data and descriptive
                                •   consider fair testing and identify what factor will be         information using
                                    changed in an investigation                                    simple tables,
                                •   describe and compare things such as plants and                 diagrams and graphs;
                                    animals in terms of their number, weight, shape,               and identify main
                                    texture, size, colour and motion                               features, patterns
                                •   make some simple, unstructured and often incomplete            and difficulties in the
                                    records of their observations                                  investigation.

    Indicators
    The curriculum scope for planning and assessing learning within Band 2
    Understanding and acting on personal and social issues

Learners are able to
    •   demonstrate shared responsibility for the quality of their immediate environments by keeping areas clean and
        safe through appropriate disposal of rubbish, turning off a dripping tap, putting rubbish into compost, turning
        off lights when leaving the room, watering plants

    •   apply scientific ideas to familiar activities, eg caring for a pet, growing plants/vegetable garden, cooking,
        making planes, kites, parachutes, toys, fishing

    •   make connections between science and things such as hearing aids and television

    •   engage with some people whose work involves science, eg medical workers, rangers


    Investigating
Learners know and understand that
    •   actual observations can be different from ideas and speculations about what might be observed

    •   in a fair test you only change one factor (variable) and other factors should be kept the same

    •   science is a process of trying to figure out how the world works by making careful observations and trying to
        make sense of them, eg identify ways people have tried to explain changes in the world around them such
        as different explanations for changes in the night sky

                                                                                                      Science as Inquiry
8                                                                                            Outcomes and Indicators 2009
                                                                                     NT Curriculum Framework




 Investigating (cont)

Planning investigations
 •   identify some of the variables to be considered in a fair test

 •   suggest simple questions from a given context and contribute elementary ideas about variables and
     procedures

 •   contribute to the planning of a simple investigation, eg brainstorming - What equipment will we need? How
     will we record our observations?

 •   make simple predictions about what will occur

Conducting investigations
 •   follow instructions to carry out procedures involving a small number of steps

 •   observe and describe phenomena in the world around them, eg changes in plants and animals as they grow,
     activity levels of animals at different times of the day or different times of the year, seasonal changes (wet/dry
     or winter/summer)

Processing and analysing
 •   describe their findings using pictures, words, numbers or diagrams

 •   organise simple non-standard (informal) measurements into simple tables, bar graphs, given table columns
     headings or prepared graph axes

 •   organise observations and/or data into groups based on similarities and differences

 •   make comparisons between objects or events, eg this marble rolled further, this slope is steeper

Evaluating
 •   revisit questions in light of results indicating whether what happened was what they expected and if the
     outcome matched their prediction

 •   offer simple explanations for their results

 •   reflect on the way they carried out procedures identifying something they would do differently next time




Science as Inquiry
Outcomes and Indicators 2009                                                                                          9
NT Curriculum Framework




                                         Science as Inquiry
 Outcome
                                                      Band 3
                             Learners apply their scientific understanding to make
 Band 2                      sense of their day-to-day experiences and interests. They       Band 4
 Learners explore and        are aware of the need for fair testing and the need to get      Learners consider the
 engage with science         more than one set of results in order to test their simple      impact of applications
 in their interests and      predictions (not guesses). They collect and organise            of science and
 activities within and       numerical data and descriptive information using simple         technology on
 beyond school. They         tables, diagrams and graphs; and identify main features,        themselves,
 collaboratively plan,       patterns and difficulties in the investigation.                  society and the
 conduct and report on                                                                       environment. They
 investigations related                                                                      plan and conduct
 to their questions          Learners demonstrating solid evidence of                        different types of
 about living and            SI 3.1 Understanding and acting on personal                     investigations, taking
 non-living things and            and social issues                                          account of the main
 events. Learners            •   investigate how their and others’ actions can contribute    variables; collect
 begin to understand             to sustainable resource use                                 data using repeat
 that in a fair test there                                                                   trials or replicates;
 are variables and           SI 3.2 Investigating                                            present data in
 the investigator only                                                                       appropriate formats,
                             •   contribute to planning investigations with awareness of
 changes one of these                                                                        interpret patterns in
                                 fair testing and repetition
 to get an answer to                                                                         data or information
 their question. They        •   make measurements and record their results in tables,       prepared in different
 follow instructions,            graphs and other structured forms                           formats; and make
 collecting and making       •   identify and describe results with predictions and draw     general suggestions
 limited records of              conclusions that summarise their findings                    for improving the
 their findings, saying                                                                       investigation.
 whether or not what
 happened was
 expected.

 Indicators
 The curriculum scope for planning and assessing learning within Band 3
 Understanding and acting on personal and social issues
Learners are able to
 •   describe how science has been used to improve products and tools, eg eggbeater, biodegradable plastics,
     clothing with special properties such as UV protection, chlorine resistant, waterproofing, reduced fire-
     flammability

 •   consider appropriate ethical issues relevant to them and also the consequences of human activity, eg they
     consider the impact of their and others’ actions on the environment so they do not pour paint down the sink
     and they use resources such as paper, glass and water responsibly, they review, evaluate and implement
     environmentally friendly processes such as rethink, refuse, reduce, reuse, recycle

 Investigating

Learners know and understand that
 •   in a fair test they should change one factor (variable), measure one factor (variable) and keep all other things
     the same

 •   scientists carry out their tests more than once to confirm their findings

 • scientists communicate their findings from investigations in scientific reports where they communicate what
   was done, what was found out and their conclusions so that other scientists can check what they have
   done or use their research findings in other ways. Scientists also communicate their findings to the wider
   community through other means such as television, radio, newspapers and the Internet
                                                                                             Science as Inquiry
10                                                                                 Outcomes and Indicators 2009
                                                                                    NT Curriculum Framework




 Investigating (cont)
Learners know and understand that (cont)
 •   people in a wide range of occupations and cultures use science in their work and leisure, eg hairdressers,
     engineers, fishermen, mechanics, pharmacists, nurses, pilots

Planning investigations
 •   suggest simple science questions for testing within context set by teacher

 •   make predictions about what they think will happen in an investigation based on experience of familiar
     events, eg monitoring heart beat and breathing before and after exercise

 •   contribute to the planning of simple investigations that use fair testing and include repeat measurements

Conducting investigations
 •   recognise where comparisons/procedures may be fair or unfair

 •   use simple equipment safely and for its purpose in a consistent manner, eg use the same tape measure

 •   collect and record results using standard (formal) measurements, eg metres, kilograms

Processing and analysing
 •   present numerical data and descriptive information in simple tables, graphs and diagrams or other
     appropriate forms such as lists, diagrams, digital photos, video

 •   identify and describe any patterns in the results, eg marbles roll further on a steeper slope

 •   relate an effect to a cause, eg as exercise intensity increases heart rate increases

 •   compare results with predictions and draw conclusions that are consistent with their results

Evaluating
 •   reflect on the way they carried out procedures identifying what went well and what didn’t go so well and
     suggest an improvement, eg changing equipment for more exact measurements




Science as Inquiry
Outcomes and Indicators 2009                                                                                      11
NT Curriculum Framework




                                         Science as Inquiry
 Outcome
                                                       Band 4

                             Learners consider the impact of applications of science
 Band 3                      and technology on themselves, society and the                    Band 5
 Learners apply              environment. They plan and conduct different types of            Learners consider
 their scientific             investigations, taking account of the main variables;            relevant scientific
 understanding to            collect data using repeat trials or replicates; present          understandings and
 make sense of               data in appropriate formats, interpret patterns in data          processes when
 their day-to-day            or information prepared in different formats; and make           making informed,
 experiences and             general suggestions for improving the investigation.             responsible and
 interests. They are                                                                          ethical decisions
 aware of the need for                                                                        about real-world
 fair testing and the        Learners demonstrating solid evidence of                         situations. They
 need to get more than       SI 4.1 Understanding and acting on personal                      interpret a situation
 one set of results                and social issues                                          to formulate a
 in order to test their      •   use scientific understandings to predict consequences         plausible relationship
 simple predictions              of and suggest solutions to issues relevant to them          to investigate
 (not guesses).                                                                               using experimental
 They collect and            SI 4.2 Investigating                                             techniques, including
 organise numerical                                                                           the control of relevant
                             •   plan and communicate, using labelled diagrams
 data and descriptive                                                                         variables and the use
                                 or text, a procedure for an investigation to test a
 information using                                                                            of preliminary trials or
                                 simple hypothesis including the use of repeat trials or
 simple tables,                                                                               various information
                                 replicates
 diagrams and graphs;                                                                         sources; develop
 and identify main           •   use line graphs to display continuous data and bar           interpretations that
 features, patterns              graphs to display discontinuous data                         are consistent with
 and difficulties in the      •   identify and interpret patterns and relationships in their   the data; and make
 investigation.                  data, draw conclusions and make suggestions for              specific suggestions
                                 improving investigations                                     for improving the
                             •   communicate investigation results, analysis and              investigation.
                                 evaluation of results
 Indicators
 The curriculum scope for planning and assessing learning within Band 4
 Understanding and acting on personal and social issues
Learners are able to
 •   explain and evaluate how the use of science and technology has changed the ways people live, eg consider
     the impact of scientific developments such as antibiotics, mobile communication devices and car engines on
     their lives

 •   examine reasons why people engage in scientific work citing contemporary Australian work in science, eg Ian
     Frazer developing world’s first vaccine for cervical cancer

 •   use their scientific understandings to consider and respond to appropriate ethical and social issues relevant
     to them, such as those related to health and well being, eg learners may consider appropriate diet and
     consider the wellbeing of others who are not eating properly

 •   examine issues of the sustainability of the natural, built or social environment, extending from local to global
     perspectives, eg consider possible impacts of climate change on the local area as well as some of the global
     impacts, consider potential impacts of urbanisation on Indigenous people and biodiversity both globally and
     locally




                                                                                                 Science as Inquiry
12                                                                                      Outcomes and Indicators 2009
                                                                                     NT Curriculum Framework




 Investigating

Learners know and understand that
 • scientists support their claims with evidence that can be replicated by others
 • scientific understandings have changed over time as new evidence becomes available, eg cigarette smoking
    and lung cancer

 •   different cultures may have different views in relation to scientific practice, eg the value placed on traditional
     cultural practices in areas such as medicine

Planning investigations
 • identify purpose of investigation and make a prediction in a simple hypothesis

 •   plan an investigation identifying an independent variable, dependent variable and controlled variables and
     include the use of repeat trials and replicates to test an hypothesis

Conducting investigations
 • identify and use with safety appropriate scientific equipment in investigations, eg measuring cylinders,
   electronic balance
 • conduct a scientific investigation safely, eg wear safety glasses when using chemicals or Bunsen burners

 •   record observations in careful drawings, eg shape, proportions of objects such as cells or leaves

 •   collect and record observations and/or measurements using appropriate formats and units

Processing and analysing

 •   calculate averages from repeated trials or replicates if appropriate

 •   present data in tables and appropriate graphs

 •   identify, describe and interpret patterns in data to make conclusions

Evaluating

 •   review understandings in light of new information

 •   identify strengths and weaknesses in their design

 •   make general suggestions for improving the investigation, eg particular equipment is needed to do the
     investigation properly, more measurements or replicates are needed




Science as Inquiry
Outcomes and Indicators 2009                                                                                         13
NT Curriculum Framework




                                        Science as Inquiry
 Outcome
                                                      Band 5
                            Learners consider relevant scientific understandings
 Band 4                     and processes when making informed, responsible                  Band 5+
 Learners consider the      and ethical decisions about real-world situations. They          Learners use
 impact of applications     interpret a situation to formulate a plausible relationship      scientific knowledge
 of science and             to investigate using experimental techniques, including          to analyse a problem,
 technology on              the control of relevant variables and the use of                 identify variables and
 themselves,                preliminary trials or various information sources; develop       formulate questions
 society and the            interpretations that are consistent with the data; and make      for investigation;
 environment. They                                                                           develop methods
                            specific suggestions for improving the investigation.
 plan and conduct                                                                            that provide specific,
 different types of                                                                          accurate, consistent
 investigations, taking     Learners demonstrating solid evidence of                         information that
 account of the main        SI 5.1 Understanding and acting on personal                      can be used
 variables; collect               and social issues                                          to evaluate the
 data using repeat                                                                           question; recognise
                            •   investigate current issues that involve implications
 trials or replicates;                                                                       inconsistencies with
                                of research, applications of science or future
 present data in                                                                             the data; and suggest
                                sustainability, expressing opinions that are informed by
 appropriate formats,                                                                        ways of reducing
                                scientific and technological knowledge
 interpret patterns in                                                                       error.
 data or information
 prepared in different      SI 5.2 Investigating
 formats; and make          •   identify questions or a hypothesis for investigation
 general suggestions            when examining problems or situations
 for improving the          •   plan and carry out investigations that incorporate
 investigation.                 procedures to minimise the effect of uncontrolled
                                variables on the collected results, ensuring that
                                measurement and data collection techniques are
                                consistent and accurate
                            •   analyse and interpret data for trends and relationships
                                between variables
                            •   communicate investigation findings including
                                interpreting data using scientific language and
                                conventions
                            •   use understanding of abstract science concepts and
                                models in the interpretation of data
                            •   justify the confidence they have in their conclusions by
                                evaluating the investigation design and the impact of
                                errors
 Indicators
 The curriculum scope for planning and assessing learning within Band 5
 Understanding and acting on personal and social issues
Learners know and understand that
 •   people of diverse cultures have contributed to and shaped the development of science, eg investigate how
     and why Indigenous people and western scientists can learn from each other and work together to research
     flora, fauna, sustainable land and sea management, heritage site management, health care

 •   science can be used to inform ethical decisions by identifying the likely consequences of particular actions

 •   social priorities have had an impact on or have been influenced by science, eg science has shown a link
     between smoking and health, carbon emissions and climate change

 •   scientific knowledge can be contested and can even change based on new research findings and evidence,
     eg the discovery that stomach ulcers are caused by a bacteria, not stress as previously thought

                                                                                                Science as Inquiry
14                                                                                     Outcomes and Indicators 2009
                                                                                       NT Curriculum Framework




 Understanding and acting on personal and social issues (cont)

Learners are able to
     • recognise that the work of contemporary scientists is often collaborative and multidisciplinary

     • apply relevant scientific understandings to make responsible ethical and informed decisions about issues
       including the applications of science and about sustainability. Learners identify issues, raise questions, collect
       and critique evidence and consider the implications and alternatives of possible solutions, eg
      -    investigate the types of additives in foods or products they use daily, consider the impact of those
           additives on their health and use their evidence to make informed choices about the products they will
           use in the future
      -    investigate smart meters for water and energy efficiency and the implications for future sustainability
      -    consider their own ecological footprint and how they can reduce it, or the carbon footprint of food stuffs
           they consume and use this information to consider buying local produce
      -    analyse the perspectives of different stakeholder groups, eg Indigenous, mining or gas companies,
           cattle station owners or managers, tourists, naturalists, in relation to a particular environmental issue, eg
           uranium mining, nuclear waste dumps, gas pipelines, fire management, housing development, reuse of
           wastewater
 Investigating
Learners know and understand that
 •    replication of an experiment by many scientists increases confidence in findings

 •    scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information or different evidence challenges prevailing
      theories and as a new theory leads to looking at past observations in a new way

Planning investigations
 •    formulate questions or hypotheses and plan an investigation with controlled variables and preliminary trials

 •    explain the difference between independent, dependent, controlled and uncontrolled variables and recognise
      potential sources of error

 •    plan for repeat trials or replicates and an adequate sample size in the method

 •    justify their method and choices of equipment in terms of their potential impact on the reliability of their results

Conducting investigations
 •    conduct the investigation safely, selecting appropriate apparatus for laboratory and field work and consider
      the limitations of techniques and instruments

Processing and analysing
 •    present results from investigation in appropriate format to show patterns and relationships

 •    interpret results for complex relationships and trends, eg when the trolley rolled down the ramp it accelerated
      and then decelerated until it stopped

 •    draw conclusions that are consistent with the data and that address original hypothesis

 •    identify inconsistencies in data

Evaluating
 •    suggest specific changes that would improve the techniques used or the design of the investigation to
      minimise errors, eg sampling techniques
 •    state with reasons the confidence they have in their conclusion(s)

Science as Inquiry
Outcomes and Indicators 2009                                                                                           15
NT Curriculum Framework




                                         Science as Inquiry
 Outcome
                                                      Band 5+

                             Learners use scientific knowledge to analyse a
 Learners consider           problem, identify variables and formulate questions for
 relevant scientific          investigation; develop methods that provide specific,
 understandings and          accurate, consistent information that can be used to
 processes when              evaluate the question; recognise inconsistencies with the
 making informed,            data; and suggest ways of reducing error.
 responsible and
 ethical decisions           Learners demonstrating solid evidence of
 about real-world
                             SI 5.1+ Understanding and acting on personal
 situations. They
 interpret a situation            and social issues
 to formulate a              •   analyse evidence and consider other peoples
 plausible relationship          perspectives to assess the use of scientific advances
 to investigate                  such as sustainable energy sources, stem cell
 using experimental              research or genetic engineering
 techniques, including
 the control of relevant     SI 5.2+ Investigating
 variables and the use
                             •   analyse a problem or situation and identify variables
 of preliminary trials or
                                 informed by their knowledge of relevant science
 various information
                                 concepts
 sources; develop
 interpretations that        •   analyse data identifying inconsistencies, the main
 are consistent with             sources of error and ways of reducing those errors in
 the data; and make              future experiments
 specific suggestions         •   synthesise and communicate the investigation design,
 for improving the               present data in appropriate formats and report findings
 investigation.                  including interpretation of results and evaluation using
                                 scientific language and conventions
                             •   act and respond to findings appropriately
 Indicators
 The curriculum scope for planning and assessing learning within Band 5+
 Understanding and acting on personal and social issues
Learners are able to
 •   apply scientific concepts to situations, eg drug uses, contraception

 •   critically analyse alternative scientific approaches and report on which is more socially responsible and why,
     eg uranium versus solar energy

 •   identify the long and short term effects of a scientific application

 •   conduct their own inquiry making use of information provided by monitoring and consumer groups

 Investigating

Learners know and understand that
 •   there are specific processes involved in developing, implementing and monitoring scientific research which
     are subject to ethical consideration

 •   scientists use a range of equipment, eg data loggers, monitors and computer modelling to support the
     collection of evidence when contributing to scientific knowledge




                                                                                                  Science as Inquiry
16                                                                                       Outcomes and Indicators 2009
                                                                                   NT Curriculum Framework




 Investigating (cont)

Planning investigations
 •   formulate an hypothesis and plan an investigation that controls a number of variables and predict the
     relationship between independent and dependent variables

Conducting investigations
 •   demonstrate technical skills in using equipment, eg volumetric glassware, use of microscopes to estimate
     size, data loggers, quadrats and other fieldwork equipment

Processing and analysing
 •   make accurate scientific labelled diagrams (these can be computer generated)

 •   select and generate the appropriate format to present information to accurately display trends and patterns in
     data or results

 •   interpret results for relationships and trends and draw conclusions that are consistent with the data and
     related to the hypothesis, question or prediction

 •   relate findings to known scientific concepts and adjust understandings based on their results

 •   identify inconsistencies in data and offer explanations of these in terms of investigation design where
     appropriate.

Evaluating
 •   identify sources of error and describe their impact on the results

 •   suggest feasible improvements that would reduce the effect of the source of error

 •   evaluate their data in terms of the impact of errors in order to comment on the confidence they have in their
     conclusions

 •   consider how subsequent experiments can be improved by the critical evaluation of the procedure and results

 •   explain how further experiments might be useful and suggest further experiments that could be carried out as
     a result of these findings

 •   consider the implications of their findings and act on these, eg communicating findings and recommendations
     to an appropriate audience




Science as Inquiry
Outcomes and Indicators 2009                                                                                     17

								
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