Queensland Adventure Activity Standards by lindash

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									   Queensland Adventure
     Activity Standards
            Bushwalking


               Prepared by

    Queensland Outdoor Recreation
            Federation Inc
             November 2008




Not Queensland Government Policy. This
document has not been considered by the
Queensland Government.
Bushwalking DRAFT: Not Queensland Government Policy. This document has not been
considered by the Queensland Government.



Contents
Foreword ......................................................................................................................... 3
1. Activity Description: Bushwalking ................................................................................ 4
2. Introduction ................................................................................................................. 4
   2.1 Acknowledgement ............................................................................................................... 5
   2.2 Technical Working Group Representatives ...................................................................... 5
3. Safety and the Law ..................................................................................................... 6
   3.1 Risk Management Overview ............................................................................................... 6
   3.2 Summary overview of legal framework ............................................................................. 6
   3.3 Liability.................................................................................................................................. 6
   3.4 Workplace health and safety .............................................................................................. 7
4. Planning ...................................................................................................................... 9
   4.1 Activity Plan ......................................................................................................................... 9
   4.2 Risk Management .............................................................................................................. 10
       4.2.1 Risk assessment measures ........................................................................................................ 11
   4.3 Pre-activity documentation ............................................................................................... 12
   4.4 Emergency strategy........................................................................................................... 13
   4.5 Restricting participation.................................................................................................... 14
   4.6 Ratios .................................................................................................................................. 14
   4.7 Group Size .......................................................................................................................... 16
   4.8 First Aid............................................................................................................................... 16
   4.9 Weather ............................................................................................................................... 17
   4.10 Sun Safety in Queensland .............................................................................................. 17
   4.11 Child Protection ............................................................................................................... 17
   4.12 Minimal Impact – 7 Principles of ‘Leave No Trace’ ...................................................... 18
5. Leader....................................................................................................................... 22
   5.1 Competencies .................................................................................................................... 22
       5.1.1 Example Pathways to Demonstrate Competency ....................................................................... 23
   5.2 Responsibilities of the Leader .......................................................................................... 23
       5.2.1 Pre-activity Briefing ..................................................................................................................... 24
   5.3 Responsibilities of Assistant Leader ............................................................................... 25
6. Equipment ................................................................................................................. 26
   6.1 Leader’s Equipment ........................................................................................................... 26
   6.2 Participant Equipment ....................................................................................................... 26
   6.3 Group Equipment ............................................................................................................... 27
   6.4 Maintenance and Storage ................................................................................................. 27
7. Definition of Terms .................................................................................................... 28
   7.1 Summary of abbreviations ................................................................................................ 28
8. Further Information.................................................................................................... 29
   8.1 Organisations ..................................................................................................................... 29

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   8.2 Resources ........................................................................................................................... 30
9. Appendices ............................................................................................................... 34
   Appendix 1                Legal framework detail .................................................................................... 34
       Why have Adventure Activity Standards? ............................................................................................ 34
       Applying the AAS ................................................................................................................................. 34
       Basis of legal liability ............................................................................................................................ 34
   Appendix 2                Exemplar Risk Management Templates ...................................................... 40
   Activity: 1 day bush walk ........................................................................................................ 40
   Activity: Canoeing (Noosa River) ............................................................................................... 43
   Appendix 3                Walking Trails Classification - QPW ................................................................ 48
   Appendix 4                Additional Equipment....................................................................................... 49




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Foreword
This document contains general information that will help you to understand why the
Queensland Adventure Activity Standards (AAS) were developed. It also provides
specific information to assist in the planning and running of adventure activities for
various groups. Although it may seem that there is much to read, the document has
been designed as an overview of the minimum preparation required to run adventure
activities. As such, we encourage you to read the whole document rather than selected
parts.
As with any document, the AAS is constrained by its publication date. When it was
completed, website and contact detail information, as well as pathways to demonstrate
competency and legal requirements were up to date.
Please note the version date of this document and ensure that you access the most
current information.




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1. Activity Description: Bushwalking
Bushwalking involves walking in the natural environment for pleasure, challenge,
experience and/or educational outcomes. The term ‘bushwalking’ is appropriately
applied to long (multi-day) as well as short (an hour or two) walks that can be
experienced in diverse environments including urban, coastal, alpine, outback and
remote regions.

This AAS is intended to be applied in circumstances where the bushwalking experience
is the primary activity undertaken by a dependent group of participants. Each leader or
organisation will need to interpret the AAS appropriately for the specific group, area and
duration of each bushwalk.


2. Introduction
The Queensland Adventure Activity Standards (AAS) are being developed to assist
organisations and leaders to plan for and safely run outdoor adventure activities with
groups of dependant participants. More specifically, the AAS are primarily designed for
those leading groups of participants where there is an established and evident duty of
care, however other adventure activity providers may find some of the guidance in the
standards relevant and applicable to their activities. Although the current name is
Adventure Activity Standards, these documents are designed to act as guidelines,
demonstrating non-specific principles that provide direction or actions.

The AAS provide a valuable resource for understanding processes to follow to run safe
and fun activities and can directly assist leaders and organisations in the development of
operating procedures and activity planning. How the AAS are applied however is going
to differ as all groups are distinct in their collective skills and experience and in their
degree of dependence upon the leader. Further, groups participate in outdoor activities
at a range of sites with varying conditions (including weather) and there will be varying
outcomes (e.g. educational, personal development, therapy, recreation etc). Bearing
these differences in mind the AAS will need to be adapted to suit the organisation, the
leader, the group and situation. It remains the responsibility of the leader to make
professional judgements and decisions concerning the activity to ensure the safety of the
group. The AAS are designed to assist such judgements and decision making.

The AAS are also designed to help promote knowledge and awareness of the impacts
adventure activities place upon the natural environment. Sustainable environmental
practices are embedded in the document to assist the protection of biodiversity values
and to help preserve cultural sites. This is all the more important given increased access
demands.

The Queensland AAS have been prepared with the involvement of a wide cross-section
of Queensland’s outdoor industry, utilising the documents of interstate AAS models as a
basis. The outcome is a set of minimum, voluntary guidelines that reflect industry
practices for planning and delivery of adventure activities that are safe, thorough,
planned and informed. The Queensland AAS are NOT statutory standards imposed by
law, however, there are references throughout the AAS which make some actions
mandatory. These reflect legislated considerations which need to be adhered to and are
highlighted as MUST.



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NB: If your dependent clients are from an Education Queensland school then this AAS
should be read in conjunction with the relevant Curriculum Activity Risk Management
Module found at: http://education.qld.gov.au/strategic/eppr/health/hlspr012/index1.html

2.1 Acknowledgement
The following owners and developers of the interstate Adventure Activity Standards are
acknowledged for generously allowing access to their documents, expertise and ideas:

   •       Outdoor Recreation Centre of Victoria
   •       Sport and Recreation Tasmania
   •       Recreation SA
   •       Outdoors WA

2.2 Technical Working Group Representatives
Specific operational details were developed through the skills and knowledge of activity
specific technical working groups. Representatives consulted in this process included:

       •    Bushwalking Queensland                                                      Organisation Logo
       •    The Scout Association of Australia, Queensland Branch                       Organisation Logo
            Inc.
       •    Guides Queensland                                                           Organisation Logo




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3. Safety and the Law

3.1 Risk Management Overview
Risk management and safety awareness are core aspects of effective and professional
adventure provision. Not only is risk management important for minimising accidents and
incidents when providing activities, it is also an essential component of any good
business model. Risk management also assists with strategic and operational
management, the planning and delivery of programs, effective people and resource
management and it helps to develop awareness in the communities in which adventure
activities are run.

Must: Risk management for outdoor activities has implications for all outdoor activity
providers and it is the responsibility of providers to comply with any legal requirements.
Section 3.3 refers to a range of Acts that legislate the actions of adventure activity
providers, and Section 3.4, explains some Workplace Health and Safety obligations
under the Workplace Health and Safety Act 1995. Furthermore, there are other
legislative and civil laws that need to be observed so that legal responsibilities are met—
some of these laws are built into statutes and local authority bylaws and others have
been developed through judges’ decisions (common law).

The risk management and legal information in the AAS is a guide to inform you of the
processes and procedures as well as requirements and methods to reduce, eliminate,
transfer or accept risks. Several sections in this document refer to actions or incentives
that will reduce the likelihood of injuries or incidents occurring, and provide opportunities
to enhance the enjoyment of all involved. When risk management is fully incorporated
into all stages of the activity, safer activities result.

The information included in the AAS is not sufficiently comprehensive to provide all you
need to know about risk management for outdoor activities. Rather, each leader and
organisation is encouraged to seek further guidance, develop their own risk assessment
and management systems, and review and update these regularly.

3.2 Summary overview of legal framework
The following general information on legal liability in Contract and Negligence do not
purport to be a complete and accurate description of the law on these topics, nor will it
necessarily relate to you or your circumstances. While this general information may be
helpful, it is provided on the basis that you will not rely on it, but will obtain your own
independent legal advice.

3.3 Liability
Legal liability for personal injuries or property damage is primarily governed by the law of
Contract and the tort of Negligence; however, legislation such as the Personal Injuries
Proceedings Act 2002, the Civil Liability Act 2003, the Trade Practices Act (Cth) 1974
and the Fair Trading Act (Qld) 1989 also have application.

Contract


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For there to be a claim in Contract there must be a contract between the person who has
suffered the loss or injury, and the provider. If injury or damage occurs because the
provider did not exercise reasonable care in the provision of the service, a court may find
that there has been a breach of the contract, which entitles the party to claim
compensation for the loss or injury suffered.

Negligence

A successful claim in Negligence against a provider may result in an award of damages
against that provider to compensate for the loss or injury thereby suffered.

The essential elements of a claim in Negligence are:

    •   a duty of care is owed by the provider who must take reasonable measures to
        ensure the safety of their clients/participants
    • there was a breach of this duty of care
    • the breach of the duty of care was a cause of the harm suffered by the
        client/participant.
The duty of care is a legal requirement imposed by the courts to take reasonable care to
protect a client or participant from reasonably foreseeable harm or loss. Although the law
does not automatically impose a duty of care, it is likely that such a duty will be imposed
when one party (the provider) assumes responsibility for another in the provision of
adventure activities. Generally, anyone conducting an outdoor adventure activity for a
group of dependant participants will owe a duty-of-care to those participants for the safe
conduct of the activity.

If a claim is made and a court finds that a duty of care is owed, the court must then
decide what is the appropriate level or standard of that duty of care to determine if the
provider has acted reasonably or, alternatively, has breached the duty of care. In
determining the standard of care, a court will consider the experience of the providers
and the participants, the conditions at the time of the incident, and may ultimately seek
the guidance from experts in the field.

The most obvious defence to a claim in negligence is for the provider to establish that
they acted with all reasonable care in the circumstances, that is, that they were not
negligent. In order to limit the potential for legal liability and to minimise the risk of injury,
each provider or organisation should implement risk and safety management processes.
In developing these processes, the provider should have identified foreseeable risks and
put in place measures to protect participants from known hazards and from risks that
could arise (and are reasonably foreseeable), against which preventative measures
could be taken.

For more detailed legal information please refer to Appendix 1, Legal framework detail.

3.4 Workplace health and safety
The Workplace Health and Safety Act 1995 sets out the laws about the health and safety
requirements affecting most workplaces in Queensland. You need to be familiar with the
Act in order to understand your obligations. It is a requirement of the Act that risks must



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be assessed, and then control measures implemented and reviewed to prevent or
minimise exposure to risks.

Further, if the Workplace Health and Safety Regulation 2008 describes how to prevent or
minimise a risk at your workplace, you must comply with the regulation. If there is a
code of practice that describes how to prevent or minimise a risk at your workplace you
must comply with the code or adopt and follow other steps that give the same level of
protection against the risk.

If there is no regulation or code of practice about a risk at your workplace you must
choose an appropriate way to manage exposure to the risk. Where there is no regulation
or code of practice about a risk, people must take reasonable precautions and exercise
proper diligence against the risk.

See the Risk Management Code of Practice 2007 for further information:
www.deir.qld.gov.au/workplace/law/codes/riskman/




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4. Planning

4.1 Activity Plan
An activity plan helps the leader to define and achieve objectives as well as minimise the
inherent risks to participants. An activity can be planned in a variety of ways and each
leader/organisation will have their own approach to planning. This section is intended as
a reference for those planning activities; it will help to maximise activity success and
minimise risks to participants.

We recommend that an activity plan is prepared for all activities. It is up to the relevant
organisation to determine how much of the plan needs to be documented. The following
is a list of factors that may be considered during the planning stage.

Participant
   • objectives of the activity (desired outcomes) and participant expectations
        (including suggested physical requirements for walk e.g. must be able to walk
        10km/ day carrying a 15kg pack)
   • size of group
   • age, experience, skill of participants
   • socio-cultural demographics and implications for the group (e.g. religious/ cultural
        dress code)
   • fitness, disposition, known medical conditions of participants
   • standard of care required (e.g. child participants, paying customers etc)
   • duration of activity (including planned start/ finish times)

Area
   •   area and route selection (description of intended route)
   •   area specific information including the natural/ cultural history of location/s
   •   availability & suitability of maps
   •   terrain (route characteristics) and associated implications/ hazards
   •   land managers requirements (access restrictions, group sizes, permit
       requirements, booking requirements)
   •   ability of site to withstand visitation with minimal impact (suitability for route and
       campsite/s for size and ability of group)
   •   seasonal factors (rain, fire, availability of drinking water, tides, river levels, track
       conditions, other users)
   •   remoteness and access

Equipment
   • equipment, food and clothing requirements
   • condition and suitability of all equipment
   • expected weather conditions and implications (hypothermia, hyperthermia)
   • communication plan including suitable communication equipment (e.g. satellite
      phone, EPIRB/ PLB, flares, mobile phones, 2 way radio etc.) and level of
      coverage
   • first aid requirements
   • support/evacuation capabilities (vehicle etc.) and availability of emergency
      medical assistance


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Leader
   • leader to participant ratio
   • leader skill and competence to conduct the activity, effectively manage incidents
       and satisfy the planned objectives
   • leader familiarity with area
   • leader/s passed the Working With Children Check where applicable (see Section
       4.11)
   • cancellation, modification or postponement procedure (e.g. if forecasted or
       current adverse weather conditions, insufficient equipment, restrictions dictated
       by the land manager or environmental factors such as flood, drought, lightning,
       fire etc).

Bushwalk leaders may also need to consider the walking trails classification categories
to determine appropriate trails to meet the needs of the group and objectives. See
Appendix 3 for details.

4.2 Risk Management
For adventure activities, risk can be defined as ‘the potential to lose or gain something of
value’ (Haddock, 2004, p.7). By comparison, according to the Risk Management Code of
Practice 2007, risk is ‘the likelihood that a harmful consequence (death, injury or illness)
might result when exposed to the hazard.’ In practice, risk tends to be measured in terms
of consequence and likelihood (Standards Australian, Risk Management AS/NZS 4360 -
2004).

Given the nature of adventure activities, risk is inherent and there are arguments to be
made as to why exposure to risk can provide substantial reward. Losses can be
physical (e.g. bone fractures), mental (e.g. fear), social (e.g. embarrassment) or financial
(lost gear) (Miles & Priest, 1999), but gains include good health, fun, challenge, and an
enhanced personal confidence or self-esteem (Haddock, 2004). Finding the balance—
minimising loss and reaping the benefits of adventure activities—is important, and
leaders and organisations need to put processes in place to manage risk in ways
appropriate to the context and situation. The AAS can guide this practice.

Managing Risk in Sport and Recreation HB 246–2002, published by Standards Australia,
defines risk management as ‘the systematic application of management policies,
procedures and practices to the task of identifying, analysing, evaluating, treating and
monitoring risk’. While there are various models that may be implemented to achieve this
goal, it is generally recognised that a risk management plan incorporates the following
five steps:

   1. Identify all hazards.
   What sorts of things have the potential to cause harm or loss?

   2. Assess and prioritise the risks that these hazards create and deal with highest
      priority risk first.
   What could happen and what might the consequences be?

   3. Decide on measures to control the risks.




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   Can you eliminate the risk? Substitute a venue? Use personal protective equipment?
   Bring in an expert? Substitute an activity of lesser risk? Substitute real risk for
   perceived risk?

   4. Implement appropriate control measures.
   Act to control or eliminate the risk.

   5. Monitor the control measures and review the process.
   Is what you are doing working? Does it meet industry standards? What might you
   need to amend? Are activity goals/outcomes still being achieved?

Managing Risk in Sport and Recreation HB 246–2002 can be purchased through the
Standards Australia website: www.riskmanagement.com.au/Default.aspx?tabid=170.

More information on how to manage exposure to risk can also be found in Section 8.2 of
the Risk Management Resources and in the Queensland Government’s Workplace
Health and Safety Risk Management Code of Practice 2007.

A general web search can help to identify further risk management processes and
recognised training providers offer courses in risk management. Also, it can be helpful to
speak with experienced colleagues and ask for advice from activity-specific
organisations.

4.2.1 Risk assessment measures
When people use equipment in changing or different environments, the risks for
adventure activities are amplified. Therefore, risks for adventure activities are generally
classified under the headings of people, equipment and environment. For example:

   •    People risks may include participants being physically or psychologically
        unprepared for an activity, or having known behavioural issues that affect the
        safety of the activity. People risks may also include leader fatigue, poor planning,
        a lack of knowledge or skill , or complacency (Priest & Gass, 2005)
    • Equipment risks may include insufficient gear for the group, or the equipment
        being of inferior standard
    • Environment risks may include adverse or unseasonal weather, sudden changes
        in river levels, high winds, or danger from local wildlife. It does not include factors
        that are inherent in the adventure activity (e.g. getting wet while canoeing).
Each of these risk categories (and others as identified) should be considered in relation
to the activity being undertaken and the group involved. For example, as part of risk
management planning, selected leaders should have the authority, skills and experience
to:

   • conduct the activity in the selected environment/s
   • satisfy the planned objectives
   • effectively manage incidents
   • supervise the group at all times
   • preserve the environmental integrity of the route and campsite/s.
Foreseeable risks should be noted and strategies developed to manage, avoid or
minimise them. Importantly, these risks and strategies should be understood by the

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leader of the group—they should be included in specific activity plans (see Section 4.1),
considered in the development of an emergency strategy (see Section 4.4) and/or
through the development of organisational risk management guidelines, which must be
current and specific to the activity and location.

To help guide risk assessment and planning, example risk management plans can be
found in Appendix 2. These plans are not meant to be prescriptive; rather, they offer
models of risk identification and management to build on.

4.3 Pre-activity documentation
There are many sound reasons for documenting aspects of the activity plan, the most
important being to help maintain the safety of the group should the leader become
injured or incapacitated. If activity plan documentation is available, search and rescue
teams will be better able to conduct an efficient search if necessary. Documentation will
also assist with any legal defense following an incident. The suggested minimum
required documentation for an activity includes:

   •   an emergency strategy (see Section 4.4), including details of designated start
       and finish times, and a route description
   •   the names, addresses, medical information and emergency contact details for all
       participants, leaders and assistant leaders. It is recommended that medical
       conditions (and management strategies) for all participants be documented. For
       example
            o details of condition/s (e.g. asthma) and any medication or actions to be
               taken (e.g. self-administered inhaler). Conditions to consider include but
               are not limited to:
                   − diabetes
                   − epilepsy
                   − fainting and dizziness
                   − specific allergic reactions
                   − blood conditions that may affect bleeding or clotting
                   − impaired sight
                   − impaired hearing
                   − conditions effecting balance
                   − recent or long-standing injuries
                   − disability
                   − illness or other medical conditions relevant to ability to participate
                       (e.g. heart conditions, migraines or pregnancy).
            o information for all participants, leaders and assistant leaders on food
               allergies—magnitude of reaction and management strategies as well as
               medications and who can administer these.
   •   any necessary access permits/licences or a relevant public vehicle driving licence
       if transporting participants. Further information can be found on the Queensland
       Transport website:
       www.transport.qld.gov.au/Home/Licensing/Driver_licence/Getting_a_licence/Hea
       vy_vehicle/Licence_classes_and_codes/
   •   a signed consent form—acknowledging the risks—from each participant after
       they have been fully briefed on the inherent risks of the activity; participants’


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         agreement for medical assistance to be sought if required; and any other
         documentation as required by insurer/legal advisor
     • signed consent by a parent or legal guardian for participants under the age of 18.
It is recommended that the leader and an external non-participating contact person
(necessary in the event of an incident or emergency) have access to all documentation.

4.4 Emergency strategy
Even with appropriate policies and procedures such as an Activity Plan (Section 4.1) and
Risk Management Plan (Section 4.2), accidents and emergencies can still occur. These
are sudden and unexpected, can significantly affect groups and individuals, and require
an immediate and planned response to contain the situation.

The emergency strategy is complementary to risk assessment and provides a framework
for action should an emergency occur. Activity leader/s and a suitable external non-
participating contact should be fully aware of the emergency strategy and have
immediate access to this document. A summary of emergency procedures should also
be a component of the preliminary group briefing (Section 5.2.1).

The emergency strategy for an activity should be specific to each situation, but include:

   •   emergency response actions, allocated roles and responsibilities
   •   emergency access and emergency escape routes (where possible)
   •   assembly points where appropriate
   •   emergency contact details for key organisations (land manager and police) and
       how they are best contacted (e.g. mobile phone, satellite phone, radio)
   • planned start and finish time of the activity
   • the emergency trigger time for the non-participating contact to inform emergency
       services (on failure of group to return or check-in)
   • contingency plans for foreseeable emergencies (e.g. falls, fire, flood)
   • specific communication equipment carried by group
   • relevant aspects of the land manager’s emergency strategy
   • strategies relevant to the specific features of the areas being visited (e.g. rock
       scrambles or river crossings)
   • a strategy for maintaining supervision ratios should any changes to the planned
       activity eventuate (e.g. adverse conditions, injured leader, participant(s) withdraw
       from activity).
Under the Workplace Health and Safety Regulation 2008, the person conducting a
business that provides an adventure activity to a dependent group must notify the
Department of Employment and Industrial Relations of any incident involving:

   • a serious injury
   • a person suffering a work-caused illness
   • a dangerous event.
The department must be notified of the incident on the approved form, available on the
DEIR website at www.deir.qld.gov.au/pdf/whs/incidents_form2003.pdf




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Important note: For incidents involving search and rescue, death, or an injury likely to
result in death (whether or not death occurs), police have responsibility and will assume
control of the incident. All other parties, including the contact person, are under the
direction of the police. Police will assist in advising the deceased person’s nearest family
member of a fatal incident.

4.5 Restricting participation
There may be times when participants need to be excluded or removed from an activity
or when an activity needs to be modified for the safety of the group or individuals. Based
on the leaders’ discretion and judgment, this may occur either prior to departure or
during an activity.

For example, participants may need to be excluded for reasons that include (but are not
limited to) being under the influence of alcohol or drugs (including prescription drugs that
may affect performance), being unable or unwilling to follow instructions, lacking suitable
equipment, or having an inadequate level of fitness, physical ability or experience for the
particular activity.

Operational restrictions that affect participation also need to be considered and include
issues related to weather, equipment, difficulty of route, restrictions dictated by the land
manager, and environmental factors (e.g. trail conditions, flood, drought, lightning, fire).

Reference to a sound risk management plan will help the leader to determine how and
when these restrictions or modifications might apply.

4.6 Ratios
When planning any outdoor activity, the ratio of qualified, experienced leaders to the
number of dependant participants needs to be considered. Some activity peak bodies
provide maximum leader to participant ratios. There are also situations where the
judgment of the leader may dictate smaller or larger numbers of participants per leader.
A range of variables can affect this decision including, but not limited to:
    • outcomes of the risk management process
    • experience of the leader/s
    • expected capabilities of participants (experience, competence, fitness, etc.)
    • conditions (environment, weather)
    • planned duration of the activity
    • optimum group size (see Section 4.7)
    • remoteness of the activity
    • suitability and availability of equipment.

Land managers or relevant authorities may also suggest ratios that differ from those
recommended in the AAS and, where these are less than the proposed AAS
recommendations, they will need to be regarded as minimum requirements. For
example, if the activity ratio was 1:6, but the land manager’s ratio was 1:4, the land
manager’s ratio would be the minimum standard.

To help determine ratios, the following indicative ratios have been provided based on the
ideal or best-case-scenario. Leaders may use these numbers as a basis or starting
point, then modify the number in their group according to the outcome of their risk

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management process, taking into account the variables listed above and in Section 4.7,
Group Size.

Ratios should be set by a qualified person with knowledge of the activity, location,
equipment and group.




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4.7 Group Size
The size of a group is an essential consideration of group management and when
considering ways to protect the environment. Maximum and minimum group size should
be carefully decided, incorporated into the risk management process as well as the ratio
of leaders to participants. Group sizes may be decided based upon:
     • the safety of the group and individuals
     • the objectives of the activity
     • specific restrictions imposed by the land manager (e.g. Queensland Parks and
       Wildlife)
     • the expected environmental impact of the activity
     • the experience of the leader and participants
     • the potential impact of other users
     • conditions (environment, remoteness, weather)
     • equipment available.
Where a large group is split into a number of smaller groups, it is recommended
that each smaller group has its own leader and assistant leader/s who
independently adhere to AAS.

Most organisations are guided by their individual policies regarding group numbers and
informed by land management requirements. As a general rule, groups should be of no
less than 4 and where practical to do so, large groups should be split into 2 or more
smaller groups.

4.8 First Aid
A person whose business or undertaking involves conducting outdoor activities for
dependant participants in any situation (paid or volunteer) MUST comply with the
relevant legislation.

Under the Workplace Health and Safety Regulation 2008, employers must –

   •   Ensure that first aid equipment is reasonably accessible to each of their workers
   •   Ensure the first aid equipment is appropriate and adequate for their workers and
       the work they are doing
   •   Ensure that first aid equipment is maintained in a hygienic, safe and serviceable
       condition.


The First Aid Code of Practice 2004 gives advice in relation to workplace first aid,
including the contents of first aid kits for remote locations. The code also advises that
workers in remote locations should have access to appropriate communication systems.
(Refer to:
http://www.deir.qld.gov.au/workplace/law/codes/firstaid/injury/kits/index.htm#content).

The following units of competency are generally a minimum standard for first aid trained
personnel, however the level of first aid competency required will depend on your risk
management assessment:

   •   Apply First Aid (previously known as Senior First Aid) – HLTFA301B (or
       equivalency).


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For activities where access to professional medical care is greater than one hour away,
a higher level of first aid training may be required. For example:

   •   Provide First Aid in a Remote Situation – HLTFA302A (or equivalency).

When running activities for participants with disabilities, OR for multi-day activities in
remote areas, more specialised first aid knowledge may be required.

4.9 Weather
NB: This is a critical part of your planning and as such should be given the priority it
deserves.

Effective planning requires accessing up-to-date weather and fire information. This
information is generally available through newspapers, radio and television, with most
up-to-date information found on the website of the Bureau of Meteorology at
www.bom.gov.au/weather/qld/.

The Bureau website provides information regarding weather, seas and hydrology and
some historical data can also be accessed.

4.10 Sun Safety in Queensland
Queensland experiences warm, sunny weather throughout the year and sunburn is a
risk for anyone participating in outdoor activities. Leaders should implement reasonable
steps to prevent or minimise the likelihood of staff and participants receiving excessive
sun exposure. Measures include:

   •   encouraging everyone to wear activity and weather-appropriate clothing
   •   encouraging everyone to wear hats and sunglasses when and where possible
   •   timing physically demanding activities in the cooler part of the day, where
       possible
   •   using sunscreen (minimum SPF30+ recommended)
   •   taking breaks in shaded areas.

Further information on sun safety can be found at:
   • Queensland Health:
       http://www.health.qld.gov.au/sunsafety/factsheets/default.asp
   • Cancer Council Australia:
       http://www.cancer.org.au/cancersmartlifestyle/SunSmart/Preventingskincancer.ht
       m

4.11 Child Protection
Some organisations and leaders will need to consider Queensland’s particular safety
requirements for working with children. For example:

MUST: A person will need a ‘blue card’ if they plan to work, in a paid or voluntary
capacity, or to carry on a business, in a child-related area regulated by the Commission
for Children and Young People and Child Guardian Act 2000. (Refer to the following
website for regulated areas of employment:
http://www.ccypcg.qld.gov.au/employment/bluecard/decisions.html).

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In Queensland, the Commission for Children and Young People and Child Guardian Act
(2000), requires that people working with children under the age of 18 years must
implement a number of procedures to manage risks to children. These include:

   •   Having volunteers and paid employees undergo the Working with Children Check
       and being issued with a positive notice ‘blue card’
   •   Having a written risk management strategy in place to protect children and young
       people from harm. This document must be updated annually.

For further information please refer to:

   •   Blue Card Information: http://www.bluecard.qld.gov.au/
   •   Commission for Children Risk Management Requirements:
       http://www.ccypcg.qld.gov.au/about/risk_management.html

4.12 Minimal Impact – 7 Principles of ‘Leave No Trace’
Protecting Queensland’s natural and cultural heritage is the responsibility of everyone
involved in adventure activities – leaders, organisations and participants. The following
principles draw on minimal impact ethics and serve to raise awareness of the respect
due to the environments and communities where adventure activities take place.

1. Plan Ahead and Prepare
        (Refer to Sections 4.1, 4.2, 4.6 for more details)

   •   Know the regulations and special concerns of the area/s you access. Research
       your destination before you leave home.
   •   Seek permits if necessary (e.g. http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/search?term=permits).
   •   Prepare for isolation, weather hazards and emergencies.
   •   Carry and know how to use a map, a compass and/or GPS.
   •   Take plenty of food and drinking water.
   •   Repackage food to minimise waste, take some rubbish bags. Avoid cans, bottles
       and aluminium foil.
   •   Carry extra warm and wet weather clothing.
2. Travel and Camp on Durable Surfaces*
    Walking
    • Walk in small parties to minimise the damage.
    • Stay on track and do not create new tracks.
    • On narrow paths walk in single file to avoid track widening.
    • Avoid revegetation areas.

   Camping
   • Plan your route carefully so you arrive at a pre-arranged site rather than creating
     a new campsite.
   • Keep campsites small. Focus activity where there is no vegetation.
   • Use a freestanding tent that requires few pegs, if staying overnight.
   • Take your own poles. Don’t cut them from the bush.
   • Never camp on frontal sand dunes.
   • Protect water sources by camping at least 100 metres from rivers and billabongs.
   • Never dig trenches around your tent.
   • Leave your campsite better than you found it!

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* Durable surfaces are established tracks, gravel and dry grass.
3. Dispose of Waste Properly
              3.1 Rubbish
   •   Remove all rubbish. Even biodegradable food scraps can upset the balance and
       cause weeds. Do not burn rubbish. Never bury rubbish as animals may dig it up.
              3.2 Human Waste
   •   Use toilets, where provided.
   •   Carry a small trowel for emergency toileting.
   •   Bury any human waste 15 centimetres under the topsoil, where it will be broken
       down fastest by organisms in the soil, and at least 100 metres away from any
       tracks, campsites, watercourses, lakes or drainage channels. '' Where possible
       avoid man-made toilet paper. Where necessary, use sparingly and bury deeply,
       or carry out.
              3.3 Hygiene
   •   Wash yourself and any equipment at least 50m away from streams or lakes.
       Avoid using soaps or detergents. Scatter drained dishwater.
   •   Use no soap, toothpaste, shampoo or sunscreen in lakes or streams.
4. Leave What You Find
    • Help to prevent the spread of weeds and pests. Check your vehicle/ craft,
       camping equipment, and clothing to ensure they are clean before visiting parks,
       waterways and forests.
    • Respect Indigenous art and other sites of cultural significance. Seek appropriate
       permission.
    • Do not touch rock art, which can be damaged by the natural oils from human
       skin.
    • Preserve the past: observe but do not touch cultural or historic structures and
       artefacts.
    • Leave rocks, plants and other natural objects as you find them.
    • Avoid introducing or transporting non-native species – do not transport firewood.
    • Know non-native species and report sightings of them to appropriate sources.
    • Do not travel through Quarantine Areas.
    • Avoid transporting mud, which may contain dieback fungal spores in boot and
       tyre treads. Clean before and after travelling.
    • Check clothing and all gear and burn or dispose of all hitchhiker type seeds
       before and after travelling in different areas.
5. Minimise the Impact of Fire
              5.1 Stoves
   •   Use a fuel or gas stove for cooking. Help reduce the risk of wildfires and burn
       injuries. Remember, open fires destroy vegetation and leaf litter and can
       devastate the bush if they escape.
              5.2 Fire Bans
   • Only light fires in parks where it is permitted. Many parks do not allow open fires.
   • Dispose of any cigarette butts by carrying them out with you.
   Fire Ban/restriction information can be found via the Queensland Rural Fire Service
   website: http://www.ruralfire.qld.gov.au
              5.3 Camp Fires


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   •   Where open fires are permitted, use fireplaces and fire rings provided.
   •   Light fires in cleared areas, away from vegetation and tents.
   •   Keep your fire small.
   •   Preferably use an existing or pre-used fireplace.
   •   Don’t put rocks around the fire. Rocks conduct heat and damage the surrounding
       vegetation. They may also explode!
   •   Collect timber only where it’s permitted. Use only dead, fallen timber. Don’t break
       branches from trees. Leaf litter and dead timber provide homes and food for
       animals.
   •   Always put the fire out. Douse it with water, not earth. Embers can smoulder for
       days.
   •   Never light fires during high bushfire periods or in places where the fire might
       spread.
6. Respect Wildlife
    • Observe wildlife from a distance. Do not follow or approach them.
    • Understand through education the role each species plays in each environment
       in order to realise the importance of its position within an ecosystem.
    • Avoid wildlife during sensitive times: mating, nesting, and raising young.
       Touching nests or young animals may cause their parents to abandon them.
    • Never feed wild animals or birds. Feeding wildlife damages their health, alters
       natural behaviours, and exposes them to predators and other dangers. Store
       food and rubbish securely.
    • Control pets at all times or better yet, leave them at home. All National Parks
       restrict pets so check for regulations first.
    • Report any injured animals to the local land managers. Do not attempt to handle
       the animal.
    • Queensland has unique fauna, which are often not found in other parts of
       Australia. Care should be taken when engaging in adventure activities to
       minimise the risk from interactions between wildlife and participants and you
       should refer to relevant land/ conservation authorities for site specific details (e.g.
       EPA, Forestry Queensland, Queensland Department of Primary Industry and
       Fisheries etc).
    • Some specific creatures which are prevalent in certain locations around
       Queensland include the following:
       • Crocodiles
       • Marine Stingers
       • Snakes
       • Dingoes
       • Cassowaries
       • Pigs, Cattle, Horses and Buffaloes.

These wild animals can be dangerous, and those that are native animals are protected.
Nesting shore birds may also need to be considered. For further Information on wildlife
within Queensland and how to best share the environment with them can be found on
the Environmental Protection Agency website: http://www.epa.qld.gov.au

7. Be Considerate of Your Hosts and Other Visitors
    • Learn about the cultural history of the land. Recognise, acknowledge and respect
       local knowledge.
    • Respect the wishes and regulations of all Hosts. (e.g. Indigenous, pastoral, land
       managers, and locals).

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   •   Never visit places where you have not obtained appropriate permission. Seek
       permission and/or a permit.
   •   Familiarise yourself, and have respect, for different peoples’ customs, culture,
       values, religion, dignity and feelings.
   •   Respect others wilderness experience and minimise your impact on others.
   •   Observe the safety of other groups by proper signalling of falling rock.

Further information is available at Leave No Trace Australia www.lnt.org.au

Walk Softly Extract:

   •   Wear softer-soled shoes that cause less damage.
   •   Never mark your route. Blazed trees are susceptible to fungal attacks that can kill
       the tree. Markers can confuse other walkers.
   •   Try not to get lost. Search and rescue operations can cause more damage than
       bushwalking!
   •   Encourage other walkers to walk softly too.

Environmental Protection Agency’s, Walk Softly Guidelines:
http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/parks_and_forests/activities_in_parks_and_forests/bushwalki
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5. Leader
In the AAS, leaders and assistant leaders are defined by their level of skill rather than
their titles. The skill levels are described in Section 5.1, Competencies. While there may
be various terms to describe the leader of an activity (e.g. guide, trail boss, supervisor,
manager, whip, instructor, etc.) the actual title of the leader of a particular activity is
irrelevant. Regardless of the terminology, there must be an individual who has the
responsibility of ‘leader’ and is in charge of the activity. There may also be others (one or
more people) who assist the leader.

The performance of the leader is a critical factor in the safe conduct of an outdoor
activity. The leader is required to accept responsibility for the planning, preparation and
conduct of the activity by:

   •   maintaining current skills, qualifications and experience as required
   •   accepting responsibility for the environmental preservation of the sites and
       surrounding areas.

The leader’s overall responsibility does not negate the duty of dependant
participants, who must be responsible for their own actions and have agreed to
participate knowing the inherent risks and circumstances involved.

5.1 Competencies
It is strongly recommended that a leader has acquired skills at least equivalent to
appropriate units of competency (or their successors) from the current National Outdoor
Recreation Training Package (NORTP) (e.g. Outdoor Recreation Training Package
(Version Two). Details of Units of Competence can be accessed at the National Training
Information Service (NTIS) website: www.ntis.gov.au. In addition to these competencies,
it is also recommended that the leader be able to demonstrate sound judgment, often
developed through exposure to different experiences and active reflection.

Training courses are available to assist people wanting to acquire practical leadership
skills and competencies. These are offered through a range of community-based
organisations, some universities, employer-based training, registered training
organisations (RTOs) and partnered assessment providers (PAPs). The National
Training Information Service website (www.ntis.gov.au) offers information on RTOs and
Units of Competency, and the Outdoor Council of Australia website
(www.outdoorcouncil.asn.au/) offers information on PAPs and activity-specific units of
competence through its description of the National Outdoor Leader Registration Scheme
(NOLRS). The units of competency required for each skill set can be accessed at
www.licensinglinenews.com/InfoPage19.asp.


While a statement of attainment for these units is not compulsory, statements are noted
and provide a benchmark that describes preferred leadership skills and experience. To
encourage currency and document relevant experience, it is recommended that leaders
keep a log or diary record of activities in which they participate or take responsibility for,

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including details of the conditions, duration of the activity and roles. Individual
organisations will need to decide which specific leader competencies and equivalencies
they expect; however, these should reflect effective risk management practices and an
awareness of the legislated and guiding principles of safe practice.

In non-commercial group activities, participants may be peers or club members with
known experience or skills. In this case, the leader may not require all of the
independent capabilities indicated in the National Outdoor Recreation Training Package
(NORTP) or the skill sets or qualifications listed, but may prefer to delegate some
aspects to other members of the group. The group needs to assess the list of skills and
competencies and ensure that the relevant skills are available within the group for the
particular activity.

5.1.1 Example Pathways to Demonstrate Competency
Bushwalking Leader
A bushwalking leader may be one of the following:
   • a bushwalking leader certified by an RTO delivering the Outdoor Recreation
      Training Package
   • a graduate of an Outdoor Recreation Certificate III or IV, with specialisations in
      bushwalking/ navigation; or
   • a registered leader under the National Outdoor Leader Registration Scheme
      (NOLRS), e.g. Restricted Bushwalking Guide, Bushwalking Guide (Tracked or
      Easy Untracked Areas), Bushwalking Guide (Difficult or Trackless), Bushwalking
      Instructor (Tracked or Easy Untracked Areas), Bushwalking Instructor (Difficult or
      Trackless), Bushwalking Guide (Unmodified Landscapes), Bushwalking Instructor
      (Unmodified Landscapes) [whichever applicable];or
   • a statement of attainment or Outdoor Recreation qualification with the
      appropriate units of competencies specified; or
   • a graduate of an equivalent interstate or national qualification; or
   • have demonstrated, to the satisfaction of the organisation, skills and currency
      that meet the leadership, group management, technical capacities and safety
      requirements of the specific circumstances being addressed*.

* For example, where short walks are taking place in urban environments, or in tracked
and easy untracked areas, the leader may only require: experience in the terrain to be
covered, skills in first aid and navigation, and experience in supervising participants in
that environment.

Please note: If your dependent clients are from an Education Queensland school, this
AAS should be read in conjunction with the relevant Curriculum Activity Risk
Management Module found at:
http://education.qld.gov.au/strategic/eppr/health/hlspr012/index1.html

5.2 Responsibilities of the Leader
The leader is the person who assumes overall responsibility and coordinates the entire
group. They supervise and aim to satisfy the objectives of the group or individual
participants’ session. Individual tasks of the leader could be delegated but the ultimate
responsibility remains with the leader.

Recommended responsibilities of the leader may include:

   •   confirming the activity plan (refer to Planning, Section 4)

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   •   researching and planning for likely hazards, incidents and emergencies
   •   confirming that an emergency strategy has been lodged with an appointed
       external contact
   •   checking the first aid kit and communication equipment prior to activity
   •   checking all group equipment prior to departure and on return
   •   ensuring a full briefing session is carried out and understood by all (participants
       and other staff) (see Section 5.2.1)
   •   assessing that the level of knowledge, ability, skill, and equipment of each
       participant is relevant for difficulty and complexity of the activity and that
       equipment is adequate
   •   obtaining acknowledgement from all participants that the leader has the role of
       leading the group
   •   ensuring that the message of minimal impact to the environmental impact is
       conveyed and adhered to
   •   managing and minimising impact to the environment that may be caused by the
       activity (see Sections 4.1.1 & 4.12)
   •   ensure the group knows where to access safe drinking water
   •   ensure that a practice session of required skills is conducted and ongoing
       coaching of technical skills occurs
   •   managing last minute checks including weather and equipment
   •   taking a head count before, during (regularly), and immediately following the
       activity
   •   maintaining constant awareness of the physical and psychological condition of
       the group
   •   managing the group to avoid or minimise the effects of hazards
   •   following land manager’s requirements
   •   controlling the pace of the group and rest group if necessary
   •   maintaining surveillance/observation of participants
   •   maintaining communication between the group;
   •   facilitating achievement of objectives (e.g. post activity debrief)
   •   monitoring participant experience and following up with the group
   •   delegating responsibility to any support personnel and ensuring that any vehicle
       used is suitable
   •   notifying external contacts of completion of activity and safe return
   •   ensuring any incidents are managed, documented and reported
   •   ensuring equipment is logged and packed away
   •   ensuring any incidents are managed, documented and reported.


5.2.1 Pre-activity Briefing
All information about an activity should be communicated clearly to potential participants
with sufficient time for them to make an informed decision about their participation.

Leaders and organisations may have their preferred ways of delivering a pre-activity
briefing, and the method may depend on the length and complexity of an activity. The
briefing should be delivered in a way that allows participants to be aware of the
following:


   •   identity and role of activity leader(s)
   •   outline of objectives

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   •   the nature of the activity and its inherent risks
   •   current and anticipated conditions (e.g. environment, remoteness, weather, land
       managers requirements);
   •   explanation of how the session will be managed (timings, procedures);
   •   agreed methods of communication within the group (signals and calls) devised
       before the activity starts
   •   essential equipment and clothing
   •   an explanation and demonstration of correct use and fit of equipment
   •   an explanation of group management
   •   recommendations on the type of food, the amount of food and water required and
       the availability of water;
   •   strategies for conservation and hygiene including protection of flora and fauna,
       rubbish removal and sanitation
   •   a summary of emergency procedures to help participants act appropriately in the
       event of an incident or emergency, including methods of emergency
       communication
   •   an explanation of expectations of participants, and the participants’ responsibility
       to act as requested (conduct, in safety zones, using equipment etc.)
   •   restrictions to participation
   •   a verbal check so participants can voice concerns about their capabilities
   •   a final check that all documentation is completed and submitted.

Leaders should seek acknowledgment from participants that they have understood the
content of the briefing, and offer the opportunity for participants to voice any concerns
and ask questions about the activity. Those from non-English speaking backgrounds
may need an alternate briefing method.

5.3 Responsibilities of Assistant Leader
An assistant leader is an individual whose role is to act as an additional support to the
activity leader, and/or who has responsibility for a group of participants on an adventure
activity. Like the leader, the assistant leader’s intention is to offer the experience of the
activity and to satisfy the objectives of the session, whether commercial or not. Anyone
appointed as an assistant leader will support and assist the leader/s as instructed. This
may require being aware of the detail of the activity plan, risk management plan and
emergency strategy.

To be included in the leader-to-participant ratio, the assistant leader should:

   •   have skills relevant to the activity
   •   be able to undertake activity-specific tasks delegated by the leader
   •   be able to manage the safety of the group, including in an emergency, if the
       leader becomes incapacitated.

An accompanying adult without these skills and capacities may be responsible for the
welfare and supervision of participants, but would not be considered an assistant leader.
As such it is not recommended that such people be included in the leader-to-participant
ratio.


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6. Equipment
Equipment requirements will vary according to the planned activity (including route and
objectives), the environmental conditions and the nature and size of the group. The
leader should have the same equipment as the participants and should ensure that
group equipment is carried correctly. The leader and group should have easy access to
emergency equipment.

Please note that the following list represents basic essentials. A more extensive, though
not exhaustive, list of recommended gear is provided in Appendix 4. Equipment carried
will depend on the nature and duration of the walk being done.

6.1 Leader’s Equipment
The leader should carry similar equipment to participants (section 6.2), plus the following
equipment:
   • emergency response plan, process or procedure
   • emergency communication equipment (e.g. mobile phone, satellite phone, details
       of nearest land line, radio, EPIRB/PLB if in remote area etc)
   • a first aid kit appropriate for the level of training completed, the location of the
       activity and the size of the group
   • relevant map/s and compass (and possibly GPS).

6.2 Participant Equipment
The following equipment requirements apply to all dependent participants:
   • clothing appropriate to the requirements of the route and potential weather
        conditions with particular emphasis upon protection from the sun, wind, rain, cold,
        heat, insect bites and vegetation cuts
   • hat with full brim or legionnaires cap
   • appropriate footwear (usually enclosed)
   • participants personal medication including sun and insect protection
   • suitable and sufficient water carrying capability;
   • small first aid kit
   • plastic bag for rubbish
   • food sufficient for the trip plus emergency rations
   • personal items including toiletries for over night walks and any personal
        medication
   • watch, compass and maps
   • notebook and pencil
   • whistle
   • sunscreen, insect repellent, first aid kit
   • matches/lighter
   • suitable knife/eating utensils including mug
   • toilet paper, trowel
   • sleeping bag, sleeping mat
   • pack, pack liner, sit mat (if desired)
   • water bottles/bags, food
   • torch
   • length of cord or rope.



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6.3 Group Equipment
Group equipment will differ depending on the expected conditions of the walk and will be
informed by the risk management plan, emergency strategy and activity plan. In some
instances all or some of the following equipment should be considered:
    • water purifier
    • group first aid kit
    • additional matches or lighter
    • copy of emergency procedures including telephone numbers
    • spare maps in ziplock bag
    • space blanket
    • a signalling device.

6.4 Maintenance and Storage
In commercial operations the care and maintenance of the equipment is the
responsibility of the operators. It is recommended that an equipment maintenance log is
kept. A check list for all gear going out on a walk should be in place, and all equipment
should be checked on return, with used or worn items replaced.




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7. Definition of Terms

Organisation—A person or group of persons organised for a particular purpose and
assuming the role of providing an abseiling experience being commercial (for profit) or
non-commercial (not for profit / community group).

Dependant Group—A group of people who rely upon the leader or organisation and
where there is an established and evident duty of care on the part of the leader or
organisation.

Participant—A person whose welfare is the responsibility of a leader or assistant leader
(commercial or not).

Please note that in the National Outdoor Leader Registration Scheme (NOLRS), a
participant is referred to as a client or may also be referred to as a dependant.

Leader—A senior person who assumes responsibility and co-ordinates the entire group,
including supervision, to satisfy the objectives of the group or individual participants’
session. The leaders responsibilities remain the same regardless of whether the session
is for commercial purposes or not.

Assistant Leader— A person whose role it is to act as an additional support to the
leader and/or who is responsible for satisfying the objectives of the session for a group
of participants on an adventure activity. The assistant leader’s responsibilities remain the
same regardless of whether the session is for commercial purposes or not.

Must—In this document, must indicates that a section or statement is mandatory and
required by law.

Should—In this document, should indicates a recommendation.

7.1 Summary of abbreviations
AAS            Adventure Activity Standards
DEIR           Department of Employment and Industrial Relations
EPIRB          Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon
NTIS           National Training Information Service
NOLRS          National Outdoor Leader Registration Scheme
NORTP          National Outdoor Recreation Training Package
OCA            Outdoor Council of Australia
PAP            Partnered Assessment Provider
PLB            Personal Locator Beacon
QPW            Queensland Parks & Wildlife
RTO            Registered Training Organisation

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8. Further Information

8.1 Organisations

Queensland Outdoor Recreation Federation Inc
150 Caxton Street, Milton Qld 4054
Phone: (07) 3369 9455
www.qorf.org.au


Outdoor Council of Australia
c/o QORF 150 Caxton Street, Milton Qld 4054
Phone: (07) 3369 9455
www.outdoorcouncil.asn.au


Department of Local Government Sport and Recreation
PO Box 15187, City East Qld 4002
Phone: 1300 656 191 (within Australia only)
www.sportrec.qld.gov.au


Department of Employment & Industrial Relations (incl. Workplace Health and
Safety)
PO Box 69, Brisbane Qld 4001
Phone: 07 3225 1540
www.deir.qld.gov.au


Environmental Protection Agency (incl. Qld Parks and Wildlife)
PO Box 15155, City East Qld 4002
Phone: 1300 130 372
www.epa.qld.gov.au


Leave No Trace
PO Box 71
Cottesloe WA 6911

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Phone: 08 9384 9062
www.lnt.org.au


Recreation Training Queensland
Sports House, Suite 1.08 , Cnr Castlemaine and Caxton Streets, Milton Qld 4064
Phone: (07) 3367 0833
www.rtq.com.au


Service Skills Australia
GPO Box 4194, Sydney NSW 2001
Phone: (02) 8243 1200
www.serviceskills.com.au


8.2 Resources
General websites



Blue Cards
www.bluecard.qld.gov.au/index.html


Bureau of Meteorology
http://www.bom.gov.au/weather/qld/.


Cancer Council Australia
http://www.cancer.org.au/cancersmartlifestyle/SunSmart/Preventingskincancer.htm


Civil Liability Act 2003
www.legislation.qld.gov.au/LEGISLTN/CURRENT/C/CivilLiabA03.pdf

Child Protection Act 1999
www.legislation.qld.gov.au/LEGISLTN/CURRENT/C/ChildProtectA99.pdf


Department of Employment and Industrial Relations
http://www.deir.qld.gov.au/pdf/whs/incidents_form2003.pdf


Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries
http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/cps/rde/dpi/hs.xsl/28_ENA_HTML.htm




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Education Queensland: Curriculum Activity Risk Management Module
http://education.qld.gov.au/strategic/eppr/health/hlspr012/index1.html


First Aid Code of Practice 2004
www.deir.qld.gov.au/pdf/whs/firstaid_code2004.pdf


First Aid Kits
http://www.deir.qld.gov.au/workplace/law/codes/firstaid/injury/kits/index.htm#content).


Forestry Plantations Queensland
http://www.fpq.qld.gov.au/asp/index.asp


National Training Information Service
http://www.ntis.gov.au/Default.aspx


Queensland Health
http://www.health.qld.gov.au/sunsafety/factsheets/default.asp


Queensland Rural Fire Service
http://www.ruralfire.qld.gov.au


Recreation Training Queensland
www.rtq.com.au


Standards Australia
www.standards.org.au/

Workplace Health and Safety Regulation 2008 - Accessed                               11   September   2008
www.legislation.qld.gov.au/LEGISLTN/SLS/2008/08SL283.pdf

Cultural Heritage

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Partnerships
http://www.atsip.qld.gov.au/resources/cultures.html


Environmental Protection Agency
http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/cultural_heritage/


Multicultural Affairs Queensland
http://www.multicultural.qld.gov.au/index.html


Natural Resources and Water
(NB. Under the Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Act 2003 (Qld) there are guidelines for Duty
of Care for the recognition, protection and conservation of Aboriginal cultural heritage)


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http://www.nrw.qld.gov.au/cultural_heritage/

Risk management websites

Australian Standard AS 4360 Risk Management
www.riskmanagement.com.au
(including Guidelines for Managing Risk in Sport and Recreation)

Commission for Children Risk Management Requirements
www.ccypcg.qld.gov.au/about/risk_management.html

Risk Management Code of Practice 2007
www.deir.qld.gov.au/workplace/law/codes/riskman/index.htm

Safety Guidelines for Children and Young People in Sport and Recreation
www.smartplay.com.au/vic/DocLib/Pub/DocLibDetail.asp?lngDocLibID=139

Books

Dickson TJ & Tugwell M (2000), The risk management document: Strategies for risk
management in outdoor and experiential learning, Outdoor Recreation Industry Council,
North Sydney, NSW.

Haddock C (2004), Outdoor safety: Risk management for outdoor leaders, New Zealand
Mountain Safety Council Inc., New Zealand.

Miles J & Priest S, (1999) Adventure Programming, Venture Publishing, State College,
PA, USA.

Priest S & Gass MA (1997) Effective leadership in adventure programming, Human
Kinetics, Champaign, IL, USA.

The Scout Association of Australia (2008). Fieldbook for Australian Scouting, McGraw-
Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

References to Interstate AAS
Victorian AAS www.orc.org.au/aas/index.htm
Tasmanian AAS www.development.tas.gov.au/sportrec/projects/advenactstandards.html
South Australian AAS www.recreationsa.org/downloads.php#aas
Western Australian AAS www.outdoorswa.org/page.php?id=7

Activity Specific Resources



Bushwalking Qld
http://www.geocities.com/qfbwc/index.html




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Bushwalking Australia
http://www.bushwalkingaustralia.org/


Brisbane Bushwalkers Club Inc.
http://www.bbw.org.au/equipment.htm#day-walks


Queensland Bushwalkers Club Inc.
http://www.geocities.com/qldbwc/articles/packs.html


YHA Bushwalkers (Qld.) Inc.
http://www.geocities.com/yhabushies/equipment.html




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9. Appendices
Appendix 1      Legal framework detail

Why have Adventure Activity Standards?
These Adventure Activity Standards (AAS) are voluntary guidelines for undertaking
potentially risky activities in a manner designed to promote:

   1. Safety for both participants and providers
   2. Protection for providers against civil legal claims and criminal penalties
   3. Assistance in obtaining insurance cover.
These AAS are NOT imposed by law.

Applying the AAS
Having suitable risk management programs and strategies in place, and ensuring the
AAS are met, will minimise the likelihood of injury or loss. Evidence of compliance with
such programs and strategies, and the AAS may also assist the legal defence of claims
and in proving that a provider and its leaders have acted reasonably in the
circumstances (i.e. were not negligent, as the provider was following industry
guidelines). It is also possible that having such programs in place could assist providers
in obtaining more favourable insurance arrangements.

Basis of legal liability
Legal liability for personal injuries or property damage is primarily governed by the law of
Contract and Negligence, although legislation such as the Trade Practices Act (Cwth)
and the Fair Trading Act (Qld) may also be relevant.

Claims in contract
A claim in contract may require a court to consider the following:

     •   whether there is a contract between the parties
     •   whether there has been a breach of an express or implied term of the contract
     •   whether compensation is payable.
1.     Contract
A contract may be written or oral, or both.

To establish a claim in contract, the contract must be between the person who has
suffered injury or loss and the provider against whom the claim is being made. For
example, there would be a contract between a provider and a client where the provider
agrees to provide services for payment.

A claim in contract can only be made by one party to the contract against the other party
to the contract; this differs from a claim in negligence.

2.       Breach of a term



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Furthermore, to have a claim in contract there must be a breach of an express or implied
term of the contract.

     • Express term—is a term that is described in the contract
     • Implied term—is in addition to those express terms of a contract. A court may
       read other terms into a contract (as if they were written in the contract). These
       terms may place other obligations on a service provider when providing that
       service.
An example of an implied term that a court may read into a contract might be a
requirement to exercise the degree of reasonable skill and care that is expected of a
competent provider.

Some terms may also be implied into a contract by the Commonwealth Trade Practices
Act 1974, Queensland’s Fair Trading Act 1989 and the Civil Liability Act 2003.

3.      Compensation
If a court finds that there was a breach of either an express or implied term of the
contract (for example, that the provider did not exercise reasonable care in the provision
of the service), a party may claim compensation (damages) for the loss or injury suffered
as a result of that breach.

Claims in negligence
The law of negligence is established by the Common Law (unwritten law developed by
the courts over time), and in Statute Law (laws created by Parliament), such as the Civil
Liability Act.

To make a successful claim in negligence, you must prove on the balance of
probabilities (i.e. more probable than not), the following:

     • that a duty of care was owed by the provider to take reasonable measures for the
       safety of their clients/participants
   • that there was a breach of this duty of care
   • that the breach of the duty of care was a cause of the injury/loss suffered by the
       participant.
A successful claim in negligence against a provider will result in an award of damages
against that provider to compensate for the loss or injury suffered by the claimant.

1.      Establishing a duty of care
Although the law does not automatically impose a duty of care, such a duty may be
imposed when one party (the provider) assumes responsibility for another in the
provision of adventure activities.

The duty of care is a legal requirement imposed by the courts on a provider to take
reasonable care to protect a client or participant from foreseeable harm or loss.

2.       Determining if a duty of care has been breached

Standard of care




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If a claim is made and a court finds that a duty of care is owed, the court must determine
whether that duty has been breached. In deciding whether there has been a breach of
the duty of care, the court must first decide what is the appropriate level or standard of
that duty of care.

The standard of care is determined by taking into account all the relevant circumstances
and the particular facts of each case. In determining the appropriate level or standard, a
court will consider the experience of the providers and the clients, the conditions at the
time, and ultimately may seek the guidance from experts in the field.

A court will find that the standard of care has not been met (i.e. there has been a breach
of the duty of care) if the evidence, on the balance of probabilities, establishes that the
provider has not acted reasonably in the circumstances.

For example, in an outdoor recreation activity some participants could find themselves in
a situation suited to more advanced participants. There may be people in the group who
have been led to believe by the provider that a certain skill level was not required, and
enrolled to join a group described incorrectly as being for ‘beginners’. If an accident
occurred due to their inexperience, and these ‘beginner’ participants were injured, it is
possible that a legal action to recover damages might be based in the law of negligence,
against the leader and guide. Legal action may also be taken against the provider
because of a failure to adequately instruct, advise and perhaps supervise the group.

The duty of care of the provider is higher than that placed on the ordinary citizen
because the provider has agreed to provide services for a reward or has assumed a
responsibility of care for others.

The following is a guide (not a complete list) to the standards that should be met by a
provider, guide, instructor, teacher or staff member:

   •    ensure the activity is appropriate for the skills and experience of the intended
        participants
    • ensure the intended activity is appropriate given the known, expected and
        forecasted conditions
    • provide adequate staff/leader supervision
    • provide competent and appropriately trained staff/leaders
    • provide safe and properly functioning and adjusted equipment
    • provide reasonable food and safe shelter (if relevant to the activity)
    • provide reasonable guidance, instruction and direction to participants
    • depending on the activity, have an adequate knowledge of the area in which it is
        to take place and be able to provide reasonable first aid, emergency backup and
        rescue.
The law will require the provider to protect participants from known hazards (associated
with the activity), but also to protect participants from those risks that could arise (i.e.
those that the provider, instructor, teacher or staff member/guide could reasonably have
foreseen) against which reasonable preventative measures could be taken.

Defence—no breach of duty


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In essence, the Civil Liability Act provides that a leader, guide or provider does not
breach a duty where:

   •    the risk was foreseeable
   •    the risk was ‘not insignificant’
   •    in the circumstances, a reasonable provider would have taken appropriate
        precautions.
In determining whether a reasonable operator took adequate precautions, a court will
consider the following (amongst other relevant issues):

     • the probability that harm would occur if care were not taken
     • the likely seriousness of the harm
     • the burden of taking precautions to avoid the risk of harm
     • the social utility of the activity that creates the risk of harm.
In these circumstances, in order to limit potential for legal liability and to minimize the risk
of injury, each organisation needs to implement risk and safety management processes
that have identified foreseeable risks and put in place measures to control them. For the
same reasons, all providers, leaders or guides should, as a minimum, to have completed
appropriate first aid and activity-specific training.

This is particularly so where the activity is a specialised one. In these circumstances, as
a participant will be seen as relying on the expertise of the provider, leader or guide, a
higher duty of care will be imposed because the provider, leader or guide will be
considered as having a responsibility for the control, guidance and protection of the
participant.

3.      The breach of that duty of care caused the harm suffered
In order to hold someone liable for the payment of damages in negligence it must be
established that the breach of duty was a cause of the harm suffered.

Defences

Voluntary assumption of risk
The Civil Liability Act provides that if it can be proved that a participant was fully aware of
the risk of suffering injury during an activity (if the risk of harm was an obvious one then
there is a rebuttable presumption—that is, a presumption that can be proved to the
contrary with evidence—that the person who suffered the harm was aware of the risk)
and freely accepted that risk, then this will be a defence to a claim in negligence.

It will not be a defence, however, if the injury was caused by the inexperience or
incompetence of the provider, defective equipment, or inadequate supervision or
instruction, because it would be unlikely that any participant would have consented to
accept such risks.

Dangerous recreation activities
The Civil Liability Act provides an additional possible defence to negligence where the
harm is caused as a result of the materialisation of an obvious risk where a person is
engaged in a dangerous recreational activity. This may apply whether or not the

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participant was aware of that risk. A dangerous recreational activity means an activity
engaged in for enjoyment, relaxation or leisure that involves a significant degree of risk
of physical harm to a person.

The courts, when deciding cases, will determine what constitutes a dangerous
recreational activity under the Civil Liability Act. In the event of a claim, the court would
decide this having regard to the particular circumstances of each case.

Contributory negligence
If the accident was caused or contributed to by a lack of reasonable care on the part of
the participant, then this will be a partial defence according to the apportionment of
responsibility made by the court between the provider and the participant. In considering
the extent of the reduction of the damages due to contributory negligence, a court may
decide to reduce the damages by 100 per cent and so defeat the claim.

Exclusion of liability agreements
In some instances the court may uphold documents that exclude liability, sometimes
referred to as a ‘waiver to sue or release’. Exclusion of liability agreements are usually a
written statement not to sue the supplier of recreational services should a participant be
injured or killed by the provision of the service, and signed by each participant prior to
the supply of the services. These agreements must be carefully drafted and comply with
any requirements set out in applicable legislation. The use of these agreements may
enable suppliers of recreational services to exclude their liability for negligence and to
limit their liability to injury or death suffered by a participant.

Volunteers
Volunteers are protected under the Civil Liability Act from personal civil liability in relation
to any act they undertake in good faith when providing community work organised by a
community organisation.

A volunteer is a person who does community work on a voluntary basis (This includes
work for which a person receives reimbursement of reasonable expenses, but does not
include court-ordered community work).

Community work is work that is not for private financial gain and that is done for a
charitable, sporting, educational etc. purpose.

Expressions of regret
The Civil Liability Act also provides that when a person apologises (verbally or in writing)
for causing death, personal injury or harm does not constitute an admission of fault or
negligence liability provided the apology does not include a clear acknowledgement of
liability. Similarly, a reduction or waiver of fees payable for a service is not an admission
of fault or liability.

Additional considerations
Providers may also wish to consider the following obligations in relation to their
instructors:


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   •   Workplace Health and Safety Act 1995. The objective of this Act is to prevent a
       person’s death, injury or illness being caused by a workplace, by a relevant
       workplace area, by work activities, or by plant or substances for use at a
       workplace.
    • Commission for Children and Young People and Child Guardian Act 2000, which
       regulate the requirement for people to obtain a blue card if they propose to work,
       in a paid or voluntary capacity, or to carry on a business, in a child-related area.
       Both paid employees and volunteers may need a blue card if they intend to work
       in facilities or situations that fall under any of the following categories:
            o residential facilities
            o school boarding houses
            o schools—employees other than teachers and parents
            o child care
            o churches, clubs and associations involving children
            o health, counselling and support services
            o private teaching, coaching or tutoring
            o education programs conducted outside of schools
            o child accommodation services, including homestays
            o religious representatives
            o sport and active recreation
            o emergency services cadet programs, and
            o school crossing supervisors
            o care of children under the Child Protection Act 1999
A service or activity provided by a person may be considered to be a business
irrespective of whether the service or activity is for profit or not for profit. However, the
service or activity must fall within one of the categories of business regulated by the
Commission’s Act, for example private teaching, coaching and tutoring, providers of
sport and active recreation activities.




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Appendix 2                                                  Exemplar Risk Management Templates

Activity: 1 day bush walk
Location: Smith’s Track, Kamerunga to Stoney Creek and return via Weir track
        th
Date: 19 February 2007

Analysis                                                                                 Description
                           other forms of loss




                                                 (1)   snake bite                                       (6) injury related to slip
                            Accident, injury,




                                                 (2)   stung by stinging tree                           (7) dehydration
                                                 (3)   scrub itch                                       (8) drowning
                                                 (4)   leech bite                                       (9) getting lost
Risks




                                                 (5)   injury related to fall                           (10) getting separated from the group


                                                 PEOPLE                                EQUIPMENT                          ENVIRONMENT

                                                 (1) unaware of the potential          (1) lack of suitable footwear,     (1) untracked environment, in
                                                      danger of snakes, being               leg protection                     long grass/vegetation
                                                      unable to identify snakes,       (2) lack of suitable clothing      (2) rainforest environment
                                                      deliberately annoying            (3) lack of insect repellent       (3) rainforest environment,
                                                      snake, being aware of the        (4) lack of insect repellent            rotting logs
                                                      environment                      (5) lack of suitable footwear,     (4) wet environments
                                                 (2) unaware of the potential               lack of hand line/safety      (5) cliffs, steep ground
                                                      danger of stinging trees,             rope                          (6) heavy rain, slippery
                                                      being unable to identify         (6) lack of suitable footwear,          pathways
                                                      stinging trees, being                 lack of hand line/safety      (7) hot day, lack of shade,
                                                      aware of the environment              rope                               steep hills, unclean water
                                                 (3) unaware of the potential          (7) lack of water, lack of water        sources
Hazards, perils, dangers




                                                      presence of scrub itch in             storage capacity              (8) muddy water, moving
   Causal Factors




                                                      rotting timber, being            (8) no throw rope/safety line           water, hidden
                                                      unaware of the                   (9) damaged or lost compass,            obstacles/rocks
                                                      environment                           lost or inaccurate map        (9) unclear track/route, recent
                                                 (4) not checking extremities          (10) no whistle                         tree/rock falls blocking
                                                      after walking through wet                                                pathways
                                                      areas                                                               (10) lack of visibility, multiple
                                                 (5) unaware of safety on cliffs                                               pathway/route options
                                                      and steep ground, unsafe
                                                      behaviour, over balancing,
                                                      poor group control
                                                 (6) unaware of safety in
                                                      slippery areas, unsafe
                                                      behaviour, over balancing,
                                                      poor group management
                                                 (7) not drinking water
                                                 (8) poor swimming ability, not
                                                      checking swimming areas
                                                 (9) lack of navigational skills,
                                                      not paying attention
                                                 (10) not paying attention, poor
                                                      group management




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                                                (1) adequate pre activity              (1) clear and accurate            (1) be aware in long grass
                                                     safety briefing including              equipment briefing           (2) avoid stinging trees
                                                     identification, dangers and (2) clear and accurate                  (3) avoid rotting logs
                                                     appropriate behaviours                 equipment briefing           (4) be aware of wet
                                                (2) adequate pre activity              (3) clear and accurate                 environments
                                                     safety briefing including              equipment briefing           (5) avoid cliff edges
                                                     identification, dangers and (4) clear and accurate                  (6) take care in slippery/wet
                                                     how to avoid                           equipment briefing                areas
                                                (3) adequate pre activity              (5) clear and accurate            (7) be prepared for hot
                                                     safety briefing including              equipment briefing, take          weather, seek shade,
                                                     identification, dangers and            hand line on walk                 have rest breaks,
                                                     how to avoid                      (6) clear and accurate                 treat/purify unclean or
                                                                                            equipment briefing, take          suspect water
                                                (4) adequate pre activity
                                                                                            hand line on walk            (8) check swimming locations
                                                     safety briefing including
                                                                                       (7) check water bottles (size          for dangers
                                                     identification, dangers and
                                                                                            and how full) at start of    (9) double check
                                                     protection measures
                                                                                            walk                              pathway/route
                                                (5) adequate pre activity              (8) take a hand line/throw        (10) good group management
                                                     safety briefing about cliff            rope
                                                     top safety, maintain good         (9) check compass and map,
                                                     group control                          take more than 1 of each
                                                (6) adequate pre activity              (10) take a whistle
                                                     safety briefing about
                                                     slippery pathways, how to
                                                     avoid slipping, and safe
                                                     behaviours
                                                (7) adequate pre activity
                                                     safety briefing about the
                                                     need to drink plenty of
                                                     water
                                                (8) check swimming ability
                                                     before walk, safety
                             Normal Operation




                                                     briefing and muddy and/or
                                                     moving water
                                                (9) training in navigational
                                                     skills, constant checking of
                                                     location
                                                (10) regular checking of groups
                                                     members
Risk Management Strategies




                                                (1) snake bite: first aid DRABC, pressure immobilization bandage, medical assistance
                                                (2) stung by stinging tree: first aid, apply tape to remove stinging hairs
                                                (3) scrub itch: wash/clean after activity, use antiseptic
                                                (4) leach bite: remove, use salt if necessary, cover wound
                                                (5) injury related to fall: first aid, medical assistance as necessary
                                                (6) injury related to slip: first aid, medical assistance as necessary
                             Emergency




                                                (7) dehydration: drink water, stop activity, rest, cool person down
                                                (8) drowning: CPR, medical assistance
                                                (9) getting lost: stop, think, stay together, find last known point, retrace steps, search
                                                (10) getting separated from the group: call out/whistle, stay in obvious position




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Relevant Industry         (1) Outdoor Recreation Centre (Victoria) Adventurous Activity Standards
Standards Applicable          (Bushwalking)
                          (2) Environmental Protection Agency, Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service,
                              Group Activity Permit




Policies And              (1) Education Queensland Education Policy and Procedures Register, HLS-PR-
Guidelines                    012: Curriculum Activity Risk Management Module (Bushwalking)
Recommended




Skills Required By        (1) Skills required in navigation, weather, logistical, group management, first aid,
Staff                         swimming and rescue. This may be indicated by the following industry
                              registrations and training:
                                       − National Outdoor Leader Registration Scheme Bushwalking
                                           Guide
                                       − Remote or Wilderness First Aid
                                       − Swift water Rescue Operator
                                       − Vertical Rescue training




Final Decision on
Implementing              Choose One
Activity
                          Accept                                                     Reject
                          Comments:

                          The walk along Smith’s track via Toby Lookout to Stoney Creek and return
                          via the Weir track is a challenging day walk activity. Whilst there is
                          potential for serious misadventure, with appropriate training, safety
                          briefing and leader qualifications, it is a relatively low risk activity.




Completed by: Phil Harrison
Signed: ____________________
DATE: _______________



Thanks to Phil Harrison for this exemplar Risk Assessment and Management plan.


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RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN

Activity: Canoeing (Noosa River)
DANGER               RISK                     MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES                                                               EVALUATION/COMMENTS

Environment

Sun Exposure         Sunburn                  Participants advised on appropriate clothing and equipment. Clothing with
                                              sleeves must be worn under PFD’S.
                     Dehydration
                                              Participants carry minimum of 3L water. Refill stops.
                     Heat Exhaustion/stroke
                                              Particular pointers to apply sunscreen to backs of hands and inside thighs.

                                              Regular rest stops.

                                              Encourage peer reminders and monitoring.

                                              Monitor Weather.

Winds                Capsizing                Monitor winds before departure. White caps are an indication of thinking            Where possible try to make
                                              about strong management strategies or cancellation.                                 the larger open water
                     Multiple Rescue                                                                                              crossings earlier in the
                                              Set safety guidelines- distance between canoes, whistles, rafting up.               morning.
                     Group Separation
                                              Set expectation of group travelling together.                                       Keep in mind hugging the
                                                                                                                                  bank or walking canoes as an
                                              Participants are empowered to manage group distance and to show raft up
                                                                                                                                  option.
                                              sign if the group gets too far apart.

                                              Ropes are carried so that there is an option of tying boats together for more
                                              stability.

                                              Participants are briefed on capsize procedures.




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Rain               Wet Equipment           Pre-briefing and equipment list outlines appropriate clothing and wet weather
                                           gear.
                   Hypothermia
                                           Participants are shown how to waterproof equipment.

                                           Group condition is monitored closely during wet weather.

Submerged Logs     Capsizing               Participants are briefed about the presence of submerged items.

                   Impact Injuries         Participant behaviour is monitored around areas where submerged logs are
                                           prevalent.
                   Canoe Damage
                                           Participants are briefed on capsize procedures.


Dead Trees         Impact Injuries         Participants are briefed about the dead trees and the likelihood of tree fall if
                                           a canoe hits.
                   Canoe Damage
                                           Participants are asked to care for equipment.

Steep Banks        Sprains & Strains       Appropriate exits and entry points are chosen to avoid any difficulties.

                                           Use National Parks developed entry and exit points.

Rubbish            Cut Feet                Participants are expected to wear closed in shoes at all times.

                   Embedded Objects

Environmental                              Participants are to be briefed on specific environmental factors that concern
Impact                                     the Noosa River. This is supported by ‘Leave No Trace’ DVD.

                                           Ensure rubbish is ‘carried out’.

                                           Ensure that the designated landing areas are used and no landing zones are
                                           observed.




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People                RISK                        MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

Loading & Unloading   Strains                     Loading is supervised by adult.
Canoes
                      Finger injuries             Participants are briefed about communicating with each other prior to lifting.

                      Damage to canoes            A minimum of four participants are to carry a canoe.

                                                  Canoes on the top rung are to be managed carefully.****

Poor Communication    Capsizing                   Emphasis is placed on communication between partners to ensure the boat
with Partner                                      is moving correctly and that people avoid arguments.
                      Collison
                                                  Participants are also given paddling to tips assist with the smooth operation
                      Emotional or                of their boats.
                      Relationship Difficulties
                                                  Participants are briefed on capsize procedures.

Split Up of Group     Lost Participants           Set expectation of the group travelling together.

                      Unsupervised                Participants are empowered to manage group distance and to show raft up
                      Participants                sign if the group gets to far apart.

                                                  Set safety guidelines- distance between canoes, whistles, rafting up.

Swimming              Submerged Objects           Participants are expected to wear shoes and PFD’s whilst swimming.

                      Spinal Injuries             Before entering the water the area should be assessed for hazards such as
                                                  submerged logs or tree roots.
                      Drowning
                                                  The participants’ medical form indicates whether they are confident to swim
                                                  50m which gives an indication of swimming ability.

                                                  Safety guidelines should be set according to the area eg boundaries




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                                              Swimming is to be supervised by an adult.

                                              No jumping or diving from jetties, banks or trees.

Canoe collision    Finger injuries            Participants to be briefed in control strokes of canoeing (steering, emergency
                                              stops).
                   Paddle impact
                                              Participants briefed on letting occupants of other canoes know if they are
                   Damaged Canoes             likely to hit their canoe.

Motorised Craft    Capsize                    Set expectation of group travelling together.

                   Collision                  Participants are empowered to manage group distance and to show raft up
                                              sign if the group gets to far apart.

                                              Set safety guidelines- distance between canoes, whistles, rafting up.

                                              Group should travel together so that motorised craft have space to
                                              manoeuvre.                                                                          This is of particular concern
                                                                                                                                  around Kin Kin Creek, Fig
                                              Group to travel close to banks where possible.                                      Tree Point and Como Reach
                                                                                                                                  areas.
                                              Participants are briefed on capsize procedures.

Public             Ill will                   Instructors should choose appropriate areas to brief and unload canoes so
                                              that public are not restricted in access and participants are not distracted.
                   Reputation tarnished
                                              Instructors to monitor noise and behaviour of group.

Equipment          RISK                       MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

Canoe Faulty       Leaky canoe                General condition of canoes is monitored when loading and unloading of
                                              canoes and faults recorded.

                                              Canoe condition is checked yearly.



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Trailer             Canoes coming free           Suitably skilled adults are responsible for tying on canoes.
                    from trailer
                                                 The driver should check that canoes are securely on the trailer before driving
                    Trailer coming off car       away.

                                                 The driver is responsible for checking that the trailer is sitting on the tow ball
                                                 correctly and that the safety chain is secured.




Thanks to James McIntosh for this exemplar Risk Assessment and Management plan.




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Appendix 3      Walking Trails Classification - QPW

        Class 1: Tracks provide opportunities for large number of visitors, including those with reduced mobility, to traverse the natural environment easily.
They provide high level of interpretation and facilities. Steps allowed only with ramp access. Users need no previous experience and are expected to exercise
normal care regarding their personal safety.

         Class 2: Tracks provide opportunities for large numbers of visitors to walk easily in natural environments. They provide moderate to high level
interpretation and facilities. Generally low gradients. Users need no previous experience and are expected to exercise normal care regarding their personal
safety.

        Class 3: Tracks provide opportunities for visitors to walk in slightly modified natural environments requiring a moderate level of fitness. They provide
low level of interpretation and facilities. Users need no bush walking experience and a minimum level of specialised skills. Users may encounter natural
hazards such as steps and slopes, unstable surfaces and minor water crossings. They are responsible for their own safety.

        Class 4: Tracks provide opportunities for visitors to explore and discover relatively undisturbed natural environments along defined and distinct tracks
with minimal (if any) facilities. They provide minimal interpretation and facilities. Users can expect opportunities for solitude and few encounters with others.
Users require a moderate level of specialised skills such as navigation skills. Users may require maps and navigation equipment to successfully complete the
track. Users need to be self reliant, particularly in regard to emergency first aid and possible weather hazards.

          Class 5: Tracks provide opportunities for visitors with outdoor skills to discover the natural environment. Visitors require a higher degree of
specialised skills such as navigation skills. Users may require maps and navigation equipment to successfully complete the track. Users need to be self-
reliant, particularly in regard to emergency first aid and possible weather hazards.

        Class 6: Users require previous experience in the outdoors and a high level of specialised skills such as navigational skills. Users will generally
require a map and navigation equipment to complete the track. Users need to be self-reliant, particularly in regard to emergency first aid and possible weather
hazards.

       http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/CA256F310024B628/0/18B8E585FE923AAACA2572B900143C05/$File/Overview+of+Existing+Walking+Trail+Classificatio
n+Systems.pdf




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Appendix 4     Additional Equipment

Personal equipment

   •   *Strong backpack, suitably sized & adjusted;
   •   Waterproof internal pack liner or heavy duty plastic bag or waterproof pack cover – critical, prevents wet gear;
   •   *2 litres water with at least 1 litre of this in a non-breakable non-bladder (softdrink, water or juice bottles, not weak milk bottles etc);
   •   *Jumper, fleece, or long-sleeved shirt & thermal top, thermal long johns, balaclava;
   •   *Raincoat/anorak/strong poncho/small personal tarp or plastic sheet with suitable ties so can be secured poncho-style, waterproof overtrousers;
   •   Toilet paper in plastic ziplock bag;
   •   *Small torch or Cap lamp ;
   •   *Spare batteries for torch or cap lamp;
   •   Plastic bags - personal rubbish (2);
   •   *Suitable shoes/boots with suitable socks (wear);
   •   *Hat with full brim or Legionnaire’s hat (wear);
   •   *Shirt with collar & at least short-sleeves (wear), preferably long sleeves. Can be same shirt as in item  Sleeveless or collarless not acceptable for
                                                                                                                         .
       walking;
   •   *Strong cotton shorts or trousers (wear);
   •   *Underwear (wear);
   •   *Food for two full days;
   •   Emergency rations (e.g. at least 2 extra muesli bars);
   •   Knife (or pocket knife, see item     );
   •   Spoon;
   •   Plate and bowl or deep plate/bowl;
   •   Mug or cup;
   •   *Sleeping bag in waterproof bag (may be pack liner);
   •   Spare shorts, shirt, underwear, socks;
   •   Toothbrush & toothpaste (small amount);
   •   Soap (preferably biodegradable) (small amount);
   •   Small (hand) towel or chamois;
   •   Camp boots/sandals (optional) [or plastic bags to put over dry socks before putting into wet boots at camp];
   •   Sleeping mat/ bedroll/ therma-rest (optional);
   •   Light garden gloves (for lantana/ vines/ scrub) (optional);
   •   Handkerchief (optional);
   •   Pocket knife (optional);


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    •   Sock covers or gaiters (optional);
    •   Sunglasses (optional);
    •   Spare prescription glasses (optional);
    •   Camera and/or binoculars (optional);
    •   Walking pole(s) (optional);
    •   Pen and notebook;
    •   Electrical cable ties for repairing clothing or equipment;
    •   Money and ID.

Personal first aid kit

    •   *Personal medications (including antihistamines, Ventolin, Epipen etc if required);
    •   Sunscreen (small container);
    •   Insect screen (or combined with sunscreen) not critical;
    •   First aid cream or Betadine (personal use);
    •   Panadol or similar (6) (personal use);
    •   Sharp pointed tweezers (splinters, ticks, etc);
    •   *Sticking plaster (roll) or strapping tape or duct tape, blister pads (blisters etc);
    •   Bandaids (10);
    •   *50 mm conforming bandage (snakes etc);
    •   Scissors (optional if bring personal pocket knife);
    •   Lip balm (optional);
    •   Stingose or similar (optional);
    •   Chaffing cream or powder (optional) (personal use).

Personal survival kit

    •   *Tent/ shelter/ fly/ groundsheet;
    •   *Whistle
    •   *2 pkt matches (in waterproof bag), hexamine tablets, rubber bands, or full gas lighter;
    •   Signalling mirror (old CD or equivalent)
    •   *Space/emergency blanket
    •   3 m strong twine
    •   Needle and thread;



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    •   Spare shoe/bootlaces (if twine in item not suitable).

Group equipment

    •   *“Silva” or equivalent compass (2), GPS;
    •   *Route instructions/navigation sheet in map case or ziplock bag with strap (2 sets);
    •   *Maps in clear, waterproof A4 size map case with neck strap (2 sets);
    •   *Biro/pencil (2);
    •   Highlighter (1) not critical;
    •   100 mm ruler (or longer) or compass edge if graduated in mm;
    •   Two working wrist or fob watches;
    •   Cooking equipment billy/pot(to suit meals) & billy lifters;
    •   Cooking stove and fuel;
    •   Scourer & detergent or safe effective alternative;
    •   Tea towel or paper towel or plate bag or “chux” type rag;
    •   Tin/can/bottle opener (if required for menu);
    •   10m rope;
    •   Trowel (for toilet);
    •   Water purification tablets/liquid or system ;
    •   Playing cards (optional);
    •   Max/min thermometer (optional);
    •   Communications - mobile phone, radio, EPIRB.

Group first aid kit

    •   25 ml saline solution bottles (4);
    •   Disposable gloves (2 pr);
    •   Safety pins (2 large, 2 medium, 2 small);
    •   Elastoplast bandaid strip (300 mm in strips or single length);
    •   *100 mm (2) & 25 mm (1) conforming bandages ;
    •   *Triangular bandage (4);
    •   Antiseptic hand wipes (8) or solution/gel;
    •   *5 non-adhesive sterile dressings (including 1 large);
    •   Small notebook or 4 sheets of A4 paper;



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    •   Biro (2);
    •   Scissors if no sharp pocket knife;
    •   Booklet/notes on first aid treatment (optional);
    •   Mini-resuscitation shield.

Group survival kit

    •   *Copy of emergency procedures, including phone numbers;
    •   Candle (150 mm or 2 x 75 mm);
    •   2 pkt matches (in waterproof bag) or full gas lighter.

NB: * means critical safety item. You should not hike without these. You do not need to take “optional” equipment. It is provided for your information only.
Your carrying limit should be no more than a third of your body weight.




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