studies of the same class of cattle fed for
moderate weight gains on a similar type
of range forage. The average daily gain
of 0.76 pound for the entire 198-day sup-
plemental period is above the prede-
new form of feed supplement for beef termined objective-a result due. in part,
to an aboie-average winter season. The
heifers on protein-deficient dry range cmtrol animals-Group &-ended the
198 days with an average weight almost
K. A. Wagnon, J. H. Meyer, and F. D. Carroll
identical to the average at weaning.
Previous studies have shown that when
cattle are first turned into an ungrazec]
Alfalfa pellets hand-fed to weaner per head daily from July 15 to Septem- field of recently matured dry forage, they
beef heifers at the rate of 1.5 pounds or ber &Period 1. By that time the calves d e c t forage above average in nutritional
more per head per day were as effective had eaten most of the more nutritious values. Therefore, it is not uncommon
in promoting weight gains as were rot- forage in their pastures, so the daily sup- for unsupplemented animals to show
tonceed meal pellets fed at the same rate. plement was increased to 1.5 pounds of small weight gains until the limited sup-
However, when the daily feeding rate was cottonseed meal per head until October ply of good forage is exhausted. In this
only 1.0 pound per head per day, the 4-Period 2. At that time the continuing study, control Group 3 heifers barely
heifers gained more on cottonseed meal loss in quality of the dry forage eon- maintained their weight through the first
pellets than on alfalfa pellets. sumed warranted a further increase in two months, or weighing intervals---
The alfalfa pellets used in this study daily supplements, and on October 4 the Period 1. During the same forage period,
were made from hay produced at Davis. ration was increaped by 0.5 pound rolled iving 1.O pound of cotton-
The alfalfa was cut when slightly past the barley per head. During October 13 and seed pellets per head daily-made 0.31
50% bud stage, sun-cured, than finely 14 about 1.21" of rain fell, terminating ily weight gain than did
ground and pressed into 34'' pellets. the dry forage period and initiating the
~~~~1~~ of alfalfa ~ ~ 1 1
Chemical analysis of these pellets re- germination of a new forage crop. On
vealed a content of 96.2% dry matter. October 16 the daily feeding was in- per head daily. Thus, it appears that the
protein content of the forage was so low
2327 crude protein, and 6.17L lignin. creased to 1.5 pounds each of cottonseed
that the amount of protein in 1.0 pound
The study was conducted at the San pellets and rolled barley per head. Thus,
Joaquin Experimental Range with heif- the interval-Period 3-between the Oc- of alfalfa pellets was inadequate to pro-
ers from the station's grade Hereford tobrr 4 and November S weighings was mote the same weight gains as 1.0 pound
breeding herds. The heifers, uniform in a transition from dry forage to new for- of cottonseed meal pellets. Although the
quality, were weaned July 1-3, 1937. age in limited amount. Thc average dailj rottoneeed pellets have a higher energv
They were maintained in the weaning lot supplement during this third period was value than alfalfa pellets, it seems un-
until July 11, when three groups of 10 1.5 pounds cottonseed pellets and 1.12 likely that this difference contributed
heifers each were sorted out and moved pounds rolled barley. Originally. supple- much toward the weight gains. bccauee
to separate 90-acre range pastures not ments were to be continued for the en- there was ample forage and previous
previously grazed that season. The tire winter period-Period &at the rate work has shown that matured dry for-
weights of the heifers were taken at wean- established on October 16. but the supply age, tvpical of the forage grazed in this
ing time and subsequently at about of rolled barley was exhausted on Janu- experiment, is deficient mainlj- in protein
monthly intervals, after the animals had ary 1, 1958, arid the supplements for the and phoephorus and not in energy.
been confined to corral lots overnight remainder of the period were 3.0 pounds By the start of September, the nutri-
without food and water. Groups 1 and 2 of cottonseed pellets per head daily. The tive value of the forage being consumed
were rotated in their pastures at weigh- average daily supplement for the fourth was inadequate to maintain weight gains,
ings; Group &-the control-- remained in period was 1.79 pounds cottonseed pel- as is evident by the 23-pound average
the same pasture throughout the supplr- lets and 1.21 pounds rolled barley. weight loss of control Group 3 for Sep-
ment period. Group 2 received the 2376 protein al- tember-Period 2. The supplements for
Group I received supplements of 41f;t falfa pellets, fed at the same poundage Group 1 had been increased to 1.5
protein cottonseed meal pellets to pro- rate per head daily as the total daily sup- pounds of cottonseed pellets and for
mote moderate average weight gains of plements for Group 1 heifers. The Group 2 to 1.5 pounds of alfalfa pellets
about two-thirds pound daily for the en- amounts were 1.0 pound of alfalfa pel- per head daily. This supplement feeding
tire supplement period. This involved lets for Period 1 ; 1.5 pounds for Period rate was not adequate to maintain the
feeding 1.0 pound of cottonseed pellets 2 ; 2.0 pounds and later 3.0 pounds- 0.69 pound daily rate of gain made
average 2.62 pounds-for Period 3 ; and Group 1 during the first forage period.
Growth curves of heifers supplemented on the 3.0 pounds for Period 4. but the average daily gain of Group 2
range after weaning: Group I supplemented Group 3 subsisted on the natural for- increased from 0.38 to 0.53 pound. Thus,
with cottonseed pellets and rolled barley; group age without benefit of supplements. the daily rate of gain for the second for-
2 supplemented with alfalfa pellets; and Group
3 unsupplemented controls. During the 198 days of the four ex- age period was almost identical for
perimental periods, the average initial Groups 7 and 2, indicating equal feed
weight per h e i f e r 4 8 9 pounds-was in- value of the two supplements at the 1 5
creased to 639 pounds for Group 1, fed pounds feeding ra:e under September
cottonseed meal with or without barley, forage conditions.
and to 616 pounds for Group 2, fed al- The transition from mature dry forage
falfa pellets. Average weights for Group to leached dry forage and the initiation
3, the control, without supplement. de- of new forage growth from seed germi-
creased to 486 pounds. nation occurred in October-Period 3.
The average weight gains of Group I The rains received in mid-October were
heifers for each of the four periods were much heavier than usual for the initial
comparable to the results of previous Concluded on oppo3ite page
10 C A LI FOR N IA AGRLCULTURE, NOVEMBER, I959
were out of service, it was necessary to
Fowl Tick onTurkeys pry apart the cracks of the troughs in
order to find and count the live ticks.
Ticks were not controlled completely
by any of the after-Christmas treatments.
control by organic phosphates sprayed Direct spray does not reach many of the
ticks in cracks, and for the remaining
ticks to be killed they must crawl over
on wooden feed troughs just before use the residual film of insecticide. Only the
presence of roosting birds stimulates
John L. .
Rodriguez and 1 A. Riehl this activity. While pens were empty and
ticks inactive, the continuous weathering
Proper timing and selection of insecti- aqueous mixture, containing 1.O:l actual by rain, sun, and wind destroyed much of
cides determine the effectiveness of chemical, were mixed and applied by the effectiveness of the insecticides. By
sprays against the fowl tick, Argns persi- power-driven spray equipment. with agi- contrast, the first experiment was suc-
cus (Oken) . tation in the tank and a high-pressure cessful because troughs were used for
This tick, occasionally found on tur- pump operated at 400 pounds per square feeding as soon as the sprays had dried,
keys in southern California, causes un- inch. The spray gun was adjusted to and emerging ticks came into contact
sightly skin blemishes that reduce the furnish a hard-driving stream, directed with a film of effective insecticide.
market price and make an important against the trough at close range to force John L. Rodriguez is Laboratory Technician
difference in profit. Heavy infestations the insecticide mixture into the cracks. i n Entomology, University of Calijornia, River-
may also affect the vitality of the birds. A sufficient volume of material was used side.
Fowl ticks usually hide near the tur- on each trough to allow runoff. Treated I,. A. RiPhl i s Entomol iversity of
key roosts, in joints between pieces of troughs were placed out of reach of the Califnrnia, Riverside.
wood, in cracks or similar places where turkeys and were returned to use as soon The above progregs rep ed on Re-
they are not disturbed. They come out of as they were drv. To minimize ahsorp- FmrCh Project No. 1589.
hiding at night, find the roosting birds. tion of insecticide by the feed, the first
and return to their hiding places after week, only the amount of feed which
feeding. During the first instar- larval would be consumed in a short period was ALFALFA PELLETS
stage-about a week, young ticks stay on placed in the treated troughs.
Continued from opp
the host. Complete control was obtained in one
Tnvestigation of infested flocks on a day with the organo-phosphorus com- fall of rain, and occur
large commercial turkey ranch near Per- pounds Malathion and Diazinon. l h e mean air temperatures had dropped to
ris showed that ticks were hiding in the chlorinated hydrocarbons Chlorobenzi- %There they markedly restricted new for-
cracks of wooden feed tr0ugh.i--8’ long. late and Kelthane reduced the tick popu- age growth. Thus, the
1.5’ wide and 2.5’ deep-set on the lation, but control was not complete. The was off to a better star
ground. Roosts were not provided and upper table gives numbers of live ticks The cattle immediate
the turkeys crowded on the feed troughs found on treated troughs. Ticks were the scant new growth
at night. counted as they emerged to feed. of the old than was
Nine range-type pens of turkeys were When ticks were eliminated, earlier in- the new. With the ch
used in an experiment to test insecticides juries on the turkeys healed and disap- there was also a change in n
for tick control. Each pen had an area of peared in 3-4 weeks. When slaughtered ficiency from protein to total
from 1.0 to 1.5 acres and contained about for market, turkeys from pens where the sulting from a shortage of
800 turkeys. Two separate pens were as- troughs were treated with Malathion and intake. That was why the s
signed at random to each of four treat- Diazinon were free from tick-feeding skin for Groups 1 and 2
ments and one pen was left untreated. blemishes. October 16.
The troughs wcrc treated in Septeni- The same insecticides were tested dur- The winter period of
ber. All feed was removed with special ing the clean-up period after Christmas. Period 4-was more favorable than a
care before spraying. Insecticides in when turkey pens were empty. DiaLinon age in that the usual lower
was used at 0.5(/c actual chemical, Mala- peratures did not prevail i
Mean Numbers of Live licks Found on Feeding thion at L O P , Chlorobenzilate and Kel- and January. Also, whereas
Troughs Sprayed with Insecticides and Returned thane each at 25G. Each treatment was winter period terminates about Febru-
applied to six troughs, with the same ary 1,this one ended January 16 and pos-
Sprar Before Days after treatment thoroughness as before. There was rain sibly could have ended even two weeks
lob ment 1 4 7 11 14 21 on the sixth, eighth, eleventh, and four- earlier. Control Group 3 made average
None . . .. .
13 05 22 07 . 27 .
2 . 1 . 1 . 60 1 . 67 teenth days after spraying, and probably daily gains of about 0.72 pound for the
Chloro- some of the spray residue was washed fourth period. Average daily gains of
benrilate . 2.4 4.
. 09 1 0
. . away. The lower table gives tick counts about 1.34 pounds-almost identical for
Kelthane . 5.0 54
13 23 0 7
. . during the 77 days after spraying, until Groups 1 and 2-are evidence that 3.0
Diarinon . 6.8 0.0 00
00 0.0 0.0 0.0
the pens were put back into service for pounds of alfalfa pellets per head daily
67 0.0 0.0 00
. 0.0 0.0 0.0
a new brood of turkeys. When troughs were as effective as 1.5 pounds each of
cottonseed pellets and rolled barley.
Mean Numbers of l i v e licks Found in Cracks of Sprayed Troughs During €he Out-of-Service Periods K. A. Wagnon is Specialist in Animal Hus-
Before Days after treatment bandry, University of California, Davis.
treat- J . TI. Meyer is Associate Profesror of Animal
ment 7 14 21 35 46 56 77
Husbandry, University of California, Dams.
2% Chlorobenzilate . . . . . . , . . . . 34.0 70
. F. D. Carroll is AJsociate Professor of Animal
2% Kelthane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55.0 1.
58 35.1 11.5 25
. Husbandry, University of California. Davis.
%5% Diarinan . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . 5 . 65 2.
1% Malathion ..... ........... 5.
92 0.8 16
60 8.0 8.0 T h e above progress report i s based on Re-
sparch Prolect No. H-1005.
CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE, NOVEMBER, 1959 11