Module 3 Organization of Risk Management Networks by ieb16176


									 Series: Training and Technical Assistance
 in Risk Management

Module 3:
Organization of Risk Management Networks
Series: Training and Technical Assistance
in Risk Management

Module 3:
Organization of Risk Management Networks

General Coordination:
Joczabet Guerrero

Final Edition and Revision:
Joczabet Guerrero
Javier Magaña

Layout and Design:
Nancy Moscoso de Navas

Quote as:

Module 3: Organization of Risk Management Networks

Series: Training and Technical Assistance in Risk Management

Trifinio Project – GTZ: Sustainable Development in the Upper Lempa River
Basin in the Trifinio Region

Year: 2006

® Rights Reserved
Deutsche Gesellschaft für
Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
Based on the logical sequence of the modular training system, it is expected
that at the beginning of the development of the ORGANIZATION OF RISK
MANAGEGMENT NETWORKS Technical Guide, the thematic contents of
modules 1 and 2 (Basic Concepts and Projection and Evaluation) has already
been assimilated.

In the framework of the consultancy which the “Sustainable Development in
the Upper Lempa River Basin in the Trifinio Region” project carries out in El
Salvador in its second execution phase, one of the additional contributions for
the training process on risk management is the strengthening of risk analysis,
which has been a fairly deeply discussed subject in modules 1 and 2.

After concluding module 3, “Organization of Risk Management Networks”, there
must be a strengthening of the organizational structures which know about
the Local Risk Management approach and start preparing their initiatives or
proposals of projects on the basis of the organizational process.

In a practical manner, the best impact after the current module will be the
strengthening of community, municipal or microregional groups carrying out
local risk management actions, reflected in the concretization of an orderly
planning of their priorities.

Next, in an abbreviated manner, some basic elements to be taken into account
in community organization are shown, the concept and form of work of local
risk management networks and the manner of concretizing a work plan at the
community and/or municipal level with the Risk Management approach.

                CHAPTER I: Organization

1. Background of organization

The organization of work has very remote origins and is part of the natural
division of work which occurred in the primitive community. In that community,
the adult male hunted, gathered fruit and fished, to guarantee the basic needs
of food survival of the population of the tribe. The women, children and elders
carried out lighter work.

Women stayed more time at home, and that allowed them to develop the
capacity of observation. In this context, they visualized what happened to
waste, to seeds and to leftover food.

In those times, women were able to observe that seeds germinated, that
leftovers of grain, seeds, meat or bones attracted certain wild animals, which,
little by little, became domesticated. Based on that observation process, women
took the initiative for planting, and that is how agriculture was born and how
the first agricultural techniques were applied.

Simultaneously, women began domesticating hens, pigs, cows, horses and
dogs. Feeding those animals using leftover food presented better advantages,
since the lives of men were not risked trying to hunt wild animals. The sedentary
life of women allowed them to discover agriculture and livestock farming.

In some tribes, in times of hardship, women maintained the economy of the
population through techniques and work carried out by them, and that is when
an era known as matriarchy arose.

The Social Division of Work, then, goes back to the primitive community, where
the product of work was divided among everyone. Private property did not
exist; everything belonged to everyone as a whole.

However, to the extent that certain tribes specialized in agriculture and others
in livestock farming, the systems of ownership of production began appearing.
Exchange systems with other tribes were getting established, and in this
manner, merchandise is created.

2.       Traditional Attitudes of Organization
All organizational processes have internal and external factors. External factors in some cases
are usually identified as political aspects, corruption and persons that do not contribute to the
organizational process of the community. These external factors have an influence on disintegration
processes and in some cases, in the elimination of organization.

The action of internal and external factors is aimed against the fundamental aspects of organization,
which are the integration of efforts, solidarity and discipline.

The integration of an organization is very important, and the existence of such organization depends
on such integration through the search of alternatives of solution for the problematic situations
which occur in the communities.

The internal factors of an organization are identified through inherited negative attitudes, traditional
production forms, which become apparent undermining integration and discipline efforts. These
attitudes are inherited from traditional systems common of societies in incipient economic
development, based on the concept of individual and family development.

Some traditional attitudes:

     a) Processes of clustering guidance, characterized by provoking prohibitions to the population so
     that they do not reflect outwards. It is the maximum limitation of interpersonal and community
     relationships and links, outwards. It is a form of dangerous guidance, because it prevents human
     development. “It is dictatorial”.

     b) Corruption in the conception of organization refers to the inappropriate management of
     resources of the community or of the municipality.

     In regard to the type of traditional attitudes, we must analyze the different characteristics linked
     to their leaders.

     a) Individualism: individualist persons are those that believe in the individual and always place
     him in a plan above the organization. These persons always distrust organized actions; they act
     alone and don’t like to integrate. An individualist defends his own interests; he doesn’t listen
     to anyone in meetings, he believes that it is only him who has the right to speak at length; he
     doesn’t like that actions be organized. Individual freedom is above the freedom of the other
     organized persons.

     b) Personalism: advocates for personal interests, claims the achievements of an organization for
     himself. Looks for the best and most advantageous for himself. Does not allow that other persons
     have key roles in representation of the organization. A personalistic person seeks to have more
     prestige, more advantages than others with the objective of having more pleasures or material
     goods. His decisions are more important than those of the organization, he is prodigal and
     acts as if he was the owner of everything, borrows the goods and services of the organization.
     He surrounds himself of opportunists which cover his back, whom to share leftover crumbs
     with. The personalistic person centralizes tasks, does not distribute them among his partners.
     Does not create mew leaders because he does not allow that others have access to power and
     responsibilities. When he disappears, the organization is left acephalous. He has the capacity
     of dividing the organization in negative groups if he feels threatened by the strengthening of
     organizational actions.

c) Spontaneism: the spontaneistic person is reluctant to plan work or actions, doesn’t
   act according to a work plan either. Prefers to do things which are pleasant or more
   convenient and carries them out whenever he considers it appropriate. Nothing is
   planned; he lives the immediate moment, according to his personal interests, because if
   he would submit to a plan, he would not be able to do personal things. He doesn’t have schedules,
   establishes imprecise dates, undefined, which allows him to take care of personal matters before
   those of the organization.

d) Anarchism: an anarchist is reactionary to the organization of things or actions, does not control
   nor keep track of resources. He is disorganized, leads the organization as if it was a store. Repels
   any type of organization because that does not allow him to solve personal problems.

e) Immobilism: this is a person who does not propose, participate, assume responsibilities, nor make
    any criticism, constructive or destructive. In short, he doesn’t do anything for the benefit of the
    organization. For him, everything is fine; there is no need for making changes or for growth of
    any sort. In this manner, he protects the time that he uses for personal matters. He is usually in
    agreement with decisions which do not imply more work time in the organization.

f ) Comfortism: This is an opportunistic person who tries to adapt in such a way as to fit in any
    limited situation. He is a shy person, always in agreement with persons who can benefit him;
    personal interests can be found behind that shyness. He avoids opportunities when he has the
    duty to defend the interests of the organization.

  The comfortist never solves his problems through the channels of the organization, but through
  the personalistic. Does not criticize mistakes so that nobody criticizes him, adapts to the

g) Sectarianism or radicalism: is that person that feels tortured by the apparent slowness with which
   the conditions necessary for the carrying out of fundamental or decisive actions of the organization
   mature. For a sectarian or radicalist, things must be carried out immediately, without taking into
   account if appropriate conditions for them exist or not. Sectarians plan changes
   to benefit themselves, and not to benefit the new generations. When a sectarian
   achieves the personal benefit of his personal interests, it is probable that he turns
   against the organization.

h) Liquidationism: a liquidationist seeks to liquidate or suppress any action
   which might affect his personal interests. A surreptitious or subtle manner
   of liquidationist is the use systematic criticism at all levels. In this type,
   competition is provoked without healthy morals to offer, and full of falsehood,
   everything to protect personal interests.

i) Assistentialism: this is a behavior which has degraded the population. It
   generates personalistic competition and causes social insecurity and prevents
   firmness of values. It breaks with a dignified and dignifying cultural vision. It
   provokes irresponsible and destructive comments. It takes knowledge away
   from persons working with a service spirit. Assistentialism provokes the
   imposition of personalism, authoritarism and paternalism. Many organizations
   and institutions usually promote this characteristic among communities.

j) Paternalism: is a vision which has the population subdued, to manipulate them with
   political or electionary interests and to guarantee false leaderships; it generates acting
   with “ideological falsehood”.

k) Authoritarism: it is when a person makes use of the “assigned” political-legal representation
   to maintain a system of domination over communities and persons, arguing a rectilinear,
   verticalist system which will determine ill-fated destinies for a social conglomerate.

l) Adventurism: this is a subjectivist who never checks the reality where actions will be carried
   out, nor does he measure the consequences or results of actions. The adventurist thinks and
   acts within an idealist framework. He does not plan based on reality, but based on what
   he thinks or imagines feasible. The adventurist operates alone and breaks the unity of the
   organization, when he finds resistance in the members of the organization; he takes them
   through adventures of unforeseeable consequences.

m) Self-sufficiency: has its origin in the subjectivism of the individual with a great dose of
   traditional ideology. The self-sufficient individual has an answer for everyone, does not ignore
   anything, does not inquire about anything, nor does he demand explanations for anything;
   he never questions anything. It is more present in countries where the economy is based
   in small traditional enterprises. Does not work with the precision of data, operates based
   on subjectivity. Self-sufficient leaders overestimate and underestimate reality and operate
   based on reality. Because of self-sufficient operation, several organizations face continuous
   failure and gradually, organizations break up.

3. Basic fundamentals of Organization
What does organizing means?

Historically, man has had to organize to face the most diverse tasks and situations. Primitive men
organized for hunting, later, they did so to cultivate the land. Ancient men organized to build a
temple, and modern men and women, to produce the different goods in the first industries.

Currently, there is a countless number of organizations of the most diverse kind: sports, trade,
religious, political, community, scientific, cultural, etc. Although all types of organizations
mentioned are different, what they have in common is that each one has defined its objectives
and carries out actions towards the achievement of those objectives.

Organizing, then, means the communities getting together and integrating, between people,
the municipalities, between cooperatives, with state institutions, with other persons to carry out
collective action with the purpose of achieving transforming actions by joining efforts.

At the local and municipal level, there are different figures at the community level to represent
and shape an organization; in the case of El Salvador, there are ADESCOS, Asociaciones de
Desarollo Comunal (Community Development Associations), which count on the support of the
Municipal Offices where they belong; in the same manner, there are different committees or
associations of men and women in the communities which advance towards a common goal,
many times without the official recognition that an ADESCO might obtain; in short, the key is
that there is people that share common interests and that for that reason they get together to
carry out the work.

                  Organizing is uniting
                   and integrating into

4. Basic principles of Organization
It is the set of ideas which guides the operation of an organization.
The principles which must lead an organization, in order for it to be strong, efficient and effective

              a.   Uniting and integrating (team
              b.   Subordination of individual interest
                   to community interest
              c.   Participation with responsibility
                   and discipline
              d.   Solidarity
              e.   Coordination
              f.   Division of work
              g.   Responsibility
              h.   Discipline
              i.   Order
              j.   Equity with economic, ecological,
                   environmental and cultural results,
                   fair and necessary for community
                   human development.
              k.   Initiative
              l.   Stability

5. Purpose of Organization
A first constituent element of organization is its purpose. Any model of organization
is identified as an attempt of responding to local needs, more or less identified and

Any organization pursues specific results, which imply the satisfaction of predetermined,
explicit and realistic objectives, in their qualitative and quantitative dimensions.

When an organization is created, it is based on the assumption that there is a need
which originates it, a social and environmental need – in permanent change – which
will determine and condition the fundamental objective of the organization itself, and
based on that, its structure and operation.

The organization is born then as a set of resources and efforts which will integrate
adequately, with a fundamental, precise and clear intention.

Knowing how it is responding to the expectations of the population is very useful for an
organization, since allows it to evaluate the legitimacy of its services. Both needs and
expectations, and the possibilities of satisfying them, change; and the organization must
maintain updated knowledge of it in order to better adapt, that is, that the organization
in order to remain in force and current, must always study and train.

In short, each organization needs to define its objectives, and these must be, above all,
what clarifies and guides its action, solving the needs of its environment (community
and society) in an adequate manner.

6. Determinant Factors in the Operation of an Organization
In general, whatever the type of organization, there are two determinant factors for its
efficiency and effectiveness, linked to management work, which are:

a) Analysis: corresponds to the critical evaluation of facts, phenomena or activities
   which are generated in the organization process. Those elements should be located,
   determining the causes or reasons for certain situations to occur, in such a way that
   probable consequences can be recognized by following action lines on the part of
   the organization.

Analysis is one of the aspects which allow for guiding and reorienting organization
  actions through different instances and the definition of policies assumed by the
  organization itself. Analysis includes the inventory of needs and problem faced by the
  organization as a whole, as well as the magnitude of resources with which it counts;
  that is, it must be integral and integrating.

b) Planning: once the analysis of a determined situation and of the possibilities of
   action is available, it is essential to prepare work alternatives which are feasible
   to carry out. That is, it becomes necessary to establish priorities and to structure
   actions in a hierarchical manner, establishing priority criteria for facts considered as

We already know that planning is thinking now what will be done later. This means
  programming activities across time, clearly defining what will be done, why it will be
  done, and when. How and with what resources. This helps avoid “activism” which is,
  precisely, carrying out one activity after the other without any coherence between
  them, and without knowing where these are aiming.

Planning tries to combine all human and material resources linked to the organization,
   so that these can be used rationally, in such a way that the objectives established
   by the organization can be achieved with the responsible participation of all its

c) Distribution: according to what has been planned, the tasks which are allocated to
   work commissions, sub-commissions or individuals are distributed, for which the
   time available for such tasks must be specified. It implies a series of actions destined
   to prepare the resources which must be used in order to execute what has been

d) Evaluation: implies that there is a permanent need of watching over the compliance
   with tasks in the time periods established by planning. Evaluating means checking
   the operation of the organization and observing its advances towards the objectives
   which have been established.

   Evaluation is directly linked to control, which satisfies the role of permanent vigilance,
   and acquires the responsibility of generating corrective actions whenever the tasks
   do not lead towards the planned results. That is, control delivers elements to make a
   permanent evaluation of the process which the organization lives through.

   To make control effective, it is required that an excellent fluid and adequate information
   system be created within the organization.
Organizational Environment
The organization is not only formed by the relationship with its external environment, by
its structure and operation, but also, and mainly, it is formed by persons which have and
transfer to it, their motivations.

A person contributes to the organization, besides his skills and knowledge, preconceived
ideas about himself: who he is, what he deserves, and what he is able to carry out. All this
reacts with the different factors related to the organization, such as the management
style, the position that he will occupy in its operation, and the reaction of other persons
surrounding him. All this is called Organizational Environment, which constitutes the link
between the objective aspects of the organization and the behavior of the members within

Organizational environment is the quality or property of the internal environment of
the organization which is perceived and experienced by its members, and which has an
influence on the change and improvement of its behavior; specially if there is constant
educational and training nourishment with all those internal aspects (objectives, structure,
coordination, operations, tasks, resources, etc.) which lead to the stimulation of different
types of motivation.

For that, it is necessary that objectives be clear, precise, concrete, and reachable, besides
being transmitted and adopted by all members of the organization. On the other hand,
it has been discovered that objectives can be more efficiently achieved if the task is split
among everyone. Ideally, the division of work will be made on the basis of social sensitivity,
the concrete capacity and skill of the persons, but it does not always have to be like this,
since anybody can be formed and trained for different activities.

The idea of division of work is clearly linked to the differentiation of functions demanded
by the organization.

The individual person acquires
a sense and possibilities of self-
achievement only in a context of
organized work; directly or indirectly,
he benefits from an extensive variety
of community rewards in exchange
for his own contribution. Any human
action is only understandable to the
extent that it is possible to locate it
in relation to a community context,
through an organization system.

7. Organizational Methods
An organizational method is considered as all forms of work that we use in an organization

a) Knowing the needs of the organization
b) Planning actions to be carried out
c) Deciding which orientation these actions will have
d) Evaluating results
e) Systematizing the experience lived

Organizational methods are diverse, according to the different circumstances, contexts,
historic moments and type of organization. Some of these organizational methods are:

a) Encounters between organizations and communities to collectivize their reality or

b) Diagnosis workshops for the obtaining of knowledge of the reality to affect, of planning,
of training, of historic-cultural recovery, of evaluation, of the environment

c) Assemblies preceded by previous work on the part of those that will be guiding
them, and on the part of those
participating in them

d) Sessions for the
autosystematization of
experiences, considered as
objective reflection about the
organizational and educational
process carried out

e) Direct contact with the
communities and groups
organized through visits, exchange
meetings, conversation meetings,
participation in social and
recreational activities, family visits,
follow-up of agreements adopted.

Local Risk Management (LRM) Networks
Social Networks

A social network can be conceived as a “multicentric, open system, which through a dynamic
exchange between the members of a group (family, work team, neighborhood, organization,
such as the school, the hospital, others) and with other collective members, enables the
promotion of the resources that they own and the creation of novel alternatives for the solution
of problems and the satisfaction of needs. Each member of the collective benefits through the
multiple relationships that each one of them develops, optimizing the learning, by these being
socially shared” (Elina Dabas).

Social networks existed long before the 1980s, but as the experiences have developed, an
important qualitative change has been occurring up to now; this change refers to the change
of networks with strictly formal structures by to the formation of functional groups defined
according to specific needs, managed by agreements for these purposes, where institutions and
persons with technical skills participate, united by the figure of a “weaver”, that is, one or more
key persons which ensure abidance by the rules of the game and exert operational leadership.

What is a local risk management network?
A Local Risk Management Network can be thought of then as a multisectoral and integrated work
group where the municipal office must have an important role which allows that the conceptual
approach gets approved and integrated into the planning of local development.

The Local Risk Management Network is integrated mainly by representatives of the communities,
representatives of government institutions, nongovernmental organizations and representatives
of service institutions, representatives of local companies, churches of different denominations
at the local level, and second-degree organizations. The municipal office can carry out individual
efforts to implement actions of local risk management but can only have limited success; to
achieve a major impact, we must assume the responsibility for local development from a
perspective of ample participation and of quality.

The formation of networks can in many cases be limited or favored by geographic, thematic and
political aspects; however, certain examples of the Trifinio region in El Salvador can be taken up

- The Local Risk Management Network of the San Ignacio-Citalá-La Palma microregion in the
  department of Chalatenango, represented by a microregional structure known as Local Risk
  Management (LRM) Table.
- The Bi-Municipal Management Group of Local Risk Management in the San Antonio Pajonal
  and Santiago de la Frontera microregion, in the department of Santa Ana.
- The municipal groups or commissions for Local Risk Management of the municipalities of
  Masahuat and Santa Rosa Guachipilín (directly linked to the Local Development Committees),
  department of Santa Ana.
- The Civil Protection Group of the municipality of Metapán in Santa Ana.

Functions of the Local Risk Management Network
The specific functions of the Network are the following:

- Contributing the interests and knowledge of the population about risk situations at
  the different levels.
- Assuming joint responsibilities in the proposal for the local development process
  with a perspective of short, medium and long term
- Acting as multiplying agents, increasing the awareness of the population about the
  need and possibilities of risk management
- Motivating the participation of different actors
- Improving the effectiveness of local risk management processes
- Ensuring the unselfish commitment of the members
- Discussion to guarantee the holistic conceptual approach
- Promoting freedom of action through the implementation of measures of risk
  management adapted at the local sectoral level
- Integration of other interested parties in the process although they are not directly
  linked to risk management

Ample participation of the widest range of local organizations and institutions in the
region is relevant because it promotes the agility of the information about national
sectoral strategies of risk management that are applied at the local level, and allows
that a process of influence be generated over national sectoral strategies of risk

Strategy of the Local Risk Management Network
The network implementation process varies according to local and national characteristics
which are differentiated and changing. Therefore, a strategy is defined based on practical
experiences, consisting of the following phases:

     -     Identification of the important actors and organizations of the local structure
     -     Sensitization and training
     -     Participative planning
     -     Integration into the national risk management system *
     -     Application of planned measures
     -     Process monitoring

*/ The recently approved Civil Protection and Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Law in El Salvador constitutes
an opportunity to count on support for local risk management groups or networks that for some time have
developed important work in organizing the population with a vision not focalized in attention to disasters,
but in risk management with a prospective vision of it.

How does the local risk management network operate?
Formally, the Network is formed by:

 *       General Assembly, integrated by the referents of the communities and institutional
         representatives and organizations that form it. It is the highest authority.

         Coordination structures:

         1. Microregional: is the set of representatives from the microregion of municipalities,
            with institutional and community actors…examples and presentation

         2. Municipal: is the Group of LRM formed by community and institutional actors and
            is supported by the Mayor…municipal agreements

 *       Community networks: is the convergence instance of the committees of the different
         communities of the same municipality. It is formed by one or two referents of each one
         of the communities forming it.

 *       Community committees: are the groups of persons which are organized in the
         community to carry out actions of local risk management.

 *       Municipal referents: are elected by the assembly of community networks of each
         municipality. They represent the communities in the municipal coordination space.

  * Community referents: are those leading community committees and are elected
    in the community assembly.

Note: “Most of the efforts at the community level have an intimate relationship with the work process
of ADESCOS, for which the work in local risk management becomes a quality contribution for the role
of these community associations”.

As the organization process of the Local Risk Management Network advances, a
technical support team for the risk management processes must be formed from the
microregional, municipal and community level. This technical group must operate in
a professional manner; work is divided into organizational areas, management areas
and national and international relationships, as well as in aspects of methodological
and technical character such as training systems.

Exercise to guarantee the practice of organization
One of the forms of knowing if an organizational process is effective is the extent to which the
activities carried out count on work logic focused on the achievement of concrete products
with impacts expected since its planning phase.

In this sense, a proposal of how to structure a work plan for local risk management is
submitted next, which is a guide subject to the addition of those elements which allow for a
better achievement of successful intervention actions.

1. PREPARATION OF THE WORK PLAN (Local Risk Management Plan at the municipal and/or
community level).

                                      WORK PLAN
                   - General characteristics of the municipality or

                   - Location of cantons and communities of the
                     municipality (Geo-referenced map, canton location and
                     main settlements or communities)

                   - Risk mapping (threats, vulnerabilities and risks;
                     proposals for prevention, mitigation and preparation).

                   - Resource map of the municipality

                   - Members of the local risk management group of the

                   - Preparation actions for the response

                   - Basic institutional functions

                   - Operational plan

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Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
– German Technical Cooperation –

Regina Bauerochse-Barbosa

Agencia de la GTZ en El Salvador
Avenida La Capilla # 254
Col. San Benito, San Salvador,
El Salvador, Centroamérica
Tel: (+503) 2243-7734, 35 y 36
Fax: (+503) 2243-0410

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