THE UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES FORUM VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 2006 JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2006 Marine Scientists Embark on Global Project to Save Coral Reefs Alico r Panao cor Alico Panao D r. Edgardo Gomez is not your typical doctor. The clinic he runs has no walls, no beds, and no white-robed staff. For a roof, it has the clear blue sky. The world-renowned marine scientist co-chairs the coral reef Restoration and Remediation Working Group (RRWG), one of the six working groups of the His patients are fragile underwater animals that cannot move. His fellow doctors Coral Reef Targeted Research and Capacity Building Management Project conduct checkups underwater with scuba tanks strapped to their backs. His (CRTR&CBM), which aims to accelerate and refine a global response to the nursing staff is made up of researchers, local government officials, and crises faced by coral reefs worldwide. The project is a high priority global initiative community leaders involved in management efforts to address the effects of under the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), an independent financial human activities and climate change on what is referred to as the ocean’s organization that provides grants to developing countries for projects that benefit rainforests. GLOBAL, p.2 2 FORUM January-February 2006 MARINE, from p. 1 the global environment and promote Remediation, Remote Sensing and sustainable livelihoods in local Modelling and Decision Support Tools. communities. It is funded by, among Faculty members of the UPMSI are others, the World Bank and the involved in several CRTR&CBM Australian government, and involves working groups and conduct local about eighty of the world’s leading research under the project. experts from at least fifty institutions. “The CRTR&CBM aims to do Gomez also coordinates the several things—build capacity, finance CRTR&CBM’s Philippines/Southeast scholarships and training, and improve Asia Center of Excellence (CoE), the the infrastructure of the CoEs—so that University of the Philippines Marine its scientists can do research that Science Institute. UPMSI was selected addresses local coral reef-related together with three other international problems, provide training, and, CoEs in key coral regions of the eventually, help other working groups world—the University of Queensland in their research,” Dr. Gomez explains. Heron Island Research Station for Ultimately, the goal is to come up with Australasia, the Instituto de Ciencias new knowledge, tools, and techniques del Mar y Limnología of the to help managers of coral reefs, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de especially in developing countries. México for the Western Carribean, and “Armed with this knowledge and these the University of Dar Es Salaam tools and techniques, local government Institute of Marine Science in Tanzania officials and planning officers can then knowledge regarding such ecosystems carbonate exoskeleton (corallite) which for Eastern Africa—to serve as focal come up with informed decisions in the at the level of the local stakeholders. protects the soft, sack-like body inside. points of exchanges among the day to day management of their reef “For instance, how many are aware of Over thousands of years, these animals CRTR&CBM scientists. Each of the areas,” he adds. the simple fact that corals are animals, form reefs on top of the cemented six CRTR&CBM working groups will Addressing information gaps not plants or non-living things, like exoskeletons of their ancestors and dead conduct core elements of their The CRTR&CBM project does not rocks?” Gomez’s executive assistant, family or community members. Coral investigations in at least two of the four simply aim to increase the level of Rene Abesamis, asks. “How many reefs are confined to the tropical and regional nodes during the first five years knowledge among scientists about people actually know that climatic subtropical regions of the planet and of the project. The working groups coral reef ecosystems, from how they occurrences, like the El Niño, can have mostly in depths that span less than focus their investigations on the respond to pressures from human dramatic effects on the coral reef twenty-five meters. In other words, they following themes: Coral Bleaching and stress and climate change, to what ecosystem?” occupy only a tiny portion of the ocean’s Local Ecological Effects, Connectivity interventions may help strengthen their Reef-building corals are colonies of surface. But they are the world’s richest and Large-Scale Ecological Processes, resilience. More importantly, it hopes tiny individual animals called ‘polyp.’ repository of marine biodiversity and Coral Disease, Restoration and to address the severe lack of Each polyp secretes a calcium harbor many other animals, such as fishes. Millions of people and thousands of communities all over the world literally depend on coral reefs for food, protection, and livelihood. In the Philippines, where an estimated ten to fifteen percent of the total fish yield comes from coral reefs, these ecosystems are threatened by extinction. “Many coral reefs are in really bad shape, primarily because of reckless coastal land use, pollution, siltation due to deforestation, and increasing numbers of fishermen, many of whom have already resorted to destructive fishing methods,” Abesamis laments. A 2004 Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network study, Status of Coral Reefs of the World, found that Philippine reefs are experiencing a steady decline in coral cover of three to five percent annually. According to the study, this trend of degradation is confirmed by the rapid increase in the range of reefs classified in the ‘poor’ category, from a third in the 1980s to nearly half two decades later. FORUM January-February 2006 3 “Some reefs are already gone and people who destroy the reefs out of the nets. While the practice is less Incidentally, newer global threats will never come back. Some reefs are desperation,” says Gomez. The damaging to reefs, its efficiency is to coral reefs such as bleaching are dying,” says Gomez. “The best that we growing demand for fish, not only as a currently raising concerns about rapidly increasing in frequency and can do now is slow down the basic food supply but also as a overfishing. Studies by the UPMSI severity, accelerated by direct human degradation in the near future until we collectible for home aquaria and as suggest that pa-aling is depleting fish disturbances. can solve or stabilize it.” exotic offerings by high-end stocks, resulting in a decreasing trend in Marine protected areas Reef restoration projects involve restaurants, has taken a heavy toll on catch-per-unit in many areas, including Gomez, however, is not suggesting transplanting living corals to dead or the country’s reef system. offshore reefs. that people should stop fishing. “What dying reefs, sometimes also restocking Destructive fishing methods, Reefs have also suffered from; I am saying is that they should fish them with giant clams. Local ranging from the use of explosives to coral mining (with the country supplying sustainably.” communities are taught the process of cyanide, are destroying vast areas of a third of an estimated 1.5 million While there have been many good restoration and educated in the care of reef. Fishermen blast reefs with kilograms of coral harvested annually as initiatives and practices in coral reef these creatures. dynamite to kill fish, which float to the part of the international trade in reef management in the Philippines, efforts A mistake people make in the effort surface and can easily be scooped up products in the past); increasing siltation have not been maximized due to poor to rehabilitate the reefs is the transfer in large quantities. What they fail to as a result of inland deforestation and management and the lack of a unifying realize is that these blasted reefs yield of corals to an area they want the destruction of mangroves; from vision and framework. For Gomez, this only 2.7 to 5 metric tons per square repopulated at the expense of the area industrial pollution; and from nutrient is where governance should come in. kilometer per year compared to 30 from which these were extracted. pollution contributed by sewage, “We have plenty of programs for people metric tons for healthy reefs, according They go about extracting corals or coral fertilizers, and urban runoff. who live close to coral reefs and use to an August 2002 People and Planet portions not knowing they are actually Recently, according to Gomez, new them. We have conservation mandates. article by Henrylito Tacio. After a killing the reef in the process. The blast, algae growth quickly smothers and emerging threats to coral reefs have What we need now is for local CRTR&CBM hopes to eliminate this the coral because the shoals of grazing caught the attention of scientists. An government officials to initiate problem. “We are looking into several methods, like cropping in which healthy coral branches are used. We are currently trying to determine the ideal size for transplanting so that we can do it without killing the donor corals and maximize the survivorship of the transplanted ones,” says Gomez. Although the despicable conditions of Philippine reefs may easily leave one disheartened, Gomez chooses to focus on the great strides that have been made to restore these natural resources. He takes pride in the fact that the CRTR&CBM project is addressing issues that had not been tackled until recently. As an example, he mentions disease-related damage of coral reefs, which has been well-documented in the Caribbean, but has only begun to be observed in other regions of the world, such as the Philippines. Some experts believe that stress caused by human activities, pollution, and environmental perturbations have pushed corals to the breaking point, making them unable to fend off diseases which they used to fight off in the past. Gomez also calls attention to the efforts of the CRTR&CBM Modeling and Decision Support Working fish that would normally keep it under example is bleaching, which is caused community-based management Group to educate decision makers and control have been decimated. by changes in the earth’s climate. strategies to tie these acts together.” reef users in the biophysical and socio- Fishermen also stun fish by squirting Unlike most animals, corals, which He believes that the coral reef economic aspects of the coral reef water mixed with sodium cyanide into feed on microscopic zooplankton that crisis can be addressed through the ecosystem, by coming out with reef areas where the fish seek refuge. swim in the water, are also capable of creation of marine protected areas predictive models, maps and simulations. Some even rip the corals apart with tools producing their own food. Their living (MPAs), a concept which is already at Fortunately, technology is such as crowbars to capture the tissue contains symbiotic algae, the heart of marine management issues facilitating and speeding up the process disoriented fish. The lingering cyanide in microscopic single-celled organisms in developing countries. The idea here of rehabilitation. “Computers did not called zooxanthellae, which are like “is simply to reduce this pressure of even exist when we were doing the the water also kills coral and the algae degradation until you get to that level coral surveys in the 70s and 80s. on which the fish feed. little plants growing inside their skin. It where the reefs can sustain a certain Molecular genetic tools, DNA analysis Although muro-ami—an extremely is these same algae which give the level of damage and are able to and other methods used to demonstrate damaging technique involving hundreds corals their calendar-photo colors. recover.” The approach holds true for linkages among marine populations did of swimmers repeatedly banging metal If corals are stressed from high practically all damaged ecosystems. not exist then. They are entirely new,” or stone weights attached to scarelines water temperature and bright light or The trick is to preserve the MPA he notes. on corals to drive fish out into a waiting for any other reason, what breaks down as a breeding ground for species. Thus, Man-made mayhem net—was outlawed in 1986, its is this symbiotic association with the even though some fish may be caught Destructive human activities alternative, pa-aling, has recently food-producing algae. Unfortunately, in non-protected areas, others will have remain the largest contributor to reef been found to be as ecologically unlike most animals, corals cannot run a chance of surviving and reproducing degradation in the Philippines. “A lot devastating. Pa-aling fishing involves away from stress. Instead, they within the MPA to seed other areas. of our coastal villagers depend on the divers using hoses attached to a become what scientists refer to as For mobile organisms that are site- reefs for their livelihood. The paradox surface air compressor to form a virtual bleached—they literally turn chalk white based, such as coral reef fishes, MPAs is that they are also often the very bubble curtain which forces fish out into and starve to death. MARINE, p. 4 4 FORUM January-February 2006 MARINE, from p.3 the day-to-day managers in the use the community prospered with fish scientists in the synthesis panel so that of marine resources in these areas. yields improving considerably despite research by working groups could be work to protect them in their home This becomes problematic in the the reduced fishing area. tailored to real world needs. Annual range. When reef fishes reproduce, absence of strong government The role of marine scientists interactions with managers and they release their eggs and sperm in support and enabling local legislation stakeholders are planned. Other Greater effectiveness can be the water. The fertilized eggs that to make protective management workshops and trainings are slated for achieved by complementing the efforts eventually develop into larvae are then actions binding. technical people to interact with or to of NGOs and local government units carried away by currents. With According to the Summary Field train other scientists and students from with technical inputs from members of oceanographic conditions varying Report of the Coral Reef Monitoring different parts of the country. These the academe and research institutions. from place to place, there is no fixed Surveys conducted by the and other channels are expected to This is one of the rationales behind the size for an MPA. However, it should Department of Environment and provide a venue for exchanging CRTR&CBM project, according to be large enough to achieve the Natural Resources’ Coastal information between scientists, cause- Gomez. He believes that improved objective of sustaining the fish stock. Resource Management Project and oriented groups and local government participation and informed decisions Marine ecologists consider the the Coastal Conservation and officials. can only take place if research findings establishment of MPAs one of the Education Foundation in 2002, MPAs “For now, it is just Bolinao. But are effectively communicated to key most promising strategies for are either too small to be very eventually we will do the whole stakeholders. biodiversity conservation and fisheries effective or in grave need of proper country, and then the whole of But as a research initiative, of manage-ment. Also known as marine routines of monitoring and Southeast Asia,” says Gomez. “If you course, the project in the meantime will reserves, these are areas within a surveillance to stem entry of fishers. noticed we started with middle level involve mainly the scientists. One of coastal zone where resource Most marine reserves need to managers. But eventually we will get the challenges is to come up with a extraction is banned. An MPA may improve their visitor management and to the mayors.” mechanism for methodologies and be a part of a single or a combination to start collecting user fees from But Gomez feels it is no longer interventions, if and when they are of any of the major coastal scuba divers and others to finance the task of the UP marine scientists needed, and on the level at which they ecosystems—coral reefs, mangroves, long term protection, the report to address the other dimensions of the are needed. Additionally, research seagrasses, soft-bottom communities. suggested. problem. should be able to address policy issues Resource utilization within and But there are some success “I cannot spend my time talking and fill the gaps in legislation. adjacent to these areas is strictly stories. Apo Island in Negros Oriental to these coral fishermen because I “Although this was not the managed; hence, resources are is one of the earliest community- should be doing my coral restoration original intent of the CRTR&CBM, protected. based marine reserves and a research to determine which species there was a lot of pressure from the In developed countries, this is textbook example of a successful reef can be transferred, how fast they grow, GEF Council to do exactly that—to usually accomplished by assigning the management approach. Reef relate, not later but sooner, all the where to put them and in what task of guarding a particular marine protection began informally when research to management,” Gomez combination, and eventually come up area to the coastal police. The Silliman University initiated the says. with solid scientific input to government typically allocates Marine Conservation and Last year, a consultation with management.” He feels that social subsidies to fishermen to compensate Development Program in 1982. A few municipal agricultural officers and local scientists also need to be involved in them for the reduced catch. In the years later, the island community and planning officers in Bolinao, the process and share the burden with Philippines, on the other hand, this is the local council formally agreed to Pangasinan, was conducted to the natural scientists. mostly accomplished with local manage the entire fringing coral reef jumpstart the CRTR&CBM project. “As scientists, we can only do so government or NGO support. But of the island and establish a smaller The observations gathered from the much. The rest is for the other being direct-users, fishermen become ‘no take’ fish sanctuary. Eventually, meeting were then reported to the stakeholders to accomplish.” FORUM January-February 2006 5 A look at Going Alternative: some alternative fuels by: Celeste Ll aneta aneta Llanet T he news of an energy crisis has been touted so often in the media that Moreover, while the specter of an ultimately limited supply hangs over fossil In 2004, President Arroyo signed Memorandum Circular No. 55, covering 100 km per fuel blend, as well as emissions in terms of smoke it has practically lost its edge. As the fuels, biodiesel comes from a renewable mandating all government capacity. “With these small percentages New Year ushered in another surge in source—plant or animal oil. Most car departments, bureaus and offices to of biodiesel, emissions were reduced world oil prices, from a previous high engines today can run well on a blend add a one percent blend of coco compared to straight diesel,” Quiros of 59.1 dollars per barrel in September of biodiesel and petrol-based diesel. biodiesel to their diesel requirements. reports, citing a ten to fifteen percent 1, 2005 to a record high of 69.20 dollars Biodiesel, which includes coco Coco biodiesel, or Coconut Methyl reduction in emission. “As for fuel in January of 2006, the news was diesel, ethanol, and methanol, comes Ester (CME), which is derived from economy, there was not much of a received by an exhausted public under the heading ‘biomass,’ which coconut oil, has been endorsed by the difference between it and straight accustomed to the fact of a perennial simply means fuel sourced from DoE as offering “excellent lubricity, diesel. So it seems if you’re going to energy crisis. Unfortunately, biological materials. The use of solvency and detergency.” Moreover, use biodiesel as a fuel additive to straight resignation and indifference do not biomass, one source of alternative coco-biodiesel can be used in any diesel, the main benefit would be diminish the gravity of the problem, and energy, is far more widespread than diesel engine with little or no reduction in smoke emissions.” the rising cost of fuel is a harsh reality one would think. Statistics presented modification to the engine or fuel It wouldn’t represent a reduction that needs to be faced. in expense, though. One reason why The government has proposed an MC No. 55 has not exactly drummed intervention program aimed at cutting up enthusiastic compliance is the back on power and oil consumption and relatively high cost of the raw material. developing alternative and renewable “A liter of coconut oil is about forty “A liter of coconut oil is about forty energy resources. The past years have pesos... It is simply not cost effective for pesos,” Quiros explains. “If you’re seen the emergence of some choices going to blend it with diesel, it will boost government vehicles to use coco of alternative fuel, and words like up the cost of fuel.” biodiesel, bio-ethanol, coco biodiesel, biodiesel at the moment. It is simply not cost effective for and biogas are slowly creeping into government vehicles to use coco common usage. These alternatives biodiesel at the moment. may very well pave the way out of a Dr. Karl N. Vergel, associate seemingly insurmountable problem. professor of the UP Diliman Vegetarian fuel by Teresita M. Borra, director of the system. Department of Civil Engineering and Biodiesel, as defined in the Iowa Energy Utilization Management Bureau A team from the UP Diliman head of the Transportation and the State University Office of of the Department of Energy during Department of Mechanical Environment Group of the National Biorenewables Program website, is any last year’s Klima Clean Transport Engineering has been doing test Center for Transportation Studies, biodegradable fuel “produced through a Forum and Workshop, show that while productions of coco-biodiesel through narrows it down to an issue of supply. process in which organically derived oils a good thirty-nine percent of our a process formulated by a Japanese Even a one percent blend would put too are combined with alcohol to form ethyl country’s energy supply comes from oil, company, which also provided the much pressure on the supply of or methyl ester.” In contrast to petrol- energy from alternative sources, equipment. The group, headed by Dr. coconuts. After all, coconuts are the based fuel, whose adverse impact on primarily biomass and some solar and Edwin M. Quiros, associate professor main ingredient in a whole range of the environment is well known, biodiesel wind power, account for close to thirty- of the department, used different other products, including food, cooking is a natural hydrocarbon with very little one percent. blends of coco biodiesel and petrol- oil, and the very popular virgin coconut sulfur content, which when blended with Not-so-virgin coconut oil based diesel, ranging from one to five oil. “The bulk of our coconut oil is petrol-based fuel even in little amounts, Coco biodiesel has received a percent coco biodiesel. They recorded data on fuel economy on a road test ALTERNATIVE, p.15 translates to less toxic emissions. definite go-signal from the government. 6 FORUM January-February 2006 Caesar A. Saloma, PhD Vincent V. Hilomen, PhD Marita V.T. Reyes, MD Enrico P. Villoso, PhD Member, National Academy of Animal Biology Division College of Medicine Institute of Marine Fisheries Science and Technology, Philippines. Institute of Biological Sciences UP Manila and Oceanology Director, National Institute of Physics UP Los Baños College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, UP Visayas UP Diliman Q the FORUM ROUNDTABLE ON What are the controversial questions attending science as a discipline? What could be its greatest challenge to teachers of science and scientists today? SCIENCE Saloma: A scientific inquiry becomes during transplant. Many lives, including extraterrestrials could provide the optimism and hope. Ignorance and controversial when it polarizes public our own and those of our loved ones, missing catalyst for unifying intolerance have already cost millions opinion. Human cloning, which is can be saved or prolonged if humankind mankind. of lives. concerned with creating genetically is able to acquire the said capability. It is quite tempting for unsuccessful identical copies of humans, is the However, the ability to produce and Difficult issues researchers to engage themselves in quintessential example. Another harvest human stem cells reliably and endless philosophizing that often contentious issue deals with the efficiently is a precursor technology to should not deter contradicts the inherent impermanence possible presence or absence of life human cloning. As a scientific scientists from of scientific knowledge. While it is forms in other planets. Nuclear energy, technique, human cloning is neither doubly difficult to succeed in scientific advancing our genetically modified organisms, etc. good nor bad. It becomes terrifying research in the Philippines, Filipino also tend to divide public opinion, when utilized to prolong human cruelty understanding of the scientists, especially those who are still depending on the prevailing socio- or sustain oppression. But what if it is physical world. young, should not stop learning from economic condition. used to create a real Superman who past failures in order to improve The debate about human cloning does not have any of the weaknesses Scientific knowledge themselves professionally. They must is no longer confined among harmless that make us human? Perhaps even the empowers humans to not waste precious time rationalizing academics, geeks, and Hollywood promise of unfailing benevolence would defeat ignorance and mediocrity and trivializing scientific producers. The challenges sur- not make cloning widely acceptable— excellence. rounding the issue have grown and human societies have difficulty intolerance. It liberates Hilomen: The greatest questions in now have legal and political embracing changes that happen much us from the debilitating science vary depending on the interests implications. The debate is beginning faster than the perceived evolutionary of the scientist. The questions asked by fear of the unknown. to capture the serious attention of rates. fisheries scientists and marine biologists legislators, national supreme courts, Understandably, the presence of would be entirely different from those — Saloma and government executives because life forms outside the Earth is wor- asked by physicists. For example, how continuing advances in science and rying and even threatening because to sustain fisheries production technology are steadily improving the extraterrestrials may not believe in the Difficult issues should not deter (particularly capture fisheries capability of scientists to perform the same norms and values that humans scientists from advancing our production) in our country is a problem process successfully. naturally consider basic and universal. understanding of the physical world. Filipino marine biologists, fisheries Human stem cell research is But are we going to stop space Scientific knowledge empowers scientists, and even social scientists and important because of its immense explorations out of the fear that returning humans to defeat ignorance and economists must address. Currently, the therapeutic potential. Stem cells can space vehicles might bring back intolerance. It liberates us from the rate at which fishers harvest fish is be used to produce replacement ferocious organisms that could debilitating fear of the unknown. faster than the rate at which fish organs (e.g., kidney, liver, heart, etc) decimate human civilization? On the Scientific knowledge emboldens naturally replenish their populations. with almost null possibility of rejection other hand, the menacing existence of people to anticipate the future with This condition is exacerbated by the use FORUM January-February 2006 7 of destructive fishing methods which scientific progress in various ways. Global warming has been identified as controversies to teachers of science destroy habitats and larvae of fish. A Controversies in research have pushed such an issue. The observational and scientists is how to touch the holistic approach is necessary to solve forward the process of scientific approach of traditional science cannot students’ imaginations and bring the this problem. If fisheries production is investigation by highlighting the yet reliably predict the impact of human subjects to life. Learning activities that effectively managed in other parts of absence of information in particular behavior on our climate. For example, allow students to interact with each the world, why shouldn’t we be able to areas. One example is the overuse of we cannot tell with finality that an other should be utilized. A learning do the same in our own country? antibiotics which has caused the alteration of the rate of fossil-fuel activity can involve breaking the class The greatest challenge to teachers into small groups (of two or three of science and scientists is how to train students) with the teacher posing a students to think critically. If we teach The challenge to science teachers question and instructing each group to students how to think, then we will help and scientists today is to demonstrate science discuss a possible answer. In create a society of discerning men and considering genetically modified foods, as an attitude and approach to problem women. We need people who can for example, several questions arise: think outside the box. solving and to the development of technological How does the presence of large Rapanut: There is a general perception innovations rather than a difficult discipline multinational agrobusiness corporations that the solutions to some of the world’s affect the dynamics of innovation in of equations and formulas. There is a need this industry? What stands between the toughest problems are likely to be found, at least in part, in scientific discoveries. to humanize science. development of “golden” rice and the These discoveries have a great impact — Marita Reyes release of that strain to subsistence on our quality of life. They include farmers? Is a tomato expressing an achievements like sanitary sewers and animal transgene still be acceptable spread of antibiotic resistance among consumption will resolve the issue. to a vegetarian? safe drinking water, which bacteria. It has been alleged that There are also moral and ethical Students may also be encouraged fundamentally changed the way people scientists have the tendency to assume questions surrounding some scientific to take a position on a given issue and lived; computers and telephones, which causality when only a causal issues, like information technology and to investigate the pros and cons of their significantly altered the way people association has been demonstrated. biotechnology. Science has built position through guided activities and worked; and automobiles, airplanes, and Poorly supported arguments have engineering systems whose complexity web research. The websites may be spaceships, which redefined the way supposedly been used to fill in the gaps is such that it is impossible to predict designed to include research scientists people traveled. Moreover, we have in the data connecting antibiotics, all of their behaviors. In software so that students have the opportunity conveniences that range from a vast resistant bacteria, animals, and engineering, “errors” happen not to see controversy unfold as scientists electric power grid and agricultural humans. This has sparked further because the software does something discuss their research. Moreover, a mechanization, to the widespread use research that could improve our it wasn’t intended to do, but because it realistic presentation of how of airconditioning, refrigeration, and understanding of such connections. does what it was specified to do. It is controversy plays out in science household appliances. Decisional controversies arise just that the consequences of such provides students with a clearer Although controversy is antithetical because of action (or perhaps inaction, specifications were not understood or understanding of what a career in to the practice of calm and studied which is a decision in itself) taken on anticipated by its creators. science might entail. Recognizing the observation in science, it has enabled the basis of insufficient information. The great challenge posed by such dynamic nature of the field, students will realize that scientists rarely have the benefit of simple answers and 20/ 20 hindsight. Marita Reyes: The objectivity of science is being questioned. How unbiased are scientists when they interpret empirical data? Do intuition, personal beliefs, and culture play a role in science and its applications? I think these questions underlie the present debates on global warming, the skepticism of some scientists regarding the import of human activities on the ozone layer in the atmosphere, and the stand of creationists on human development. The challenge to science teachers and scientists today is to demonstrate science as an attitude and approach to problem solving and to the Teofina A. Rapanut, PhD Wilfredo L. Campos, DNScs Noli N. Reyes, PhD development of technological Dean College of Science Division of Biological Sciences Department of Mathematics innovations rather than a difficult UP Baguio College of Arts and Sciences College of Science discipline of equations and formulas. UP Visayas UP Diliman There is a need to humanize science. Q Can Filipino scientists working in the Philippines compete with the rest of the world? What are the advantages and disadvantages of doing scientific research in the Philippines? Saloma: Filipino scientists are but also by those from other fields. Scientific reputation is not built be clear to you immediately that it is competing globally if and when they are Publication in a widely read journal overnight. It is established over years so) for your PhD dissertation. solving problems that are considered increases and widens the possible of dedicated work that relies on In the Philippines, the number of meritorious and interesting to the impact of new scientific results. careful planning, uncanny foresight, PhDs in the natural sciences, international scientific community. A However, the competition for space in and more often than not, serendipity. mathematics, and engineering, is very generally accepted indicator of high high impact journals is intense and Pedigree also helps—if your mentor is small. According to a 2004 report in quality is the publication of a research acceptance is extremely difficult, a highly successful scientist, then you the journal Nature, the number of finding in a scientific journal that is read especially for authors who are still are likely to do research on a PhDs per one hundred of the not only by specialists in one’s own field building their own scientific reputation. fascinating topic (although it may not ROUNDTABLE, p. 8 8 FORUM January-February 2006 ROUNDTABLE, from p. 7 make the development of scientific interests in the Philippines if we depend One nice thing about doing infrastructure and the acquisition of only on the resources of the government. mathematics research is that population is 8, 17, and 18 in Japan, research equipment and materials Although the competition is tough, formulating a problem or contemplating the US, and the European Union, agonizingly slow and unnecessarily international research grants must be it can be done practically anywhere and respectively. The Philippines, with its costly and even wasteful. Despite the pursued. anytime: in the ikot jeep, on the beach, (extrapolated) population of about 85.5 impediments, however, a number of while jogging, while waiting in the bank, Marita Reyes: Good and “competitive” million, would need to have 6.8 million initiatives can still be pursued locally etc. But like any other intellectual scientific activity has many requirements. PhDs if it were to aspire to the current by the University leadership to pursuit, the most conducive to These include the personal attributes of scientific muscle of Japan. The improve the lot of researchers in UP. mathematical contemplation is a quiet individuals involved (e.g., intellectual number of PhDs in the Philippines Many of the miseries that torment our place. One disadvantage of doing capacity, creativity, resourcefulness, today is not likely to exceed even ten researchers continue to exist due to mathematics in the Philippines is the passion and commitment, discipline, etc.), thousand. our misplaced sense of helplessness noisy environment. (I’m not sure a facilitative social and political A young PhD in the Philippines or lack of sufficient attention. It whether we Filipinos have a high environment (including harmonized and who is able to publish consistently in perplexes me why we still continue to tolerance for noise or we simply feel consistent policies), and an adequately ISI journals will be recognized more find people inside UP Diliman who uncomfortable in a quiet environment.) quickly than if he were in Japan, the maintained scientific infrastructure. I care little for or have nothing to do It is difficult to think clearly when your US, or Europe. In a country where have listed the requirements in the order with the academic enterprise. neighbors are playing their sound of decreasing availability to our scientists. system full blast or when vehicles can Our best asset is the presence of honk anywhere. individuals who heroically make do with Another disadvantage of doing Given the Internet, the lack of journals in very deficient infrastructure and still math research in the Philippines is the produce world-class research. But this our libraries and the lack of funding to lack of a research culture. Honestly, situation cannot be sustained and cannot attend scientific meetings are no longer sometimes I feel odd spending hours, last long. days, weeks, and months working on a excuses for not being able to publish Be that as it may, I am not comfortable problem on my own, when everybody in important journals... with “can compete” as synonymous to else is partying. (But actually, I might good scientific work. “Competitiveness” be having much more fun.) The Internet has leveled the playing field. is often used to mean the ability to get I think mathematics and science — Noli Reyes ahead of someone or even the capacity will always be relevant for as long as to put one over somebody. This direction we want to improve our quality of life. usually leads to prideful behavior and to What abound are challenges to the unethical conduct as was evident in the attractiveness of math and science as scientific tradition is not yet firmly Campos: Filipino scientists working in recent fiasco in South Korea’s stem cell a profession. I think the quickie established, public’s expectation of a the Philippines can both compete and research. Unethical conduct leads to loss approaches to solving our problems and scientist is less harsh and more excel in the international arena, as of trust and public support for science. the get-rich-fast mentalities are the forgiving. Appreciation and recognition proven by international awards given Science is collaborative work. One greatest of these challenges. Figuring are powerful motivators for a scientist to some institutions in the country, can no longer work alone or in isolation out a math problem is like learning how to work even harder. In the Philippines, such as the National Institute of and position oneself to “compete” with to make the violin produce a certain it is easier for a scientist to be Physics in UP Diliman. The playing others. Materialism is anathema to quality of sound. It takes time and a conservatively eclectic and to try field may not be even, in terms of (1) collegiality and collaboration, very lot of discipline. different interdisciplinary topics the cost and availability of equipment, important values in science and the Villoso: The dominance of foreign because there is practically no (2) the accessibility of related updated academe. educational and research institutions in resistance from well-entrenched information (from extensive library science is undisputed. The best communities, unlike in Japan, the US, holdings), and (3) opportunities for Noli Reyes: I can only speak for the mathematical sciences. research and teaching institutions in the or Europe where changing research critical discussions with colleagues, but world are science-oriented; they are topics means dealing with a new set these are workable challenges. These First of all, given the Internet, the lack pioneers of new technology which of researchers with established limitations may be less surmountable of journals in our libraries and the lack possess an international outlook and a hierarchies and a different pers- in some than in other fields, but they of funding to attend scientific meetings global reputation among academics, pective. can be addressed. are no longer excuses for not being able students, and employers. Universities Because I started my professional There are relatively few research to publish in important journals. Before abroad leading the information career in the Philippines, I was able to institutions/facilities in the country. the Internet, mathematicians in poor technology revolution are now getting work independently at an early stage. Hence, there is a wealth of topics to countries were in a truly unfair and involved in the next wave of I did not have to toil as an underling or do research on (in other words, there helpless situation because they had technological advances in areas like a lieutenant of a senior professor and should be enough ideas for everyone). limited or no access to unaffordable robotics. Some foreign research was blessed to be able to work with a Our more progressive Asian neighbors journals. But the Internet has leveled the institutions have sizable war chests for steady stream of bright and highly have invested considerably in research playing field of math research. Scientific their expansion because of donations motivated undergraduate and graduate and development, and this has been a results can be communicated as easily from grateful alumni who have profited students. It becomes more fulfilling major contributor to their present in developing countries as in developed from the wave of high technology. The when you do science not only for economies. It would certainly help countries. Scientific papers, even before international orientation of leading yourself or your family but also for your motivate more scientists to increase they appear in journals, are often science institutions abroad is shown by own country. and improve scientific research in the available in the author’s website. The the high percentage of their The difficulties encountered by country if administrative (government) table of contents of many journals are international staff and foreign students. Filipino researchers are consequences support were to take on more accessible electronically for free, and The Philippines has ordinarily of a weak scientific tradition and a low challenges rather than accept and be getting hold of a paper can be done depended on other countries for public appreciation of the contributions content with limitations. quickly with a simple email to the author. knowledge generation. In some of science. The nonscientists in our Hilomen: Despite limited resources, Doing math research definitely disciplines, our country has the required country, from the elected politicians to Filipino scientists are among the best requires some mathematical talent. I critical mass of human resources civil servants to the illegal settlers, have in the world. Time and again, we are believe that many Filipinos have the capable of competing with the rest of not yet adequately comprehended the reminded that given ample resources, potential to develop this talent. What the world in advancing the frontier of vital role of science in sustaining we can produce world-class results, seems lacking is the passion and drive knowledge. Lack of general economic growth and promoting a fair as in the case of marine biologists like to go deeper and pursue math and appreciation, however, coupled with an and just society that is based on merits. Drs. Edgardo D. Gomez and Angel science research as a profession. I feel apparent failure of local funding The rules and regulations that were Alcala, who are based in the country, it is only this passion that can instill the institutions to recognize the potential formulated to slow down, if not and Dr. Baldomero Olivera in the US. discipline to systematically devote hours benefit of high-impact research on the eradicate, graft and corruption also It is difficult to pursue research each week to study. general welfare of the nation, reduces FORUM January-February 2006 9 the ability of our scientists to compete Local research agencies must Filipino scientists and research with their foreign counterparts in the address areas of weakness like the low institutes have a bright future. There development of science and technology. production of high-impact research. is optimism that the science and While some foreign countries devote at Incentives can be provided by research technology community will expand in least three percent of their gross domestic foundations and private companies to Asia and in the Philippines as more product to research, there is reluctance generate more cutting-edge research. significant centers of development are on the part of Philippine agencies to fully In the present era of scientific built, and more high-technology support research. It is unfortunate that research in the life sciences, the products are designed and manu- emphasis is on interdisciplinary programs factured. The importance of Filipino most instructional grants to local and the search for broad, unifying universities are geared toward informal and Asian scientific communities as generalizations. Successful foreign training and extension programs and not suppliers of research output and research institutions have encouraged to the development of new knowledge. experts is bound to grow. There are collaboration across disciplines by This approach turns local universities into few high-profile institutions for medical introducing multi-disciplinary programs in project implementers instead of the sciences. Given steep international research in Southeast Asia, and knowledge generators. The Filipino competition, capability-building through biomedical-research centers in the scientific community must apply pressure cooperation with local and international country are fertile grounds for a new on the government to spend more on institutions is desirable and necessary. breed of Filipino scientists. One trend research. Scientists must also find ways Local scientists should not stay in their is for science-oriented institutions to around government policies that delay cocoons; life is too short to be spent inside attract and fund significant research rather than facilitate their research a capsule without reaching out to other groups. This might take off in the Field Guide endeavors. scientists. Philippines in the near future. and Atlas of tla of Seaweed the Seaweed Q Has science or its outcomes figured in important decisions of our courts? Saloma: As far as I know, no one in the between enactment and enforcement of standing misconceptions about virginity Resources of Resour ces of the Philippines Gavino C. Tr oño, Jr. Gavino Troño, Philippines is seriously engaged in human laws and regulations. Enforcement is and the physical and psychological Publishers: Bureau of Agricultural stem cell research or space exploration; difficult when the rules and regulations elements of domestic violence. Court Research, Department of thus, the difficult issues that are are not backed up by technical decisions that continue to ignore Agriculture and Marine encountered in such research fields do competence and professionalism among appropriate scientific information have Environment and Resources not grip the minds of our decision makers the concerned implementing agencies of Foundation, Marine Science been cause for much frustration and or stir the emotions of the public. At this government. Institute, UP Diliman, 2004 anguish. point in time, the immediate challenge is Marita Reyes: I cannot cite specific I also know that a DNA analysis for the government to invest more in cases where science has helped in laboratory has been established in UP scientific research and development and important decisions of our courts. for legislators to formulate laws that are Diliman to assist the judicial system However, I am aware that medical and wise and applicable to our society, fully social scientists have been sharing in crime investigations, in the realizing that our situation is quite different scientific data in medical forensics with identification of victims in disasters, from that of the US or the European judges and lawyers regarding rape and and the resolution of paternity Union. There seems to be a wide gap child abuse in order to correct long- questions. Q What are the challenges to the continued relevance of science? Saloma: The local science community Scientific research in UP will more people in government has remained small and therefore its continue to improve in terms of approached issues in a similar manner. productivity continues to be low in terms productivity, quality, and impact. In NIP Marita Reyes: The relevance of Seaweed is one of the most of sheer number of publications in widely and the College of Science, I place high science is best demonstrated by the important marine resources. Its read scientific journals of the world. hope in the ability of our young PhDs use of its applications by people and production through culture is However, our understanding of scientific and graduate students to build upon the for people. However, its utilization one of the most productive excellence has become more mature. accomplishments of their mentors and depends on how it is understood and forms of livelihood for thousands When I was a graduate student more predecessors and push scientific ap-preciated. The challenge for of coastal inhabitants in the than twenty years ago, it was already a research to the next level. I am confident scientists is to make their work Philippines today. cause of great celebration and reverence that the younger generation can respond understood and better appreciated by if someone in NIP published in an ISI to the challenge brilliantly. Scientific policy makers and program While the seaweed industry is journal. Now the challenge is to publish tradition is established by the efforts of the third ranking fishery industry implementers—people who are in the several generations across time. in the country at present, its consistently in high impact journals like best position to disseminate scientific further development is Physical Review Letters, Nature, or Campos: Analytical thinking is perhaps information or technology which constrained by the lack of basic Science and to get featured in science the major contribution of science to should be available to the general information about kinds/species, magazines. Definitely, current society, although the “discoveries” are public. For example, how can medical distribution and availability, expectations are a lot higher, which is a equally important. This doesn’t mean scientists make people choose to natural products, and uses. definite sign of genuine progress. that non-scientific fields do not develop believe what they advise over the In the past ten years or so, UP has critical thinking. But the scientific declarations of charlatans on quick This book collates all available introduced merit-based programs (e.g., process which involves focusing on a recovery from the use of strange information necessary for the international publication awards, creative question, formulating the appropriate concoctions that have not been tested faster development of seaweed grants, etc) that have improved the lives systematic methodology or approach, scientifically? resources under one cover, to of its productive scientists and serve the needs of a diverse extensive referencing, and objective Villoso: Science embodies a researchers. The challenge is to keep group of users. thinking, rigorously develops analytical systematized body of knowledge these incentives responsive to changing thinking in addressing problems. It based on facts and the nature of economic realities. would be a big boost to the country if ROUNDTABLE, p. 10 10 FORUM January-February 2006 ROUNDTABLE, from p. 9 prejudices and superstitions. Much things. The advancement of the frontier scientific information remains of science has changed, deepened, and unprocessed, merely accumulated in a intensified our realization of the nature To significantly enhance the positive pile of reports. Consequently, the of life and our knowledge of its ordinary person is unavoidably ignorant processes, throwing new light upon our contribution, usefulness, and impact of of such information and draws far less judgments, suggesting fresh methods science on human life, teachers of science confidently from the resources of of human cooperation, imposing novel science than he or she might do under concepts of service, and opening up and scientists today must help clear up better circumstances. new possibilities to us. and simplify science for the ordinary To significantly enhance the Scientific materials are predo- positive contribution, usefulness, and person. Scientists must not simply be minantly imperfectly accessible to impact of science on human life, ordinary busy people. The information obsessed with their search for facts but teachers of science and scientists today is embodied in highly specialized should strive to draw and effectively must help clear up and simplify science publications and books; it is expressed for the ordinary person. Scientists must in technical terms that have yet to be communicate the practical wisdom arising not simply be obsessed with their translated into ordinary language; it is from their endeavors. search for facts but should strive to circulated alongside masses of draw out and effectively communicate — Villoso controversial matter and, in some cases, the practical wisdom arising from their questionable literature tainted with endeavors. OF PROTECTION TION OF UTILIZATI ENHANCEMENT OF THE PROTECTION AND UTILIZATION OF SCIENTIFIC TECHNOLOGICAL INTELLECTUAL PRO ERTIES (IPs): SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTIES (IPs): Tangible Intangible Wealth Transformable to Tangible Treasure by: Rhodor a V. Azanza Rhodor chemistry, biology, molecular biology technology for the benefit of the society Universities and research institutions and biotechnology, geology, marine and the economic development of the to empower them to protect and science, material science and nation.” Among others, they have the manage efficiently and effectively their environmental science have been NUS Venture Support Fund for “start- IPs. increasing, particularly during the last ups” and “spin-offs” to take care of 3. Support for Enhancement of five years, thus making the College the knowledge and technologies generated Technology Transfer and highest contributor of international by students and faculty members with Commercialization for Selected publication in the University. The the highest potential for commer- Universities and Research Institutes College of Science (and the College of cialization. It is also noteworthy to cite to vigorously appraise commercial Engineering) like their counterparts in two other universities in the ASEAN— viability and to seed capital fund for the UP System and other Universities the University of Technology of selected technologies and innovations in the country however, still lags in Malaysia (UTM)—and the Hanoi for added value and reduced risk. contributing to and benefiting from the University of Technology (HUT) which 4. Conduct IP Education in gains of the so-called “Innovation have come up with detailed provisions appropriate academic levels on the Cycle,” i.e. “Research and Deve- for IP protection and technology nature and powers of Intellectual Rhodora V. Azanza, Ph.D. transfer. These Universities have also lopment (R & D) to IP Protection to Properties (IPs) and their proper Dean, College of Science considered/started IP education for Commercialization to Research and management and utilization. UP Diliman S&T students and researchers and Development”. The usual route in 5. Encourage and support initiated the build-up of IP database in Knowledge generated by students and Philippine Universities and research institutions is Research or R&D to their universities. small and medium scale entre- preneurs and venture capitalists professors should be properly In the Philippines, support for Publication, because results should (with the participation of innovations managed. This should go beyond protection and commercialization of become part of the public domain inventor/author) to develop commer- individual management, for collective IP’s are not taken care of directly by specially in government-funded cialization of these products and management of knowledge creates Universities but by two separate researches. This publication route, services. This would encourage more knowledge and innovations. agencies, i.e. by a branch of the however should not be considered less responsible partnership between Moreover, intellectual property Department of Science and Tech- vital since they build up or refine universities and industries emphasizing protection and management is not the nology, the Technology Assistance and existing knowledge. protections of IPRs and non-disclosure business of lawyers nor the Intellectual Promotion Institute (TAPI) and the Universities and research agencies agreements, thus creating a Property Office (IPO) alone. It is an National IPO. It is difficult for the in developing countries tend to export harmonious Science-Technology- interdisciplinary / multidisciplinary creators of knowledge and innovators “raw materials” (i.e., unprotected Enterprises relationship. (WIPO, 2006) field that involves to be active participants in the intellectual properties and/or human Target Areas Aside from ICT and primarily the generators or creators protection and management of their capital), unlike in developed countries Biotechnology (who are in the Universities and IP’s although some Universities like UP where the gains from the cycle of Intellectual assets which should be research institutions) of these intangible have just started to have an Intellectual research (R) to development (D) to effectively and efficiently managed to wealth called Intellectual Property or Property Office and Technology commercialization (C) is completed, derive economic benefits are not limited IP. Technology transfer of knowledge Incubators. with the material gains plowed back to to the fields of ICT and biotechnology. from source areas is the process that the faculty/researchers/university to be National Strategies According to the World Intellectual enables these intangible assets (of used partly or wholly for another round 1. In collaboration with the Property Organization in Geneva, new universities and research institutes) to of innovation generation. Such a National IPO, review and enhance areas where IP’s should be generated, be converted to products and services. scheme is of course successfully being Philippine IP legislation to enable protected and managed are the The intellectual property of the used in Stanford University and Oxford public universities and research following: faculty researchers and graduate University, to name a few. institutions to protect and manage their 1. environment, students of the College of Science for To cite an example in the IPs for the benefit of the nation. 2. energy: extraction, natural gas, the past few years consists mainly of region, the National University of 2. Review and if needed make conversion of biomass, alternative scientific publication (in ISI-covered Singapore (NUS) aims “to promote amendments to the charters/other source, journals). Original contributions in the NUS-generated knowledge and pertinent documents of public fields of mathematics, physics, INTANGIBLE, p. 15 FORUM January-February 2006 11 LETTER, from p. 16 afternoon of the same day, Dr. Mario renovated and furnished with the $200 each check) as her contribution On December 26, 2005, Luchie and Mrs. Perla Andres of UPAA chapter’s donation. Francisco (Toti) for a Professorial Chair in Business Galang handed over to me her check Toronto gave a check for CDN$25,000 Juan of the Friends of UP Foundation in Administration. It was Maricris who in the amount of $15,000 to support the for scholarships. Dr. Jun Abrajano, America (FUPFA) and his wife, Isabel suggested to us during our visit to the establishment of a Faculty Grant at the Professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic also visited. Toti and I talked about US that we tap our young alumni College of Engineering. On January 2, Institute also visited on January 17 to FUPFA and its activities. Revitalizing abroad as they are likely to have we received in my office Dr. Benito renew his pledge to help with UP’s FUPFA is our concern and I hope to be disposable income to share with UP. Kalaw of the UPAA Greater Chicago fundraising. On January 24, I received able to meet with the other people She made good her promise by handing who handed over to us a check for email from Dors Maligalig of UPAA behind the foundation soon. those checks over to us before going $10,000 for the UP Diliman Infirmary Greater Los Angeles to say that the Vet And just before the month ended, back to California. And last January project. This is the $10,000 announced Med group that pledged $4000 during I received email from Dr. Patricio 20, Dean Raul Fabella of the School of by Olive Rocha Aliga during the San the induction/dinner-dance last October Reyes. Pat is Director, Alzheimer’s Economics and I joined representatives Diego affair as the contribution of 15 has already put up the amount, thanks Disease and Cognitive Disorders of School of Economics Batches 1979 UPAA Greater Chicago for the to Agustin (Ago) Romero, who made Program of the Barrow Neurological and 1980 for lunch and to receive their Infirmary project. Mr. Felix Padlan, sure the group lived up to its promise. Institute (Arizona). Responding to our donation of P1 Million to the UPECON who joined us during Benito Kalaw’s (Ago is one of UPAAGLA’s very call for assistance for the faculty, Pat Foundation for the Endowment Fund visit added his own contribution of energetic members, and is one of the and his wife immediately agreed to for the School of Economics. Vince $2000 for the same project. Felix has best dancers I have seen. He and his fund a faculty grant to be known as Perez, former Secretary of Energy, who made it almost a habit to donate to UP wife, Eva, make very good dancing the Patricio and Ligaya Chavez Faculty is part of the group, presented the every time he visits and as of January partners.) On January 25, Dr. Bayani Grant for the College of Home check to Dean Fabella. What really 23, his contribution had reached $8000. and Mrs. Ursula Manalo of UPAA Economics. Ligaya is an alumna of the touched me was their genuine desire Benito and Felix were accompanied by Washington DC, Maryland and Virginia College. to help. They promised to continue Dr. Ray Torralba and Dr. Oscar Lopez. also came over to see what we have What is also heartwarming is the helping. How I wish others would On January 5, Ted Aquino, newly done with their chapter’s $7000 donation response we have been getting from follow their example! elected President of the UPAA in for the Infirmary. Dr Manalo was very our younger alumni. Maricris Bitong, Indeed, our fund-raising program America, came over to check on the pleased with what our Health Service BSBAA Batch 1996 came home for is off to a good start. Thanks to our progress of the Infirmary project which Director Dr. Olga Formoso has done to the holidays and presented to Dean dear alumni and friends who believe in they started over a year ago. In the the two VIP rooms which have been Ned Echanis ten postdated checks (at our faculty and in UP. Reefs Thr ough Time Through Repor Sta Biennial Report on the Status Proceedings of the Workshops Proceedings of rksh Worksho of Philippine Coral Reefs Towards the Formulation of owards rmul Formulation of the Philippine Marine ary Sanctuar Stra Sanctuary Strategy Arceo, Campos, Hazel O. Ar ceo, Wilfredo L. Ca mpos, Frances rfirio Porfiri Fr ances Fuentes, and Porfirio M. Aliño Editors Publisher: UP Diliman Marine Science Institute with Funding Support from the UP Center for Integrative Development Studies (CIDS), 2004 This book compiles the Proceedings of the 3rd and 4th Workshops to formulate a response strategy to the twin problems of resource depletion and sustainable resource use by our people. The findings and practical experiences presented in this volume will help in pursuing coastal and resource management to ensure a better life for our coastal communities. Porfirio M. Aliño rfirio Porfiri Series Editor Publisher: UP Diliman Marine Science Institute through the UNEP-GEF South China Sea Project, 2005 This book continues the efforts to document reef monitoring undertaken by the Coral Reef Information Network of the Philippines (Philreefs) partners. Presented here are 36 monitoring reports from five major marine bio-geographic regions in the country. In terms of hard coral cover trends, 44% are increasing, 36% decreasing, and the rest in stable/variable condition. This compilation serves as a testament to the tremendous efforts of local communities, people’s organizations, non-government organizations (NGOs), local government units (LGUs), national government agencies (NGAs), and academic institutions in the management of coral reefs. 12 FORUM January-February 2006 POLLINATORS POWER PRODUCTIVITY OF STAPLE CROPS by jo. florendo b. lontoc FOOD GROWERS Corn producers inspect the demonstration farm for IPB’s newest variety pf white corn, the Los FOOD GROWERS Corn producers inspect the demonstration farm for IPB’s newest variety pf white corn, the Los Baños White Gold. Baños White Gold. P lanted everywhere in the Philippines, corn, cassava, and sweet potato are energy sources many The IBP is the lead agency for In the latter part of 2005, research efforts led by Dr. Azucena L. Carpena and Dr. Artemio crop biotechnology research. Its Filipinos cannot live without. Without white corn, for Salazar came to fruition upon the release of new example, roughly a fifth of the country’s population endeavors in the conventional varieties of white corn, cassava, and sweet potato, would be deprived of a staple food. Cassava, sweet breeding of new variants of corn, adding to over a hundred different crop varieties potato, and the industrial variety of corn known as developed by the institute since 1975. The corn cassava, and sweet potato are yellow corn are essential in the production of flour, variant goes by the name Los Baños White Gold; starch, alcohol, and oil. These rich sources of low- stellar examples of UPLB’s the cassava, Datu 2 and Raja 1; the sweet potato, cost carbohydrates for humans are also crucial in the initiatives in line with the UPL Sp-7 and UPL Sp-9. As the latest hybrids, manufacture of feeds for the livestock industry. they exceed the qualities of all the previous National statistics show that these staple crops are University’s twin thrusts of varieties, especially in terms of yield. the backbone of the country’s agriculture. In 2003, the research excellence and service To make these hybrids for the country, quantity of corn produced came second only to rice. to the country. researchers of the IPB worked under the Two years earlier, according to the Department of elements in the fields sprawled across the valley Agriculture, 1.6 million hectares were planted to white In the quest for improved varieties, biotechnology beside Mt. Makiling. They cross-pollinated male corn, and 980 thousand hectares were planted to yellow in the Philippines has yet to take off despite its potential and female flowers of the best variants from the corn or the varieties used for livestock feeds and and proven advantages over more conventional means institute’s germplasm bank, a facility that industrial purposes. Among the nineteen major Philippine conserves genetic resources of important and of breeding. It has yet to produce a hybrid. Even if it crops, statistics show that cassava is next only to potentially useful agricultural crops. They selected were to produce one right now, it needs to overcome sugarcane, coconut, and banana, in terms of quantity the health, environmental, and ethical controversies the best parent varieties, grew them, waited for produced, while camote or sweet potato ranks seventh. involved. Bt corn, for example, although available in them to flower, cross-pollinated the varieties, Despite efforts at industrialization, the Philippines the country from abroad, has not had a warm reception, grew the fruit, collected the seeds, grew the new is still largely an agricultural country and the production to say the least. varieties, propagated them “clonally” (through of vital crops is a relatively stable source of livelihood In the meantime, research on more conventional cuttings), then subjected them to several tests to for many Filipinos. Corn raising, for example, provides breeding technologies continues to flourish in the see if the breeds contained the desired qualities livelihood to a third of Filipino farmers. Unfortunately, University, which plays a great role in the pursuit of of the parent varieties. more farmers are paying less attention to the staple improved varieties. The traditional variety or technology Cross-pollination is tricky, but it facilitates the crops in favor of “higher-value crops,” such as fruits does manage to address contemporary needs, providing natural processes of hybridization. Before the and vegetables, which can fetch higher prices. In fact, ways to achieve self-sufficiency in the production of flower buds open, each is encased in a bag. A the country has reached a point where it has to import corn, cassava, and sweet potato. male flower is bagged to contain the “pollen burst” its staples, particularly rice and corn, because local production no longer meets the country’s needs. Fields of dreams so that pollen collected from the flower is pure. Since staple food will always have a market, it is For their efforts and accomplishments in generating If not covered before the flower opens, other important for the country to maintain and nurture such improved varieties for the Filipino farmer, the researchers pollen can contaminate it. The female flower, on a resource. The secret to its continued viability lies in of the Institute of Plant Breeding (IPB) are a source of the other hand, is bagged to protect it from being the adoption of improved varieties by farmers. This pride for the University of the Philippines-Los Baños fertilized by any wayward pollen floating in the translates into not only an increase in yield, but also (UPLB)—the main arm of the University for food air. In the case of corn, researchers rub the male greater value for the same yield. For example, the security. By virtue of the Seed Industry Development flowers on the female flowers in the morning, starch contents of sweet potato should be increased. Act of 1992, the IBP has been identified as the lead when the female flower’s receptivity for More prolific varieties also allow farmers to devote a agency for crop biotechnology research. Its endeavors fertilization is at its peak. In the case of cassava, smaller area to the crops and to diversify; that is, if a in the conventional breeding of new variants of corn, this takes place from noon until two in the farmer can get the same amount of crops for less cassava, and sweet potato are stellar examples of afternoon. These pollinators are remarkably land area, then he is free to plant other crops in the UPLB’s initiatives in line with the University’s twin thrusts dedicated field hands, braving the scorching heat area left over. of research excellence and service to the country. to do their job. FORUM January-February 2006 13 Fruits of evolution The release of the new varieties is an important means to increase productivity. Eighty percent of white corn planted in the Philippines consists of the old varieties, exemplified by the tiniguib variety, which is good for only one ton of corn per hectare. Los Baños White Gold has a yield of almost 6.5 tons per hectare. In addition, it is moderately resistant to the corn borer, rust, stalk rot, and earworm. According to Proceso H. Manguiat, university researcher and spokesperson for IPB’s cereal team, even without fertilizers, their hybrid white corn would still produce higher yields. The latest breeds of cassava also have higher value EXCELLENT than other varieties. Datu 2, recommended for industrial use, excels in all areas of value measurement SEEDS. The IPB compared to the Lakan varieties, products of the IPB, lobby exhibits which are currently being used by San Miguel different IPB-bred Corporation. These parameters are: root yield or the amount of cassava roots harvested; dry matter content varieties of corn or what remains of the cassava after being peeled and beans and dried; and starch content. While a Lakan variety can yield as high as 30.9 tons per hectare, with 35.9 percent root dry matter and 26.9 percent starch content, Datu 2 surpasses it on all counts, yielding 37.2 tons per hectare, with a dry matter content of 39.1 percent and starch content of 27.1 percent. With a yield of 27.7 tons per hectare, dry matter content of 36.5 percent, and starch content of 25.1 percent, Rajah 1 registers a lower yield and starch content than Datu 2 and Lakan. However, it belongs to another league of cassava—the all-purpose kind that is edible by simple cooking and most useful for Because of these new varieties, the Feed and seed growers in Cagayan de Oro and Cotabato have the backyard food industry. Rajah 1 scores higher Industrial Crops Division was named Outstanding already planted the new variety of corn. The IPB within those parameters than other varieties, Research Team during the celebration of IPB’s has yet to receive feedback from them but it is according to Edwin E. del Rosario, university thirtieth anniversary last year. More importantly, the confident that more farmers will soon realize the researcher and spokesperson for IPB’s root crops new varieties, the results of the hard work on hybrids benefits of planting the hybrids. After all, the institute team. Datu 2 and Rajah 1 are adaptable in all regions begun by IPB teams in the mid-1990s, ensure better has a record of providing varieties of cereals and of the country and moderately resistant to scale harvests for farmers, as proven by standard testing rootcrops which have proven most beneficial both to insects, spider mites, leafspot, and bacterial blight. procedures of the National Seed Industry Council, individuals and industry. Aside from San Miguel The new sweet potatoes are also excellent the recommendatory arm of the Department of Corporation, starch mills and farmers in the provinces varieties recommended by government for Agriculture. of Bohol and Lanao del Sur—top cassava starch- cultivation. UPL Sp-7 yields 11.1 tons of creamy- These procedures—which involve trial producing provinces in the country—have also white camote per hectare, with 35.5 percent dry cultivations in the different regions and different adopted the IPB’s Lakan varieties. matter and 21.1 percent starch. UPL Sp-9 yields 12 seasons of the country—took three years for the It was also the IPB’s cereal group that tons per hectare of purple- or red-skinned camote rootcrop varieties and two years for the white corn. jumpstarted the hybrid yellow corn production in the with creamy-white flesh with 32.5 percent dry matter After running the gauntlet, the new varieties are country in line with the government’s Grain and 21.1 per cent starch. Both varieties are resistant guaranteed to deliver on their promise. Productivity Enhancement Program (GPEP). This to scab and weevil, in varying degrees. Aside from was the first time that a hybrid corn variety (IPB the white color of their flesh, which does not have to A record of bounty-sharing 911) was utilized for a nationwide agricultural be bleached during starch extraction, the two new According to Del Rosario, a number of farmers program. Private entities were enlisted to produce sweet potato varieties beat the old varieties in terms have already taken some cuttings of the rootcrops, seeds of the IPB variety so that they would be more of dry matter content. good for a few square meters. Manguiat also says available nationwide. Del Rosario and Manguiat estimate that yellow corn production in the Philippines today mostly consists of hybrid varieties, covering eighty percent of all yellow corn cultivated. White corn production now appears ready to take off with the introduction of hybrid varieties, similar to what happened in the mid-1990s with the landmark introduction of hybrids of yellow corn. The seed industry The phenomenon of the yellow corn hybrid industry showed that for new varieties to create a significant impact, their seeds had to be produced in commercial quantities. The IPB does not have this capacity. Functioning mainly as a research center, the IPB can only raise enough to accommodate inquiries and get farmers and commercial seed producers started on the new varieties. It cannot distribute to all farmers in the Philippines needing new seeds. Thus, private seed producers play a significant role in the promulgation of the new varieties. As in the case of the GPEP program, they can multiply the seeds of the new IPB varieties to amounts sufficient for distribution nationwide. Although private ROOTS OF SUCCESS. Three of the IPB’s varieties of sweet potato or camote. POLLINATORS, p. 14 14 FORUM January-February 2006 CASUY-BASED CREAM AS SKIN CANCER CURE? YES! say inventor, PGH doctors By Chat Jemena Chat w ho would have thought that the lowly casuy nut, a favorite those who have a history of chronic or frequent exposure to sunlight snack of Pinoys, would prove to be (either due to work or leisure). a cure for basal skin carcinoma However, there are a few cases (BCC)? Yet that’s exactly what a wherein contact with arsenic, Filipino inventor and his partners, a exposure to radiation, and team of PGH doctors, proved to the complications of burns, scars, world. vaccinations, or even tattoos, are Taking the oil extract from the contributing factors. pericarp of the cashew nut and It has been estimated that the mixing it with various Philippine annual incidence of BCC is one herbs, Mr. Rolando dela Cruz came million in the USA, over 500,000 in up with DeBCC, the wonder skin Europe, and 190,000 in Australia. cream which can beat basal skin The numbers are rising. When left Rolando dela Cruz carcinoma. (The prefix “De” unchecked, especially if it develops of normal tissue must be removed with For his invention, Mr. Dela Cruz means “to remove”; hence, the on the middle third of the face, it the cancer. garnered two top prizes—a gold medal name DeBCC. can cause horrible disfigurement as The DeBCC treatment may very well from the Archimedes Inventors’ Forum of BCC is the most common type well as loss of the functions of the ensure that the cancer and the surgery it of skin cancer in the world. It arises 2004 in Moscow, Russia, and another gold eyes and nose. Unfortunately, the entails are no more. from the basal cells, which are at usual treatments, which involve medal from the International Inventors’ With the help of PGH surgeons Drs. the bottom of the epidermis (the extirpative surgeries, also result in Forum held at Nuremburg, Germany in Eric Talens, Daniel de la Paz, and Orlando outer skin layer). It affects mostly disfigurement since a wide margin November 2005. There were fifteen gold Ocampo, DeBCC was field tested two years ago on fourteen patients whose medal winners at the last forum, but Mr. cancer developed on the very delicate Dela Cruz ranked highest. He received the middle third of the face. Their cases were award accompanied by his family and the considered hopeless by some doctors and doctors. rejected by most plastic surgeons. Mr. Dela Cruz was also the recipient For weeks the cream was patiently of several top awards from his earlier administered and the patients were inventions of DeWart and DeMole—herbal buoyed up by the steady improvement in preparations which can safely remove their illness. On the sixteenth week of trial, warts and moles without surgery. Not bad the cancer was cautiously declared cured. for a commerce graduate and former And it really was—no recurrences were barber, and a dedicated volunteer of the noted after a follow-up of more than two Ugnayan ng Pahinungod-Manila. years. POLLINATORS, from p. 13 training and technical and advisory private producers and IPB seeds can be service goals of the institute. Del Rosario assistance to government and startling. In 2005, a hybrid of white corn in has worked for the IPB since 1980 while institutions have started their own industry. an amount sufficient to cover a hectare sold Manguiat has remained loyal to the institute hybrid programs in recent years, the Although it stimulates the growth for P2,800. The same variety sold at P1,500 since 1977. They maintain that the IPB is IPB remains the top source of expertise for the breeding industry, of private seed producers by at the IPB. Seeds from the multinationals still home to the most number of breeding providing the latter with the latest are the most expensive. Bt hybrid corn, a experts in the Philippines. It also has both in con-ventional breeding varieties which they can sell to the product of these multinationals, can go linkages with international breeding technology and biotechnology. farmers, the IPB does not lose sight higher than P5,000. research centers. In the absence of a govern- of its main objective. This is to be of There is indeed money in hybrids. Toward stable staples ment program such as the GPEP service to the Filipino farmer. that makes government varieties Recently, many IPB experts transferred A premier research and service center Business agreements with seed available to farmers all over the to the private sector, where more funding for Philippine agriculture, the IPB continues producers notwithstanding, the IPB country, the IPB is unable to for their research and higher compensation to create new varieties to answer the ever- makes available to the farmers stocks promote its products on a large of seeds and parent varieties at much for their expertise are available. In spite increasing demand of human, animals, and scale. It can only put up demo areas lower prices, through its National of this, the IPB retains the advantage of a machines for energy and growth. Los Baños in the vicinity of Los Baños for Seed Foundation. This helps to keep germplasm bank, consisting of plant White Gold, Datu 2, Rajah 1, UPL Sp-7 and each planting season and join trade the pricing of the private seed genetic materials collected from its thirty Sp-9 will not be the last ones of their kind. fairs and exhibits, when funds producers in check. The difference years of research. The majority of its The wheels of research work at the IPB allow. IPB experts also provide between the prices of seeds of the experts also remain committed to the continue to grind. FORUM January-February 2006 15 ALTERNATIVE, from p. 5 alcoholic beverages, is obtained through Manila residents to simply flush their there will be difficulties,” says Jose. exported,” Quiros explains. “When you distillation; and in the past, household wastes down the toilet, Dr. “The system could get blocked, or air sell it abroad, you naturally earn more environmental groups have taken issue Jose, professor of biochemical could get in, killing the bacteria…you from it.” with the industry’s method of dealing engineering at the UP Diliman need proper maintenance.” New meaning to ‘sugar-rush’ with distillery waste. Acda is quick to Department of Chemical Engineering, Jose also mentions the importance Fuel ethanol, defined in the DoE point out that the modern technology devised a way of dealing with wet of selecting the kind of waste that website as “a high-octane, water-free for waste treatment was not available household wastes, while at the same produces enough methane. Human alcohol produced from the fermentation then. Acquiring it would entail additional time discovering a solution to the waste, for instance, produces less of sugar or converted starch,” is one of cost, of course, and may in turn drive roaring, smoke-belching tricycles biogas. “However, this is an economic the world’s most popular alternatives to up the price of ethanol. present in every subdivision. The result way of creating the pollutant,” he says. petrol-based fuel. Pure ethanol burns far There are other challenges the is an ingenious melding of waste He refers to the biological oxygen more cleanly than other fuels, with end demand (BOD) of the materials, or the products consisting of carbon dioxide The country is in dire need of a cure amount of oxygen that will disappear and water, making it an from the water when aerobic bacteria for its dependency on imported fossil fuel. set about breaking down organic environmentalist’s favorite fuel. Most cars today can handle up to a ten percent How can the gap between the scientific material, a measure of the level of water blend of ethanol; anything higher will principles behind alternative fuels and the pollution. “The higher the BOD, the require a few engine modifications. higher the level of pollution,” Jose points Many countries have successfully day-to-day realities of the common people out. “If your organic material has a BOD campaigned for greater use of fuel be bridged? of less than 500 mg/L, you won’t be ethanol, including Brazil, the European able to get enough biogas from it. Above Union, the US, Australia, China, India, 1,000 mg/L, sufficient methane is Japan, and Thailand. Philippine bioethanol industry has to treatment through anaerobic digestion produced. Good sources of biogas are In the Philippines, the National face, says Acda. One is the lack of and a quieter, less noxious alternative swine and cattle manure, with a BOD Bioethanol Program was launched only distilleries. “According to our to diesel-run engines. of 20,000 mg/L. The best source is last May 2005. A House Bill and Senate approximations, we would need at least In Jose’s project proposal, wet alcohol distillery slops, with a BOD Bill have also been authored, seeking to eleven distilleries with a 160,000-liter biodegradable wastes are separated reading of 60,000 to 80,000 mg/L. In establish a bioethanol industry in the capacity a day just to supply enough from dry wastes, ground finely, and sent fact, Jose says, the biogas one can country. The Philippine Fuel Ethanol ethanol to meet a ten percent-blend through anaerobic digesters, wherein acquire from distillery slops is adequate Alliance (PFEA) is actively campaigning requirement.” There is also a need to bacteria work to break the wastes down to the needs of one small subdivision. for the passage of the bills. develop the local sugarcane industry without the presence of oxygen. This Alternative Engineering Main sources of ethanol are corn, further. Fuel stations to handle blending process produces methane, or biogas, It is common knowledge that the cassava, sugarcane, and other starchy and pumping are also required. As for which is then stripped of hydrogen country is in dire need of a cure for its materials. Dr. Reynaldo I. Acda, former the added cost of waste treatment, sulfide and carbon dioxide before going dependency on imported fossil fuel. dean of the UP Los Baños College of Acda believes that full government into a storage tank. The biogas is used How can the gap between the scientific Engineering and Agro-Industrial support—in the form of a temporary to power the engine of an electric principles behind alternative fuels and Technology and technical consultant of relaxation of environmental laws and generator, which will in turn charge lead- the day-to-day realities of the common the PFEA, favors ethanol obtained from tax credit—would further help make acid batteries needed to run an electric people be bridged? “Engineers are sugarcane. Corn is heavily utilized by the Philippine bioethanol industry tricycle. Besides green e-tricycles, Jose needed to make the principle practical,” the livestock industry for feeds and by comparable to the rest of the world’s. adds, the biogas acquired in this manner Jose explains. “The ideas already exist; people as a major food source. If Anaerobic exercise can also be used by a household for they work in the laboratory. So how do supplies were further divvied up for Perhaps the nascent bioethanol cooking, or to power a boiler or run an you transform them into something ethanol production, it might become industry can take a page out of Dr. electric generator. practical, even commercially useful?” necessary to import corn in the short Wilfredo I. Jose’s project proposal. A problem could crop up in the area The urgency is there, Acda insists. run. “Sugarcane [in contrast] is Challenged by MMDA Chair of maintenance, however. “If you don’t Thus far, the country has been trapped widespread, with developed areas and Bayani Fernando’s suggestion to Metro understand the processes involved, in a cycle. An energy crisis induces the areas for development lying idle,” Acda government to launch into feverish says. “Besides, Filipinos are more campaigns and studies on alternative familiar with sugarcane agronomy, fuel, only to lose interest when the crisis particularly in the Visayas. We know has passed. The scientific knowledge how to raise tubo quite well.” that could help the country is already Another advantage to ethanol, there. All that is needed is the ability to Acda says, is that “it is relatively focus on the long-term and the will to inexpensive to produce ethanol, do what is necessary to get there. compared to diesel, at fifteen to twenty pesos a liter, using modern technology, not the old technology.” Acda is careful to emphasize the (Left photo) Dr. Jose beside an use of modern technology because it experimental setup for biogas addresses one of the major misgivings production. (Right) Dr. Jose with a about ethanol production: the treatment digester for the pilot study. of slops. Ethanol, which is also used in INTANGIBLE, from p. 10 (IP) protection and management: transfer to industry or commer- of India who very aptly stated the role 1. start or enhance existing IP cialization with non disclosure of the university in societal trans- 3. water—irrigation, desalination, offices to facilitate protection for arrangements in place; formation and economic growth. He 4. disaster management, and ownership of research and said this rule is to “develop and enhance 4. add value to and reduce risk 5. climate change, and development results; involved in selected innovations or the potential of its human resource 6. Transportation—fuel efficient 2. develop educational materials new technologies; and progressively transform it (i.e., the transportation technologies. to effectively teach students, teachers 5. develop well-planned IP society) into a knowledge society: A Universities and Research and researchers on the multidis- strategy/ies for each selected in- knowledge society will be producing Institutions should be supported by ciplinary/interdisciplinary nature of novation to obtain the desirable out- products and services that are rich in government and private institutions intellectual property protection, utilization and management; come for the university and industry. both explicit and tacit knowledge, thus in order to achieve the following objectives in line with science and 3. rigorously select the IPs/ In conclusion, I would like to cite creating value added products (and technology (S&T) Intellectual Property innovations of these institutions for his Excellency Pres. APJ Abdul Kalam services).” 16 FORUM January-February 2006 LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT Strengthening S & T in UP to further strengthen our country’s We will not only strengthen our protection and monitoring, advanced science capacity and by creating existing science and technology micro-electronics and “systems on a knowledge through research for programs, we will also develop chip”, 4 th generation networks and domestic production and for public initiatives in emerging fields in science internet, distributed computing, optical sector policy formulation and im- and technology. A committee has been com-munications in wired networks; plementation. formed to help us identify what these and 4) Instrumentation (nano, Our thrust in S&T is evident in the emerging fields are. Chaired by Vice- photonics, separation science, and number of our students enrolled in President Amelia Guevara, the robotics.) The committee’s next step is science and engineering programs. In committee is composed of repre- to discuss its recommendations with our AY 2005-2006, 42.3% of our students, sentatives from the various UP colleagues in the constituents both undergraduate and graduate, were campuses: Dr. Victor Ella of UP Los universities before finalizing them. enrolled in S&T courses (at the Baños, Dr. Alvin Marcelo from UP Should any one of our colleagues find it undergraduate level, science and Manila and Dr. Caesar Saloma interesting enough to participate in the engineering were easily the most (Physics), Dr. Titos Quibuyen discussion, they should please feel free popular programs, while at the graduate (Chemistry) and Dr. Joel Marciano to contact any committee member or level, management courses were only (Electrical and Electronics En- Vice-President Guevara. Emerlinda R. Roman slightly ahead, by 0.03%, of science and gineering) from UP Diliman. The Update on the Centennial Fund D ear Colleagues, Our administration has identified engineering.) This has been the profile of our students in the past several years committee has identified four technologies, namely: (1) Materials Raising In my report on the US trip, I the strengthening of science and and it is one that we would like to sustain (bio-materials, pharmaceuticals, nano shared with you the good news about technology (S&T) programs in all UP or improve during our term. Our materials, and molecular medicines and our alumni’s commitment to help raise campuses as one among the ten points enrollment profile is unlike the national drug delivery); (2) Biotechnology (bio- funds for the University. I brought home in the agenda we are pursuing in the enrollment profile in which about 40% materials, bio-informatics, nano, disease some checks with me and a list of those next five years. This is because we of the country’s college students are characterization and diagnosis, vaccine who have pledged to contribute to the want to continue to help the country enrolled in education and teacher development, food sufficiency, robust Centennial Fund Campaign. The build up its scientific manpower base training and business courses. Surely crops and yield enhancement, months of December and January have which is crucial to progress and UP would not want to further aggravate biodiversity, drug discovery, bio- been especially lucky months, for UP development. Many countries have the oversupply of teachers and business monitoring); 3) Pervasive com-puting Alumni from abroad have come home achieved economic prosperity because or commerce graduates. It should (cost-effective rural con-nectivity and not just to celebrate the holidays with they have invested heavily in science instead do its share to build up the distance learning, disaster mitigation and their families but also to make good their and technology. In the Philippines UP country’s scientific and technology early warning systems management, promise to help. should contribute by training students telemedicine, environmental and habitat LETTER, p. 11 knowledge and expertise. The Role of Science and Technology in Development THE UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES Indian President’s visit to UP FORUM Cristina Pantoja Hidalgo Editor in Chief Flor Cabangis “The whole purpose Managing Editor of education in a Conchitina Cruz country is to Associate Editor develop and Marvic M. V. F. Leonen Editorial Consultant enhance the potential of its Celeste Llaneta Jo Florendo Lontoc human resource Alicor Panao and transform it into Writers a knowledge Butch Perez Layout Artist society.” –Abdul Kalam Levi Lusterio Forum Online Webmaster President of India Sol Barcebal President Kalam Bart Ortega Data Bank stressed this in a lecture on “The Role of Science Bong Arboleda Jun Madrid and Technology in Photographers Development” at the Gilda Caingat NISMED Auditorium, Obet Eugenio University of the Alice Abear Philippines Diliman on George Gabriel February 6. The lecture Administrative Staff was part of a four-day Tom Maglaya state visit that also Circulation resulted in four UP System Information Office agreements between the Mezzanine Floor Philippines and India Quezon Hall UP Diliman, Quezon City in the fields of defense, 926-1572,436-7537 agriculture, tourism, and e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org medicine.
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