Chapter 4--1477-1752—Settlement of the Thirteenth Colony I. Section 1: An Age of Exploration ……GOLD, GLORY, GOD! a. Vocabulary i. Middleman-a trader who buys goods from producers and sells them to other traders and consumers ii. Monarch-a king or queen iii. Colony-a group of people who settle in a new land but who keep their ties to their homeland b. People i. Christopher Columbus-October 12, 1492, discovered San Salvador Island ii. Hernando de Soto-Spanish explorer in GA who arrived with weapons, plated armor, and horses scaring the Native Americans; thousands of American Indians died…many from disease brought by the Spaniards; he was looking for gold in GA but never found it. c. Places i. St. Augustine, FL-oldest city in U.S. ii. Guale-(Wallie)-the region where Spanish missionaries founded missions on barrier islands (Cumberland Island and St. Catherine’s Island, Sapelo, St. Simon’s Island). The Spaniards later retreated from Guale to St. Augustine…SO, Great Britain wanted a “buffer” colony to protect the English colonies from Spanish Florida.[one reason to colonize GA] d. Miscellaneous--Amerigo Vespucci-sailed along the South American coast…America named in his honor. II. English Settlement of the New World a. Vocabulary i. Mercantilism-a trade policy in which a country exports more than it imports; colonies are expected to supply raw materials to the mother country; major reason for colonization in the New World [another reason to colonize GA] ii. Indentured servant-a person who agreed to work for someone for a set period of time in exchange for passage to the New World iii. Slave-a person who had few rights and who spent his or her entire life in service to others iv. Garrison-a fort where troops are housed b. Places i. Jamestown, Virginia-first settlement in VA; because of its location near a swamp, malaria broke out and killed many people its first year ii. Fort King George-at the mouth of the Altamaha River for protection against French and Spanish threats…”warning point” to Spanish Florida; built near one of the first settlements of GA now known as Darien. III. Section 3: The Colonization of Georgia a. Vocabulary i. Trustee-a person who holds responsibility on behalf of others; GA trustees returned the colony to Great Britain a year before their charter ended ii. Charter-a legal document that grants special rights and privileges iii. Regulations-government orders; Oglethorpe had regulations against rum and slavery b. People i. James Edward Oglethorpe-led in getting GA’s charter and colonizing it; he was thought of as the president of the colony ii. Robert Castell-close friend of Oglethorpe’s; creating the city of Savannah influenced by his design iii. Dr. Thomas Bray-proposed that a colony be founded to help people who got out of prison iv. King George II-granted a charter to Oglethorpe’s group of 21 trustees to establish and manage the colony of GA for 21 years v. Chief Tomochichi-chief of the Yamacraw Indians; became friends with Oglethorpe; gave land for GA’s first settlement vi. Mary Musgrove-served as an interpreter for Oglethorpe c. Places i. Yamacraw Bluff-overlooks the Savannah River; where the colonists first settled ii. Savannah-one of first settlements in GA; town design influenced by Robert Castell, William Bull, and Noble Jones IV. Section 4: Building a New Home a. Vocabulary i. Artisan-a craftsperson ii. Militia-a citizen army b. People i. Dr. Samuel Nunis-a Jewish doctor who replaced their first doctor ii. John Martin Bolzius-led the Salzburgers from Germany who created the next settlements of Ebenezer (“rock of help”) then New Ebenezer iii. John & Charles Wesley-started the first Sunday school in America iv. William Stephens-named president of the colony after Oglethorpe left; Stephens was followed by Henry Parker and Patrick Graham. c. Places i. Ebenezer-one of the first settlements in GA by Salzburgers ii. New Ebenezer-a first settlement by those who settled Ebenezer iii. Frederica-one of the first settlements in GA on St. Simons Island d. Miscellaneous i. Nations most involved in looking for new routes to the Orient: Great Britain, Spain, Italy, France, and Portugal ii. Led the colonizing of the New World: Great Britain, Spain, France iii. First colonists to GA traveled 88 days; about 5,500 colonists settled in GA in the first 20 years. iv. 1/3 of GA’s population = slaves at the end of GA’s charter v. Battle of Bloody Marsh on St. Simon’s Island was fought as part of the War of Jenkin’s Ear against Spain. vi. George Whitfield responsible for Bethesda Orphans Home (Bethesda House) vii. 5 acres in town & 45 acres outside of town = 50 acres each settler had to cultivate viii. Salzburgers and Highland Scots established the settlement of Darien and were opposed to slavery.