Chapter 4--1477-1752—Settlement of the Thirteenth Colony

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Chapter 4--1477-1752—Settlement of the Thirteenth Colony Powered By Docstoc
					           Chapter 4--1477-1752—Settlement of the Thirteenth Colony

I.    Section 1: An Age of Exploration ……GOLD, GLORY, GOD!
      a. Vocabulary
              i. Middleman-a trader who buys goods from producers and sells them to
                 other traders and consumers
             ii. Monarch-a king or queen
            iii. Colony-a group of people who settle in a new land but who keep their
                 ties to their homeland
      b. People
              i. Christopher Columbus-October 12, 1492, discovered San Salvador
             ii. Hernando de Soto-Spanish explorer in GA who arrived with weapons,
                 plated armor, and horses scaring the Native Americans; thousands of
                 American Indians died…many from disease brought by the Spaniards;
                 he was looking for gold in GA but never found it.
      c. Places
              i. St. Augustine, FL-oldest city in U.S.
             ii. Guale-(Wallie)-the region where Spanish missionaries founded missions
                 on barrier islands (Cumberland Island and St. Catherine’s Island,
                 Sapelo, St. Simon’s Island). The Spaniards later retreated from Guale
                 to St. Augustine…SO, Great Britain wanted a “buffer” colony to protect
                 the English colonies from Spanish Florida.[one reason to colonize GA]
      d. Miscellaneous--Amerigo Vespucci-sailed along the South American
         coast…America named in his honor.

II.   English Settlement of the New World
      a. Vocabulary
              i. Mercantilism-a trade policy in which a country exports more than it
                 imports; colonies are expected to supply raw materials to the mother
                 country; major reason for colonization in the New World [another
                 reason to colonize GA]
             ii. Indentured servant-a person who agreed to work for someone for a set
                 period of time in exchange for passage to the New World
            iii. Slave-a person who had few rights and who spent his or her entire life
                 in service to others
            iv. Garrison-a fort where troops are housed
      b. Places
              i. Jamestown, Virginia-first settlement in VA; because of its location
                 near a swamp, malaria broke out and killed many people its first year
             ii. Fort King George-at the mouth of the Altamaha River for protection
                 against French and Spanish threats…”warning point” to Spanish Florida;
                 built near one of the first settlements of GA now known as Darien.
III.   Section 3: The Colonization of Georgia
       a. Vocabulary
               i. Trustee-a person who holds responsibility on behalf of others; GA
                  trustees returned the colony to Great Britain a year before their
                  charter ended
              ii. Charter-a legal document that grants special rights and privileges
             iii. Regulations-government orders; Oglethorpe had regulations against rum
                  and slavery
       b. People
               i. James Edward Oglethorpe-led in getting GA’s charter and colonizing it;
                  he was thought of as the president of the colony
              ii. Robert Castell-close friend of Oglethorpe’s; creating the city of
                  Savannah influenced by his design
             iii. Dr. Thomas Bray-proposed that a colony be founded to help people who
                  got out of prison
             iv. King George II-granted a charter to Oglethorpe’s group of 21 trustees
                  to establish and manage the colony of GA for 21 years
              v. Chief Tomochichi-chief of the Yamacraw Indians; became friends with
                  Oglethorpe; gave land for GA’s first settlement
             vi. Mary Musgrove-served as an interpreter for Oglethorpe
       c. Places
               i. Yamacraw Bluff-overlooks the Savannah River; where the colonists
                  first settled
              ii. Savannah-one of first settlements in GA; town design influenced by
                  Robert Castell, William Bull, and Noble Jones

IV.    Section 4: Building a New Home
       a. Vocabulary
               i. Artisan-a craftsperson
              ii. Militia-a citizen army
       b. People
               i. Dr. Samuel Nunis-a Jewish doctor who replaced their first doctor
              ii. John Martin Bolzius-led the Salzburgers from Germany who created
                  the next settlements of Ebenezer (“rock of help”) then New Ebenezer
             iii. John & Charles Wesley-started the first Sunday school in America
             iv. William Stephens-named president of the colony after Oglethorpe left;
                  Stephens was followed by Henry Parker and Patrick Graham.
       c. Places
               i. Ebenezer-one of the first settlements in GA by Salzburgers
              ii. New Ebenezer-a first settlement by those who settled Ebenezer
             iii. Frederica-one of the first settlements in GA on St. Simons Island
d. Miscellaneous
      i. Nations most involved in looking for new routes to the Orient: Great
           Britain, Spain, Italy, France, and Portugal
      ii. Led the colonizing of the New World: Great Britain, Spain, France
      iii. First colonists to GA traveled 88 days; about 5,500 colonists settled
           in GA in the first 20 years.
      iv. 1/3 of GA’s population = slaves at the end of GA’s charter
       v. Battle of Bloody Marsh on St. Simon’s Island was fought as part of the
           War of Jenkin’s Ear against Spain.
      vi. George Whitfield responsible for Bethesda Orphans Home (Bethesda
      vii. 5 acres in town & 45 acres outside of town = 50 acres each settler
           had to cultivate
    viii. Salzburgers and Highland Scots established the settlement of
           Darien and were opposed to slavery.

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