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					            COLD WAR
         INTERNATIONAL
         HISTORY PROJECT
                                               BULLETIN
Issue 12/13    Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C.   Fall/Winter 2001




              The End of the Cold War




                                  Featuring New Evidence on:
                             The End of the Cold War in Europe, 1989
                                       The Fall of the Wall
                                  Sino-Soviet Relations, 1958-59
                                Soviet Missile Deployments, 1959
                                     The Iran Crisis, 1944-46
                                    Tito and Khrushchev, 1954
COLD WAR INTERNATIONAL HISTORY PROJECT BULLETIN 11



                                                         Cold War International History Project

                                                                                       EDITOR: C HRISTIAN F. O STERMANN
 Lee H. Hamilton, Director
                                                                    ASSISTANT EDITOR/P RODUCTION MANAGER: RICHARD E. THOMAS
             BOARD OF TRUSTEES                                      ASSISTANT EDITOR /BULLETIN A DMINISTRATOR: NANCY L. MEYERS
       Joseph A. Cari, Jr., Chairman
                                                                               ADVISORY EDITOR: JAMES G. H ERSHBERG
    Steven Alan Bennett, Vice Chairman

              EX OFFICIO MEMBERS:
 The Secretary of State Colin L. Powell, The
 Librarian of Congress James H. Billington,
 The Archivist of the United States John W.
    Carlin, The Chairman of the National
 Endowment for the Humanities William R.               The Cold War International History Project (CWIHP) was established at the Woodrow Wilson International
   Ferris, The Secretary of the Smithsonian            Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C., in 1991 with the help of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur
    Institution Lawrence M. Small, The                 Foundation and receives major support from the MacArthur Foundation and the Smith Richardson
Secretary of Education Roderick R. Paige, The          Foundation. The Project supports the full and prompt release of historical materials by governments on
    Secretary of Health & Human Services               all sides of the Cold War, and seeks to disseminate new information and perspectives on Cold War history
           Tommy G. Thompson.                          emerging from previously inaccessible sources on “the other side”—the former Communist bloc—through
                                                       publications, fellowships, and scholarly meetings and conferences. Within the Wilson Center, CWIHP is
         PRIVATE CITIZEN MEMBERS:                      under the Division of International Studies, headed by Dr. Robert S. Litwak. The Director of the Cold War
Carol Cartwright, John H. Foster, Jean L.
                                                       International History Project is Christian F. Ostermann, and the Project’s Administrator is Nancy L. Meyers.
 Hennessey, Daniel L. Lamaute, Doris
 O. Matsui, Thomas R. Reedy, Nancy                     CWIHP is overseen by an advisory committee chaired by Prof. William Taubman (Amherst College) and
               M. Zirkin                               consisting of Michael Beschloss; Dr. James Billington (Librarian of Congress); Prof. Warren I. Cohen
                                                       (University of Maryland-Baltimore); Prof. John Lewis Gaddis (Yale University); Prof. James G. Hershberg
             THE WILSON COUNCIL                        (George Washington University); Dr. Samuel F. Wells, Jr. ( Woodrow Wilson Center); and Prof. Sharon
   B. B. Andersen, Cyrus A. Ansary, Charles F.         Wolchik (George Washington University). Readers are invited to submit articles, documents, letters, and
 Barber, Lawrence E. Bathgate II, Joseph C. Bell,
Esq., Thomas J. Buckholtz, Conrad Cafritz, Nicola      other items to the Bulletin. Publication of articles does not constitute CWIHP’s endorsement of authors’
L. Caiola, Raoul L. Carroll, Scott Carter, Albert V.   views. Copies are available free upon request, or by downloading them at cwihp.si.edu.
   Casey, Peter B. Clark, William T. Coleman,
 Michael D. DiGiacomo, Donald G. Drapkin, F.
  Samuel Eberts III, I. Steven Edelson, J. David
    Eller, Sim Farar, Susan R. Farber, Barbara
  Hackman Franklin, Morton Funger, Chris G.
Gardiner, Eric Garfinkel, Bruce S. Gelb, Jerry P.
      Genova, Alma Gildenhorn, Joseph B.
Gildenhorn, David F. Girard-diCarlo, Michael B.
   Goldberg, William E. Grayson, Raymond A.
 Guenter, Verna R. Harrah, Carla A. Hills, Eric
  Hotung, Frances Humphrey Howard, John L.
Howard, Darrell E. Issa, Jerry Jasinowski, Brenda
LaGrange Johnson, Dennis D. Jorgensen, Shelly
    Kamins, Anastasia D. Kelly, Christopher J.
   Kennan, Michael V. Kostiw, Steven Kotler,
 William H. Kremer, Denny LeVett, Harold O.
   Levy, David Link, David S. Mandel, John P.
Manning, Edwin S. Marks, Robert McCarthy, C.
   Peter McColough, Stephen G. McConahey,
  James D. McDonald, J. Kenneth Menges, Jr.,
 Philip Merrill, Jeremiah L. Murphy, Martha T.
Muse, Della M. Newman, Paul Hae Park, Gerald
  L. Parsky, Michael J. Polenske, Donald Robert
      Quartel, Jr., J. Steven Rhodes, John L.
Richardson, Margaret Milner Richardson, Edwin
  Robbins, Jr., Otto Ruesch, B. Francis Saul, III,
Timothy R. Scully, J. Michael Shepherd, George
   P. Shultz, Raja W. Sidawi, Deborah Siebert,
    Thomas L. Siebert, Ron Silver, William A.          Photographs: Mikhail Gorbachev with Anatoly Chernyaev and Georgy Shakhnazarov. Source: Archie Brown, The
 Slaughter, Timothy E. Stapleford, Norma Kline
 Tiefel, Mark C. Treanor, Christine M. Warnke,
                                                       Gorbachev Factor (New York: Oxford UP, 1996). Other photographs and maps submitted by the authors or from the
Pete Wilson, Deborah Wince-Smith, Herbert S.           National Archives.
           Winokur, Jr., Joseph Zappala
                                                      COLD WAR INTERNATIONAL HISTORY PROJECT BULLETIN, ISSUE 12/13           1


Director’s Note


I
    n December 1989, following the dramatic collapse of          lished here in English for the first
    communist regimes throughout much the Soviet                 time, provide a greater sense of
    Union’s empire in Central and Eastern Europe, Soviet         the unpredictability, contin-
President Mikhail Gorbachev and US President George H.           gency, and complexity of the
W. Bush met on board warships of the two countries off           events of 1989—events driven
the coast of Malta in the Mediterranean. Though the              by the people in Central and
course of events was largely outside the control of the two      Eastern Europe in daring
leaders, the summit, given its timing, went down in the          challenge to the ruling, though
history books as symbolizing the end of the Cold War.            weakening, elites in Moscow,
Sensing the dawn of a new era, Gorbachev, according to           Budapest, Prague, Warsaw and
the now accessible Soviet transcript of the meeting, told        Berlin. They also speak to the power of history, memory
Bush that it was “very important for us to talk with you         and ideas—and to the role of personalities, above all the
about what conclusions can be drawn from past experi-            ambiguities of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.
ence, from the ‘Cold War.’” What had happened, the Soviet             The documentation presented here includes minutes
leader stated, “remained in history: Such, if you will, is the   of key meetings between Gorbachev and Eastern-bloc
privilege of the historical process. However, to try to          leaders as well as Western statesmen; verbatim transcripts
analyze the course of previous events—this is our direct         of Eastern European opposition and national “roundtable”
responsibility.”1                                                meetings; transcripts of controversies within the commu-
     With this issue of its Bulletin, the Cold War Interna-      nist parties and bureaucracies; security police plans, and
tional History Project (CWIHP), now in its tenth year, seeks     notes by one of Gorbachev’s closest and most loyal aides,
to contribute to a fuller understanding of the Cold War          Anatoly Chernyaev, who recorded his thoughts concern-
“experience”—in fact, of the very events that Bush and           ing the events of the fateful year 1989 in his diary. Captur-
Gorbachev were witnessing as they sojourned under the            ing the sense of the fundamental change that was occur-
Mediterranean sun. This issue features a set of documents        ring, Chernyaev wrote, after a meeting between Gorbachev
that highlights findings and insights from a conference          and West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, that he “felt
series on the “The Collapse of Communist Regimes in              physically that we are entering a new world, where class
Eastern Europe,” sponsored by the National Security              struggle, ideology, and in general polarity and enmity are
Archive (George Washington University), CWIHP, and               no longer determinate. And something all-human is taking
their international partners ten years after the fall of the     the upper hand.”
Berlin Wall.2 The documents provide a unique glimpse                  By contrast, ideology and polarity were very much at
behind the “Iron Curtain” at the beginning of the end of         issue in the secret conversations between Chinese leader
the crisis-ridden Soviet empire: the culmination of a            Mao Zedong and Soviet leader Nikita S. Khrushchev in
succession of upheavals, beginning with the 1953 uprising        1958-59, transcripts of which are published for the first time
in East Germany and the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, and           in this Bulletin issue. With both Communist giants staring
including the 1968 Prague Spring and the 1980/81 Polish          down the abyss of the emerging Sino-Soviet break, these
Crisis. Assembled by an international team of scholars,          records of conversations are among the most illuminating
these documents detail the ultimately futile scramble by the     and significant documents yet to emerge from the former
communist parties of Central and Eastern Europe to stay in       Communist-world archives. This document edition builds
power in 1989—evidence that explains in the actual words         on CWIHP’s earlier publications documenting the talks
of the communist leaders and the opposition forces at the        between Mao and Joseph Stalin, the lead-up to the Korean
time how the Soviet empire gave way in the face of popular       War, and the rise of the Sino-Soviet alliance.5
protest, largely without violent repression.                          Other highlights of this issue include a long statement
     The issue is also the culmination of a multi-year, multi-   on relations with China by the Vietnamese Workers’ Party
archival and multi-conference project and a series of            General Secretary Le Duan. The document is highly
Bulletin issues presenting new evidence on these Cold            illustrative of the North Vietnamese mindset shortly after the
War “flashpoints.”3 To be true, the documents represent          1979 Sino-Vietnamese military clash. Presented first at
only a small selection from our massive database of              CWIHP’s January 2000 conference at Hong Kong University
thousands of newly-available and translated documents.           on “New Evidence on China, Southeast Asia and the
Largely focused on the communist parties’ perspectives on        Vietnam War,”6 the document created considerable contro-
the tumultuous events of 1988-89, they do not claim to give      versy among some of the Chinese and Vietnamese partici-
a comprehensive account of the collapse of communism in          pants as to its provenance and significance. We hope that
Europe.4 But these documents, most of which are pub-             publication of this document will broaden the debate further.
2     COLD WAR INTERNATIONAL HISTORY PROJECT BULLETIN, ISSUE 12/13


     Several document sets published in this Bulletin show        activities. Besides those mentioned above, CWIHP
the remarkable range of archival opportunities for histori-       recently (co-)sponsored a number of international confer-
ans of the Cold War and reflect CWIHP’s continued efforts         ences, including “Stalin and the Cold War, 1945-1953” (New
to pry open archives and bring new documentation to               Haven, CT, September 1999); “Documents on the Cold
public attention. Thus, this Bulletin also presents the first     War,” (declassification workshop, Hanoi, Vietnam, January
Warsaw Pact war plan to be found in the archives, the 1964        2000); “Cold War in the Balkans: History and Conse-
Czechoslovak War Plan (obtained through a multilateral            quences,” (Plovdiv, Bulgaria, May 16-18, 2000);9 “New
effort to document the history of the Warsaw Pact) as well        Evidence on the Korean War,” (Washington, DC, June
as new Russian documents on Khrushchev’s 1959 missile             2000); “Cold War Archives in the Decade of Openness”
deployments in East Germany (published in collaboration           (Washington, June 2000);10 “Armenia, Azerbaijan and
with a German-Russian research team). We are thrilled to          Georgia in the Cold War,” (Tbilisi, October 2000); 11
also provide samples from an archival “gold mine” for             “Mauerbau and Mauerfall—Lessons of the Wall” (Berlin,
historians of the early Cold War that has been discovered         June 2001);12 and a major international “summit” to
on the fringes of the former Soviet Union, the archives in        celebrate the Project’s tenth anniversary (March 2001).
Baku. The documents which have become available in the            CWIHP cooperated on, or participated in, several other
context of the CWIHP/National Security Archive initiative         meetings, including “The Twentieth Century International
on “The Caucasus in the Cold War”7 are the first install-         System” (for scholars from Russian regional universities,
ment of top-level documentation on one of the first Cold          held in Moscow, June 2000);13 “The End of the Cold War,”
War crises—the Iran Crisis of 1944-1946. They include             (Columbus, OH, October 1999),14 “Forty Years of Cold
Stalin’s 1945 instructions to encourage separatism in             War? Issues, Interpretations, Periodizaton,” (Rome, June
Northern Iran in his reach for Iranian oil. Similarly, the 1954   2000);15 “Changing Chinese –American-Soviet Relations
Tito-Khrushchev correspondence, fresh from the archives           and the Transition of the Cold War,” (Shanghai, June
in Belgrade, introduces CWIHP’s new “Yugoslavia                   2001);16 and a historic conference on “The Bay of Pigs—40
Initiative,” co-sponsored with the London School of               Years Later,” (Havana, March 2001),17 at which some 400
Economics and Political Science. The initiative supports          pages of Cuban archival documentation were made
the integration of scholars and archives of the former            available.18 In order to involve military archivists and
Yugoslavia into the international research on the Cold War.       historians from former Warsaw Pact countries further into
     As several of the research and conference reports in         the Cold War research community—and to enhance access
this Bulletin demonstrate, CWIHP continues to monitor             to military archives—CWIHP also hosted a series of
opportunities for research in the former communist-world          archival workshops for the Archives Working Group of the
archives and to support the collaborative exploration of our      Partnership for Peace Consortium of Defense Academies
recent international past, reaching across national,              and Strategic Studies Institutes.19
language, and disciplinary barriers to “globalize” what just           In addition to providing a forum to Washington’s
a decade ago was a rather narrow field of research focused        policy and scholarly community for the discussion of
almost exclusively on the superpower confrontation.               important new documentation, CWIHP is broadening its
Together with a network of longstanding and new partner           outreach to college and high-school teachers and students.
institutions around the world, the Project has launched           In July 2001, for example, the Project co-hosted the
several new documentation initiatives. In addition to those       National History Day Summer Institute for high-school
mentioned above, CWIHP’s initiative on “North Korea in            teachers;20 other recent activities in this area include co-
the Cold War” is collecting, translating and publishing           sponsorship of a summer school on the new Cold War
documentation from the Eastern-bloc archives on North             history, hosted by George Washington University;
Korea. CWIHP’s initiative on “New Evidence on Latin               cooperation with the University of Maryland’s College Park
America and the Cold War,” co-sponsored with Yale                 Scholars Program; joints ventures with C-SPAN and the
University’s Latin American Studies Center, the Woodrow           Close-up Foundation; and a Cold War colloquium at the
Wilson Center’s Latin American Program and the Centro de          History Faculty of Cambridge University (UK).
Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropologia                  We are also expanding CWIHP’s website, featured in
Social (Mexico City) has begun to involve researchers and         the September/October 2001 Foreign Policy issue (“Net
archivists from Latin America, the former communist world         Effects”), to incorporate translated Russian, Chinese,
and the United States in joint efforts to document the Cold       Cuban and Eastern European documents in addition to
War throughout Latin America. Besides efforts to facilitate       those presented here. The Project is also actively engaged
dialogue over new archival documentation in the war-torn          in developing a web-based catalogue to digital archival
Southern Caucasus, to create linkages between American            collections.
and Vietnamese scholars, and to gain access to Russian,                “This is not a project, but a movement,” a colleague
Chinese and Eastern European archives on the “Détente”            recently exclaimed at the Project’s March 2001 Ten-Year
years, CWIHP plans to explore the Cold War in South Asia          Anniversary Summit that showcased many of these
and Africa.8                                                      findings and activities. Indeed, the Project’s success is
     Conferences remain an essential part of CWIHP’s              really the success of its remarkable, ever-growing, interna-
                                                       COLD WAR INTERNATIONAL HISTORY PROJECT BULLETIN, ISSUE 12/13                  3


tional network of individual and institutional partners. Over     “Poland 1980-1982: Internal Crisis, International Dimensions,”
the past two years alone, CWIHP has supported or linked           Jachranka–Warsaw, 8-10 November 1997, co-organized with the
up with new Cold War research organizations, established          Institute for Political Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences
often under difficult financial or political conditions, in       (Warsaw) and the National Security Archive; “The Crisis Year
                                                                  1953 and the Cold War in Europe,” Potsdam, 10-12 November
Baku, Bucharest, Helsinki/Tampere, Hong Kong, Reykjavik,
                                                                  1996, co-organized with the Center for Contemporary History
Tirana, Saratov, Shanghai, Sofia, London, Rome/Florence,          Research (Potsdam) and the National Security Archive; “Hun-
Tomsk, Belgrade and Zurich. They complement longtime              gary and the World, 1956: The New Archival Evidence,”
partnerships with US and Canadian institutions as well as         Budapest, 26-29 September 1996, co-sponsored with the
Cold War research groups in Beijing, Berlin/Potsdam,              Institute for the History of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution
Budapest, Moscow, Prague, Warsaw. Much of this                    (Budapest) and the National Security Archive; and “Czechoslo-
inspiring cooperation would not be possible without the           vakia and the World, 1968: The New Archival Evidence,” Prague,
financial support by the John D. and Catherine T.                 18-20 April 1994, co-sponsored with The Prague Spring 1968
MacArthur Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Founda-                Foundation (Prague) and the National Security Archive. For
                                                                  information on these conferences, see past issues of CWIHP
tion, the Korea Foundation and other donors.
                                                                  Bulletin, in particular nos. 8/9, 10 and 11.
     This Bulletin issue, as others before it, is one result of         4
                                                                          The project has also collected hundreds of documents on
this remarkable international collaboration. As the editor, I     the 1980s. These will be published in future issues of the Bulletin.
am particularly grateful for advice as well as editorial and            5
                                                                          See especially Bulletin 6/7, “The Cold War in Asia” (Winter
other support to Jordan Baev, Thomas Blanton, Ashley              1995/1996).
                                                                        6
Bullock, Bill Burr, Malcolm Byrne, Sarah Campbell, Chen                   The conference “China, Southeast Asia and the Vietnam
Jian, Anatoly Chernyaev, Jan Chowaniec, Dan Cook,                 War,” co-sponsored with the University of Hong Kong, took
Gregory Domber, Fred Ferrer, Gary Goldberg, Christopher           place on 10-12 January 2000. See the conference report by
Goscha, Sven Gronlie, Hope Harrison, Jamil Hasanli, Jim           Priscilla Roberts in this Bulletin.
                                                                        7
                                                                          For further information on this initiative, see the editor’s
Hershberg, Hans-Hermann Hertle, Alexander Kingsbury,
                                                                  introduction to the document collection in this Bulletin.
Anne Kjelling, Caroline Kovtun, Mark Kramer, Robert                     8
                                                                          Many of these initiatives are described in this Bulletin. For
Litwak, Geir Lundestad, Vojtech Mastny, Stephen Matzie,           further information, contact CWIHP at coldwar1@wwic.si.edu.
Christina Mayer, Nancy Meyers, Mircea Munteanu,                         9
                                                                          Co-organized with the Cold War Research Group Bulgaria
Catherine Nielsen, Olav Njolstad, Andrzej Paczkowski,             and the Bulgarian Association of Military History (Sofia).
                                                                        10
Zachary Pease, Erich Pryor, Anzhela Reno, Priscilla                        Co-sponsored with the Library of Congress and the
Roberts, Janine Rowe, Svetlana Savranskaya, Radek Špikar,         Department of Defense.
                                                                        11
Valentyna Tereshchenko, Richard Thomas, Mike Thurman,                      Co-sponsored with the National Security Archive. See the
Stein Tønnesson, Kathryn Weathersby, Odd Arne Westad,             editor’s introduction to the section in this Bulletin.
                                                                        12
                                                                           Co-sponsored with the Center for Contemporary History
Paul Wingrove, David Wolff, Vladislav Zubok and this
                                                                  Research (Potsdam).
issue’s patient contributors.                                           13
                                                                           Organized by the Institute of Universal History (Russian
                                                                  Academy of Sciences), the National Security Archive and the
                                      Christian F. Ostermann      Moscow State Institute of International Relations.
                                                                        14
                                                                           Sponsored by the Mershon Center (Ohio State Univer-
                                                                  sity). See the report by Richard Herrmann and Ned Lebow in this
  —————                                                           Bulletin.
                                                                        15
    1
       The full document is published in this Bulletin issue.              Organized by the Fondazione Istituto Gramsci.
                                                                        16
    2
       The conference series included the following meet-                  Organized by the Center for Cold War International
ings: “Poland, 1986-1989: The End of the System,”                 History Studies (East China Normal University, Shanghai) and
Miedzeszyn-Warsaw, 21-23 October 1999, organized with             the Modern Historical Documents Studies Center (Beijing
the Institute for Political Studies of the Polish Academy of      University).
                                                                        17
Sciences (Warsaw) and the National Security Archive; “The                  Organized by the Universidad de La Habana, Centro de
Democratic Revolution in Czechoslovakia: Its Precondi-            Estudios sobre Estados Unidos, Instituto de Historia de Cuba,
tions, Course, and Immediate Repercussions, 1987-89,”             Centro de Investigaciones Historicas de la Seguridad del Estado;
Prague, 14-16 October 1999, co-organized with The                 Centro de Estudios sobre America, and co-sponsored by The
Czechoslovak Documentation Centre (Prague), The                   National Security Archive.
                                                                        18
Institute of Contemporary History, Academy of Sciences of                  CWIHP plans to publish many of these documents. See
the Czech Republic (Prague) and the National Security             the report in this Bulletin.
                                                                        19
Archive; “Political Transition in Hungary: 1989-1990,”                     For information on the Consortium see http://
Budapest, 10-12 June 1999, co-sponsored with the Institute        www.pfpconsortium.marshallcenter.org.
                                                                        20
for the History of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution                           See “Teachers Become Students at Summer Institute,”
(Budapest), the Hungarian Academy of Sciences                     NHD Newsletter (Summer 2001), p. 1-2. To contact the NHD,
(Budapest), and the National Security Archive; and “The           see http://www.NationalHistoryDay.org.
End of the Cold War in Europe, 1989: ‘New Thinking’ and
New Evidence,” Musgrove, St. Simon’s Island, Georgia, 1
May 1999, sponsored by the National Security Archive.
     3
       Earlier conferences on Cold War flashpoints included:
4        COLD WAR INTERNATIONAL HISTORY PROJECT BULLETIN, ISSUE 12/13


                                                                  Table of Contents
                                                        New Evidence on the End of the Cold War

New Evidence on the Soviet Factor in the Peaceful Revolutions of 1989 By Vladislav M. Zubok....................................... 5
One the Eve: A Glimpse Inside the Politburo at the End of 1988 ............................................................................................. 24
The Tbilisi Massacre, April 1989: Documents ............................................................................................................................ 31
Soviet Approaches to Eastern Europe at the Beginning of 1989 By Jacques Lévesque ....................................................... 49
The Political Transition in Hungary, 1989-90 By Csaba Békés and Melinda Kalmár ....................................................... 73
Hungarian Secret Police Memorandum, May 1989..................................................................................................................... 88
Poland 1986-1989: From “Cooptation” to “Negotiated Revolution” By Pawe³ Machcewicz .......................................... 93
The Fall of the Wall: The Unintended Dissolution of East Germany’s
    Ruling Regime By Hans-Hermann Hertle ............................................................................................................................. 131
1989: Bulgarian Transition to Pluralist Democracy By Jordan Baev .................................................................................. 165
Czechoslovak November 1989 By Oldrich Tuma ....................................................................................................................... 181
Czechoslovak Regime Documents on the Velvet Revolution ................................................................................................... 194
“We Are the Opponents of Violence ... We Want to Live as Dignifed and Free People” ................................................... 210
The Last Days of a Dictator By Mircea Munteanu ..................................................................................................................... 217
At Historic Crossroads: Documents on the December 1989 Malta Summit ........................................................................ 229

                                                            New Evidence on the Cold War in Asia

The Khrushchev-Mao Conversations, 31 July-3 August 1958 and 2 October 1959 By Vladislav M. Zubok ................243
Le Duan and the Break with China Introduction by Stein Tønnesson .................................................................................. 273
Document: “Comrade B on the Plot of the Reactionary Chinese Clique Against Vietnam
    Translated and Annotated by Christopher E. Goscha.........................................................................................................279

                                                      New Evidence on Cold War Military History

Planning for Nuclear War: The Czechoslovak War Plan of 1964 By Petr Lûnák............................................................... 289
“Operation Atom” The Soviet Union’s Stationing of Nuclear Missiles in
    the German Democratic Republic, 1959 By Matthias Uhl and Vladimir I. Ivkin ....................................................... 299

                                                         New Evidence on the Iran Crisis 1945-46

From the Baku Archives ................................................................................................................................................................... 309

                                                New Evidence from the Former Yugoslav Archives

The Tito-Khrushchev Correspondence, 1954 ............................................................................................................................. 315

                                                          Research Notes and Conference Reports

The Moldovan Communist Party Archives By Jim Hershberg ............................................................................................... 325
Moldova, Romania and the Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia by MarkKramer .............................................................. 326
The Sino-Soviet Alliance: New Publications By David Wolff ................................................................................................... 335
Policymakers and the Cold War’s End: Micro and Macro Assessments of Contingency
    By Richard K. Herrman and Richard Ned Lebow ............................................................................................................... 337
Conference on Cold War Endgame By Fred I. Greenstein and William C. Wohlforth ....................................................... 341
New Evidence on China, Southeast Asia and the Vietnam War: Conference Report By Priscilla Roberts.................... 345
Update on the Stasi Archives By Gary Bruce ............................................................................................................................... 348
Western Intelligence Gathering and the Division of German Science By Paul Maddrell ................................................ 352
Letters to the Editor .......................................................................................................................................................................... 360

				
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